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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Viral load detection using dried blood spots in a cohort of HIV-1-infected children in Uganda: correlations with clinical and immunological criteria for treatment failure.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Correlations between clinical/immunological treatment failure and viral load (VL) detected by dried blood spot (DBS) sampling were explored in HIV-1-infected children in Uganda. Of 104 children on combined antiretroviral treatment (cART), 12.5% experienced clinical and/or immunological failure, while 28.8%, 44.2%, and 26.9% had VLs of <1,000, 1,000 to 5,000, and >5,000 copies/ml, respectively. Clinical/immunological failure poorly predicted virological failure.
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Epstein-Barr virus and telomerase: from cell immortalization to therapy.
Infect. Agents Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Overcoming cellular senescence is strictly required for virus-driven tumors, including those associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This critical step is successfully accomplished by EBV through TERT expression and telomerase activation in infected cells. We herein review the complex interplay between EBV and TERT/telomerase in EBV-driven tumorigenesis. Evidence accumulated so far clearly indicates that elucidation of this issue may offer promising opportunities for the design of innovative treatment modalities for EBV-associated malignancies. Indeed, several therapeutic strategies for telomerase inhibition have been developed and are being investigated in clinical trials. In this respect, our recent finding that TERT inhibition sensitizes EBV+?lymphoma cells to antivirals through activation of EBV lytic replication is particularly promising and provides a rationale for the activation of clinical studies aimed at assessing the effects of combination therapies with TERT inhibitors and antivirals for the treatment of EBV-associated malignancies.
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Epstein-Barr virus load in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Uganda.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is involved in a wide range of malignancies, particularly in immunocompromised subjects. In Africa, EBV primary infection occurs during early childhood, but little is known about the EBV load in Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected children.
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Telomeres, telomerase and colorectal cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and, despite improved treatments, is still an important cause of cancer-related deaths. CRC encompasses a complex of diseases arising from a multi-step process of genetic and epigenetic events. Besides heterogeneity in the molecular and biological features of CRC, chromosomal instability is a hallmark of cancer and cancer cells may also circumvent replicative senescence and acquire the ability to sustain unlimited proliferation. Telomere/telomerase interplay is an important mechanism involved in both genomic stability and cellular replicative potential, and its dysfunction plays a key role in the oncogenetic process. The erosion of telomeres, mainly because of cell proliferation, may be accelerated by specific alterations in the genes involved in CRC, such as APC and MSH2. Although there is general agreement that the shortening of telomeres plays a role in the early steps of CRC carcinogenesis by promoting chromosomal instability, the prognostic role of telomere length in CRC is still under debate. The activation of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the catalytic component of the telomerase complex, allows cancer cells to grow indefinitely by maintaining the length of the telomeres, thus favouring tumour formation/progression. Several studies indicate that TERT increases with disease progression, and most studies suggest that telomerase is a useful prognostic factor. Plasma TERT mRNA may also be a promising marker for the minimally invasive monitoring of disease progression and response to therapy.
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Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection and cancer in the highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) era.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) changed the natural history of pediatric HIV infection. This review focuses on trends of HIV-associated cancers in childhood in the HAART era and analyses potential pathogenetic mechanisms. HAART reduced AIDS-defined-malignancies (ADM), but incidence of several non-ADM is increasing. HIV-associated immune activation and inflammation, promoting tumorigenesis, can only partially be reduced by HAART. In addition, HIV-infected children may undergo accelerated immune senescence that favors cancer development. How HAART affects this condition is an open question. Lastly, there is no evidence that prenatal exposure to HAART increases the risk of cancer in childhood, but long-term studies are needed.
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Outcomes after reinitiating antiretroviral therapy in children randomized to planned treatment interruptions.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Excess risks for death/opportunistic disease in adults randomized to CD4-driven planned treatment interruption (PTI) in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) trial remained after antiretroviral therapy (ART) re-initiation. Risks for children following PTI were evaluated in long-term follow-up of children in the PENTA 11 trial.
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Immune senescence and cancer in elderly patients: Results from an exploratory study.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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The challenge of immune senescence has never been addressed in elderly cancer patients. This study compares the thymic output and peripheral blood telomere length in ?70year old cancer patients.
