Lipid mobilization (lipolysis) in white adipose tissue (WAT) critically controls lipid turnover and adiposity in humans. While the acute regulation of lipolysis has been studied in detail, the transcriptional determinants of WAT lipolytic activity remain still largely unexplored. Here we show that the genetic inactivation of transcriptional cofactor transducin beta-like-related 1(TBLR1) blunts the lipolytic response of white adipocytes through the impairment of cAMP-dependent signal transduction. Indeed, mice lacking TBLR1 in adipocytes are defective in fasting-induced lipid mobilization and, when placed on a high-fat-diet, show aggravated adiposity, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. TBLR1 levels are found to increase under lipolytic conditions in WAT of both human patients and mice, correlating with serum free fatty acids (FFAs). As a critical regulator of WAT cAMP signaling and lipid mobilization, proper activity of TBLR1 in adipocytes might thus represent a critical molecular checkpoint for the prevention of metabolic dysfunction in subjects with obesity-related disorders.
MYC is a key transcription factor involved in central cellular processes such as regulation of the cell cycle, histone acetylation and ribosomal biogenesis. It is overexpressed in the majority of human tumors including aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Especially Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highlight example for MYC overexpression due to a chromosomal translocation involving the c-MYC gene. However, no genome-wide analysis of MYC-binding sites by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) has been conducted in BL so far.
Epigenetic changes are involved in the extinction of the B-cell gene expression program of classical Hodgkins lymphoma. However, little is known regarding epigenetic similarities between cells of classical Hodgkins lymphoma and plasma cell myeloma, both of which share extinction of the gene expression program of mature B cells.
After binding to their cognate DNA-binding partner, transcriptional co-factors exert their function through the recruitment of enzymatic, chromatin-modifying activities. In turn, the assembly of co-factor-associated multi-protein complexes efficiently impacts target gene expression. Recent advances have established transcriptional co-factor complexes as a critical regulatory level in energy homeostasis and aberrant co-factor activity has been linked to the pathogenesis of severe metabolic disorders including obesity, type 2 diabetes and other components of the Metabolic Syndrome. The liver represents the key peripheral organ for the maintenance of systemic energy homeostasis, and aberrations in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism have been causally linked to the manifestation of disorders associated with the Metabolic Syndrome. Therefore, this review focuses on the role of distinct classes of transcriptional co-factors in hepatic glucose and lipid homeostasis, emphasizing pathway-specific functions of these co-factors under physiological and pathophysiological conditions.
A characteristic feature of anaplastic large cell lymphoma is the significant repression of the T-cell expression program despite its T-cell origin. The reasons for this down-regulation of T-cell phenotype are still unknown. To elucidate whether epigenetic mechanisms are responsible for the loss of the T-cell phenotype, we treated anaplastic large cell lymphoma and T-cell lymphoma/leukemia cell lines (n=4, each) with epigenetic modifiers to evoke DNA demethylation and histone acetylation. Global gene expression data from treated and untreated cell lines were generated and selected, and differentially expressed genes were evaluated by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Additionally, histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Combined DNA demethylation and histone acetylation of anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells was not able to reconstitute their T-cell phenotype. Instead, the same treatment induced in T cells: (i) an up-regulation of anaplastic large cell lymphoma-characteristic genes (e.g. ID2, LGALS1, c-JUN), and (ii) an almost complete extinction of their T-cell phenotype including CD3, LCK and ZAP70. In addition, suppressive trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 of important T-cell transcription factor genes (GATA3, LEF1, TCF1) was present in anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells, which is in line with their absence in primary tumor specimens as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. Our data suggest that epigenetically activated suppressors (e.g. ID2) contribute to the down-regulation of the T-cell expression program in anaplastic large cell lymphoma, which is maintained by trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.