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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Increased likelihood of mastectomy in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive ductal carcinoma in situ.
Am Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2neu)-positive breast invasive cancer are known to have larger, more aggressive tumors. Little research exists on the relationship between HER2neu status and extent of ductal carcinoma In Situ (DCIS). A retrospective review of a single-institution database was performed for patients with DCIS between the years 2002 and 2011. A single blinded breast radiologist reviewed preoperative imaging. Pathology was reviewed for extent of DCIS. Primary outcome was mastectomy. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine adjusted mastectomy risk. There were 166 cases, 34 HER2neu-positive. HER2neu receptor-positive patients had larger lesions on imaging: 4.0 versus 2.7 cm, by 2.9 versus 1.5 cm (P = 0.0499 and 0.0182). HER2neu-positive patients with DCIS were more likely than HER2neu-negative to undergo mastectomy than lumpectomy (53 vs 28%, P = 0.006). Pathology revealed a trend toward larger lesions in HER2neu-positive patients (2.96 vs 2.22 cm, nonsignificant). Patients with HER2neu-positive disease were three times more likely to undergo mastectomy (odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 6.78). Patients with HER2neu-positive DCIS had greater extent of disease by imaging and were more likely to undergo mastectomy than HER2neu-negative. These findings will help surgeons counsel patients on surgical treatment.
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Nephric duct insertion requires EphA4/EphA7 signaling from the pericloacal mesenchyme.
Development
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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The vesico-ureteric junction (VUJ) forms through a complex developmental program that connects the primordium of the upper urinary tract [the nephric duct (ND)] with that of the lower urinary tract (the cloaca). The signals that orchestrate the various tissue interactions in this program are poorly understood. Here, we show that two members of the EphA subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases, EphA4 and EphA7, are specifically expressed in the mesenchyme surrounding the caudal ND and the cloaca, and that Epha4(-/-);Epha7(+/-) and Epha4(-/-);Epha7(-/-) (DKO) mice display distal ureter malformations including ureterocele, blind and ectopically ending ureters with associated hydroureter, megaureter and hydronephrosis. We trace these defects to a late or absent fusion of the ND with the cloaca. In DKO embryos, the ND extends normally and approaches the cloaca but the tip subsequently looses its integrity. Expression of Gata3 and Lhx1 and their downstream target Ret is severely reduced in the caudal ND. Conditional deletion of ephrin B2 from the ND largely phenocopies these changes, suggesting that EphA4/EphA7 from the pericloacal mesenchyme signal via ephrin B2 to mediate ND insertion. Disturbed activity of this signaling module may entail defects of the VUJ, which are frequent in the spectrum of congenital anomalies of the kidney and the urinary tract (CAKUT) in human newborns.
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Hospital volume of thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair does not affect mortality in California.
Vasc Endovascular Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Open thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair (TAAR) is a rarely performed but a complicated and morbid procedure. This study compares the morbidity and mortality of open TAAR at high- versus low-volume hospitals.
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MicroRNA-23b regulates cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase complex through cyclin H repression to modulate endothelial transcription and growth under flow.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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The site-specificity of endothelial phenotype is attributable to the local hemodynamic forces. The flow regulation of microRNAs in endothelial cells (ECs) plays a significant role in vascular homeostasis and diseases. The objective of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism by which the pulsatile shear flow-induced microRNA-23b (miR-23b) exerts antiproliferative effects on ECs.
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Calcifications on mammogram do not correlate with tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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Calcifications can be indicative of malignancy, but calcifications also can be a byproduct of necrotic tissue as cancer cells die. Current treatment regimens require excision of calcifications. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between the extent of calcification on mammography and actual tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for comparison.