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Dried blood spot sampling for detection of monoclonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangement.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Molecular methods are important tools for diagnosis and monitoring of many lymphoproliferative disorders. The reliability of lymphoma diagnoses is strikingly different between developed and developing countries, partly due to lack of access to these advanced molecular analyses. To overcome these problems, we propose a new application of dried blood spots (DBS) for detecting clonal B-cell populations in peripheral blood (PB). We ensured that the DBS contained sufficient lymphocytes to perform a PCR-based clonality assay without producing false positives. Using the Namalwa B-cell line, we established that the assay is sensitive enough to detect 200 clonal cells in the analyzed sample. Very similar clonal results were obtained between DNA from DBS and fresh whole blood from patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. B-cell clonality can also be detected in DBS from African children with EBV-associated diseases. This is the first study demonstrating that clonality testing can be performed on DBS samples, thus improving the diagnostic and monitoring options for lymphoproliferative diseases in resource-limited settings.
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hTERT inhibition triggers Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle and apoptosis in immortalized and transformed B cells: a basis for new therapies.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Induction of viral lytic cycle, which induces death of host cells, may constitute a useful adjunct to current therapeutic regimens for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven malignancies. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), essential for the oncogenic process, may modulate the switch from latent to lytic infection. The possible therapeutic role of hTERT inhibition combined with antiviral drugs was investigated.
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Relationship between non-Hodgkins lymphoma and blood levels of Epstein-Barr virus in children in north-western Tanzania: a case control study.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Non-Hodgkins Lymphomas (NHL) are common in African children, with endemic Burkitts lymphoma (BL) being the most common subtype. While the role of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in endemic BL is known, no data are available about clinical presentations of NHL subtypes and their relationship to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) load in peripheral blood of children in north-western, Tanzania.
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Epstein-Barr virus-driven lymphomagenesis in the context of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human ?-herpes virus which establishes a life-long asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected patients, the impaired immunosurveillance against EBV may favor the development of EBV-related diseases, ranging from lymphoproliferative disorders to B cell non-Hodgkins lymphomas (NHL). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly modified the natural course of HIV-1 infection, resulting in decreased HIV-1 plasmaviremia, increased CD4 lymphocytes, and decreased opportunistic infections, indicating a restoration of immune functions. However, the impact of ART appears to be less favorable on EBV-related malignancies than on other AIDS-defining tumors, such as Kaposis sarcoma, and NHL remains the most common cancer during the ART era. EBV-driven tumors are associated with selective expression of latent oncogenic proteins, but uncontrolled lytic cycle with virus replication and/or reactivation may favor cell transformation, at least in the early phases. Several hosts factors may promote EBV reactivation and replication; besides immunodepression, inflammation/chronic immune stimulation may play an important role. Microbial pathogen-associated molecular patterns and endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns, through Toll-like receptors, activate the immune system and may promote EBV reactivation and/or polyclonal expansion of EBV-infected cells. A body of evidence suggests that chronic immune stimulation is a hallmark of HIV-1 pathogenesis and may persist even in ART-treated patients. This review focuses on lymphomagenesis driven by EBV both in the context of the natural history of HIV-1 infection and in ART-treated patients. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the expansion of EBV-infected cells is a premise for the identification of prognostic markers of EBV-associated malignancies.
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Age and CD4 count at initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children: effects on long-term T-cell reconstitution.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2011
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Effective therapies and reduced AIDS-related morbidity and mortality have shifted the focus in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from minimizing short-term disease progression to maintaining optimal long-term health. We describe the effects of childrens age and pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) CD4 count on long-term CD4 T-cell reconstitution.
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Telomere length and telomerase levels delineate subgroups of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia with different biological characteristics and clinical outcomes.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a clinically heterogeneous disease; some patients rapidly progress and die within a few years of diagnosis, whereas others have a long life expectancy with minimal or no treatment. Telomere length and telomerase levels have been proposed as prognostic factors; however, very few cases have been characterized for both parameters and no study has analyzed the prognostic value of the telomere/telomerase profile.
