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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Heteromorphic variants of chromosome 9.
Mol Cytogenet
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Heterochromatic variants of pericentromere of chromosome 9 are reported and discussed since decades concerning their detailed structure and clinical meaning. However, detailed studies are scarce. Thus, here we provide the largest ever done molecular cytogenetic research based on >300 chromosome 9 heteromorphism carriers.
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Chromosomal instability at the 7q11.23 region impacts on DNA-damage response in lymphocytes from Williams-Beuren syndrome patients.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is the chromosomal disorder arising from a hemizygous microdeletion at 7q11.23. The present study was focused on a comparative investigation of genomic integrity in WBS patients by use of cytogenetic methods and the alkaline comet assay. Lymphocytes of whole peripheral blood were cultured and metaphases were examined for frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations. A WBS-related microdeletion was detected by means of the FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) technique. The blood samples from patients who were carriers of this microdeletion, were tested in the comet assay. For this purpose, freshly collected lymphocytes were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (100?M, 1min, 4°C). The frequencies of endogenous and exogenous DNA damage, and the kinetics and efficiency of DNA repair were measured during three subsequent hours of incubation. Comparison of the two data sets in this group of patients demonstrated a slightly elevated average frequency of chromosome aberrations, significantly increased levels of endogenous and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage, and somewhat impaired DNA repair. The relationship between an abnormal DNA-damage response and the 7q11.23 hemizygous microdeletion was confirmed experimentally when comparing the comet assay data in FISH-positive and FISH-negative lymphocytes from WBS-suspected patients. Briefly, our results indicate the impact of chromosomal instability within this region on susceptibility towards DNA damage, which may contribute to pathogenesis of this disease. It was shown also that the comet assay, as well as an experimental design proposed here, seem to be useful tools for estimating genome integrity in WBS patients.
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Two siblings with immunodeficiency, facial abnormalities and chromosomal instability without mutation in DNMT3B gene but liability towards malignancy; a new chromatin disorder delineation?
Mol Cytogenet
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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ICF syndrome (standing for Immunodeficiency, Centromere instability and Facial anomalies syndrome) is a very rare autosomal recessive immune disorder caused by mutations of the gene de novo DNA-methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B). However, in the literature similar clinical cases without such mutations are reported, as well.
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Paternally derived der(7)t(Y;7)(p11.1 approximately 11.2;p22.3)dn in a mosaic case with Turner syndrome.
Eur J Med Genet
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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An unusual mosaic karyotype was detected in a 6-year-old female patient with clinical diagnosis of Turner syndrome (TS). Cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic studies revealed besides a cell line with 45,X a second cell line where the short arm of the Y-chromosome was translocated onto the short arm of a chromosome 7; karyotype: 45,X,der(7)t(Y;7)(p11.1 approximately 11.2;p22.3)/45,X. To delineate the mechanisms of rearrangement and karyotypic evolution in this case, further studies were performed. A maternal origin of the X-chromosome and biparental origin of both chromosomes 7 were determined by microsatellite analysis. Furthermore, using parental-origin-determination fluorescence in situ hybridization (pod-FISH) it could be established that the derivative chromosome 7 was of paternal origin. Overall, this is to the best of our knowledge the first report of such a complex mosaic TS karyotype.
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Human ring chromosomes and small supernumerary marker chromosomes-do they have telomeres?
Chromosome Res.
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Ring chromosomes and small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are enigmatic types of derivative chromosomes, in which the telomeres are thought to play a crucial role in their formation and stabilization. Considering that there are only a few studies that evaluate the presence of telomeric sequences in ring chromosomes and on sSMC, here, we analyzed 14 ring chromosomes and 29 sSMC for the presence of telomeric sequences through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The results showed that ring chromosomes can actually fall into two groups: the ones with or without telomeres. Additionally, telomeric signals were detectable at both ends of centric and neocentric sSMC with inverted duplication shape, as well as in complex sSMC. Apart from that, generally both ring- and centric minute-shaped sSMC did not present telomeric sequences neither detectable by FISH nor by a second protein-directed immunohistochemical approach. However, the fact that telomeres are absent does not automatically mean that the sSMC has a ring shape, as often deduced in the previous literature. Overall, the results obtained by FISH studies directed against telomeres need to be checked carefully by other approaches.
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A new multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization probe set directed against human heterochromatin: HCM-FISH.
J. Histochem. Cytochem.
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A new multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) probe set is presented, and its possible applications are highlighted in 25 clinical cases. The so-called heterochromatin-M-FISH (HCM-FISH) probe set enables a one-step characterization of the large heterochromatic regions within the human genome. HCM-FISH closes a gap in the now available mFISH probe sets, as those do not normally cover the acrocentric short arms; the large pericentric regions of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16; as well as the band Yq12. Still, these regions can be involved in different kinds of chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations, insertions, inversions, amplifications, and marker chromosome formations. Here, examples are given for all these kinds of chromosomal aberrations, detected as constitutional rearrangements in clinical cases. Application perspectives of the probe set in tumors as well as in evolutionary cytogenetic studies are given.
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Biomarkers for genome instability in some genetic disorders: a pilot study.
Biomarkers
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The study of genome integrity in some genetic disorders has diagnostic and prognostic importance because of the evident relationship between genome instability and both DNA repair deficiencies and cancer predisposition.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.