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Epstein-Barr virus load and immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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Patients infected with HIV-1 are at high risk of developing Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-related diseases. Chronic immune activation is a hallmark of HIV-1 pathogenesis and may play a role in B-cell stimulation and expansion of EBV-infected cells.
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Predictive factors of the response of rectal cancer to neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy.
Cancers (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Locally advanced rectal cancer is currently treated with pre-operative radiochemotherapy (pRCT), but the response is not uniform. Identification of patients with higher likelihood of responding to pRCT is clinically relevant, as patients with resistant tumors could be spared exposure to radiation or DNA-damaging drugs that are associated with adverse side effects. To highlight predictive biomarkers of response to pRCT, a systematic search of PubMed was conducted with a combination of the following terms: "rectal", "predictive", "radiochemotherapy", "neoadjuvant", "response" and "biomarkers". Genetic polymorphisms in epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) genes, the expression of several markers, such as EGFR, bcl-2/bax and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and circulating biomarkers, such as serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, are promising as predictor markers, but need to be further evaluated. The majority of the studies did not support the predictive value of p53, while the values of Ki-67, TS and p21 is still controversial. Gene expression profiles of thousands of genes using microarrays, microRNA studies and the search for new circulating molecules, such as human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA and cell-free DNA, are providing interesting results that might lead to the identification of new useful biomarkers. Evaluation of biomarkers in larger, prospective trials are required to guide therapeutic strategies.
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Multicenter comparative study of Epstein-Barr virus DNA quantification for virological monitoring in transplanted patients.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
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EBV-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases are usually accompanied by increased EBV DNA in peripheral blood. Monitoring EBV DNAemia is the basis for weighing decisions regarding initiation of pre-emptive or anti-EBV-related tumor therapy. However, the definition of clinically relevant cut-off values is hampered by the lack of standardization in EBV DNA testing.
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Telomere/telomerase interplay in virus-driven and virus-independent lymphomagenesis: pathogenic and clinical implications.
Med Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
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Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex critically involved in extending and maintaining telomeres. Unlike the majority of somatic cells, in which hTERT and telomerase activity are generally silent, normal lymphocytes show transient physiological hTERT expression and telomerase activity according to their differentiation/activation status. During lymphomagenesis, induction of persistent telomerase expression and activity may occur before or after telomere shortening, as a consequence of the different mechanisms through which transforming factors/agents may activate telomerase. Available data indicate that the timing of telomerase activation may allow the distinction of two different lymphomagenetic models: (i) an early activation of telomerase via exogenous regulators of hTERT, along with an increased lymphocyte growth and a subsequent selection of cells with increased transforming potential may characterize several virus-related lymphoid malignancies; (ii) a progressive shortening of telomeres, leading to genetic instability which favors a subsequent activation of telomerase via endogenous regulators may occur in most virus-unrelated lymphoid tumors. These models may have clinically relevant implications, particularly for the tailoring of therapeutic strategies targeting telomerase.
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Toll-like receptor 9 polymorphisms influence mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and play a crucial role in the hosts innate immune response. Genetic variations in TLR genes may influence host-viral interactions and might impact upon the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1). The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of genetic variants of TLR 9 gene on MTCT.
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Quantitative HIV-1 proviral DNA detection: a multicentre analysis.
New Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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Despite the widespread use of molecular biology techniques, standardized methods for the measurement of HIV-1 proviral DNA are currently lacking and several discordant results are still present in different studies. To assess the clinical meaning of the proviral DNA load, a study group comprising seven different laboratories was set up to standardize a HIV-1 proviral DNA quantification method able to assess the DNA proviral load of the most relevant circulating HIV-1 subtypes. Reference samples (24 cellular samples infected with HIV-1 clade B, and 40 samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells containing different concentrations of plasmids expressing different HIV-1 clades) were distributed and tested blindly. All laboratories employed hTERT gene as housekeeping gene and primers within the gag gene to quantify different HIV-1 clades. Inter-laboratory results did not differ statistically but showed only minor variations concerning HIV-1 DNA amounts and different HIV clades, with a good agreement among the laboratories participating in the study. Since test standardization represents a key step for future application in clinical practice, further studies of the patients samples are in progress to establish the real meaning and utility of the proviral DNA load for clinical management of HIV-1 infected patients.
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Role of beta-defensin-1 polymorphisms in mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
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Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1, the main source of pediatric AIDS, is multifactorial. Defensins provide microbial barriers and function as effectors of innate immunity. This study investigated the relationship between genetic variants of beta-defensin-1 gene and MTCT of HIV-1.
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The role of genetic variants of Stromal cell-Derived Factor 1 in pediatric HIV-1 infection and disease progression.
PLoS ONE
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Stromal cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF1) is the natural ligand of CXCR4, the coreceptor of HIV-1 X4 viruses. This study investigated the role of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1801157 (NM_000609.5:c.*519G>A) of the SDF1 gene in the natural history of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 and disease progression of HIV-1-infected children. The study was conducted in 428 children born to HIV-1-seropositive mothers, who had not undergone antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy, and in 120 HIV-1-infected children for whom the end-point was the onset of AIDS or the initiation of ART; 16 children developed early AIDS (<24 months of life), 13 from 24 to 84 months of age, and 14 had late AIDS (>84 months). The rs1801157 SNP was not associated with risk of perinatal infection in any genetic models tested. By contrast, this SNP influenced disease progression in a time-dependent manner. rs1801157 GA heterozygous children had a higher risk of late AIDS (HR = 6.3, 95%CI 1.9-20.7, p = 0.002) than children with the rs1801157 GG genotype. Children were studied for viral coreceptor usage at birth, after 84 months of age and/or at AIDS onset. While R5 viruses using CCR5 coreceptor were predominant at birth (94%) and at early AIDS (85%), viruses using CXCR4 coreceptor emerged during the course of infection and were detected in 49% of children older than 84 months and in 62% of late AIDS. The rs1801157 SNP did not influence the emergence of R5X4 viruses, but children with the rs1801157 GA genotype and R5X4 viruses were at significantly higher risk of late AIDS than children with rs1801157 GG genotype (OR = 8.0, 95% CI 1.2-52.2, p = 0.029). Our results indicate that the rs1801157 SNP does not influence perinatal infection, but impacts disease progression. This effect is time-dependent and linked to the coreceptor-usage of viral variants that undergo evolution during the course of HIV-1 infection.
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Cross-talk between virus and host innate immunity in pediatric HIV-1 infection and disease progression.
New Microbiol.
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Variability in the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and disease progression depends on both virus and host determinants. Some exposed individuals remain HIV-1-uninfected and HIV-1-infected subjects develop disease at varying intervals with a small percentage remaining long-term non-progressors. As innate immunity is the earliest response to microbial entry and injury, host factors that impact innate immunity may play a role in viral infectivity and pathogenesis. In the pediatric population the interactions between the virus and the host may be of particular relevance due to the still developing adaptive immune system. Data indicate that genetic variants of defensins and Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs), key elements of innate immunity, play a role in mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1, and in the outcome of pediatric HIV-1 disease. Although the mechanisms by which these genetic variants influence HIV-1 interactions with the host are still largely unknown, defensins and TLRs, along with their link with regulatory T cells (Tregs), may play a critical role in the onset and persistence of immune activation, a hallmark of HIV-1 disease.
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Telomere-specific reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and cell-free RNA in plasma as predictors of pathologic tumor response in rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
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To investigate whether the plasma levels of cell-free RNA (cfRNA) and telomere-specific reverse transcriptase mRNA (hTERT) are associated with tumor response in rectal cancer patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy (pCRT).
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Polymorphisms of innate immunity genes influence disease progression in HIV-1-infected children.
AIDS
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and defensins (DEFs) play a crucial role in the hosts innate immunity and may influence HIV-1 disease progression. We investigated the impact of TLR9 +1174G?>?A, 1635A?>?G and DEF?1 -44C?>?G, -52G?>?A single nucleotide polymorphisms on the clinical outcome of 95 HIV-1-infected children. The TLR9 1635AG genotype and TLR9 [G;G] haplotype were associated with rapid disease progression, whereas the DEF?1 -44CG genotype and DEF?1 [G;G] haplotype correlated with a better clinical outcome.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.