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Renal-retinal ciliopathy gene sdccag8 regulates DNA damage response signaling.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RCs) are developmental and degenerative kidney diseases that are frequently associated with extrarenal pathologies such as retinal degeneration, obesity, and intellectual disability. We recently identified mutations in a gene encoding the centrosomal protein SDCCAG8 as causing NPHP type 10 in humans. To study the role of Sdccag8 in disease pathogenesis, we generated a Sdccag8 gene-trap mouse line. Homozygous Sdccag8(gt/gt) mice lacked the wild-type Sdccag8 transcript and protein, and recapitulated the human phenotypes of NPHP and retinal degeneration. These mice exhibited early onset retinal degeneration that was associated with rhodopsin mislocalization in the photoreceptors and reduced cone cell numbers, and led to progressive loss of vision. By contrast, renal histologic changes occurred later, and no global ciliary defects were observed in the kidneys. Instead, renal pathology was associated with elevated levels of DNA damage response signaling activity. Cell culture studies confirmed the aberrant activation of DNA damage response in Sdccag8(gt/gt)-derived cells, characterized by elevated levels of ?H2AX and phosphorylated ATM and cell cycle profile abnormalities. Our analysis of Sdccag8(gt/gt) mice indicates that the pleiotropic phenotypes in these mice may arise through multiple tissue-specific disease mechanisms.
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Equity in surgical leadership for women: more work to do.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Sex disparity in the Program Director role has not been studied. The goal of this study is to evaluate the percentage of women in Chair and Program Director positions. We hypothesize that there is a higher percentage of women in the Program Director role than Chair role.
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Risk factors for hematoma after thyroidectomy: results from the nationwide inpatient sample.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Hematoma after thyroidectomy is a potentially lethal complication. We sought to evaluate risk factors for hematoma formation using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. We hypothesized that certain risk factors could be identified and that this information would be useful to surgeons.
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Inhibition of Sox2-dependent activation of Shh in the ventral diencephalon by Tbx3 is required for formation of the neurohypophysis.
Development
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Tbx2 and Tbx3 are two highly related members of the T-box transcription factor gene family that regulate patterning and differentiation of a number of tissue rudiments in the mouse. Both genes are partially co-expressed in the ventral diencephalon and the infundibulum; however, a functional requirement in murine pituitary development has not been reported. Here, we show by genetic lineage tracing that Tbx2(+) cells constitute the precursor population of the neurohypophysis. However, Tbx2 is dispensable for neurohypophysis development as revealed by normal formation of this organ in Tbx2-deficient mice. By contrast, loss of Tbx3 from the ventral diencephalon results in a failure to establish the Tbx2(+) domain in this region, and a lack of evagination of the infundibulum and formation of the neurohypophysis. Rathkes pouch is severely hypoplastic, exhibits defects in dorsoventral patterning, and degenerates after E12.5. In Tbx3-deficient embryos, the ventral diencephalon is hyperproliferative and displays an abnormal cellular architecture, probably resulting from a failure to repress transcription of Shh. We further show that Tbx3 and Tbx2 repress Shh by sequestering the SRY box-containing transcription factor Sox2 away from a Shh forebrain enhancer (SBE2), thus preventing its activation. These data suggest that Tbx3 is required in the ventral diencephalon to establish a Shh(-) domain to allow formation of the infundibulum.
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Tbx18 expression demarcates multipotent precursor populations in the developing urogenital system but is exclusively required within the ureteric mesenchymal lineage to suppress a renal stromal fate.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The mammalian urogenital system derives from multipotent progenitor cells of different germinal tissues. The contribution of individual sub-populations to specific components of the mature system, and the spatiotemporal restriction of the respective lineages have remained poorly characterized. Here, we use comparative expression analysis to delineate sub-regions within the developing urogenital system that express the T-box transcription factor gene Tbx18. We show that Tbx18 is transiently expressed in the epithelial lining and the subjacent mesenchyme of the urogenital ridge. At the onset of metanephric development Tbx18 expression occurs in a band of mesenchyme in between the metanephros and the Wolffian duct but is subsequently restricted to the mesenchyme surrounding the distal ureter stalk. Genetic lineage tracing reveals that former Tbx18(+) cells of the urogenital ridge and the metanephric field contribute substantially to the adrenal glands and gonads, to the kidney stroma, the ureteric and the bladder mesenchyme. Loss of Tbx18 does not affect differentiation of the adrenal gland, the gonad, the bladder and the kidney. However, ureter differentiation is severely disturbed as the mesenchymal lineage adopts a stromal rather than a ureteric smooth muscle fate. DiI labeling and tissue recombination experiments show that the restriction of Tbx18 expression to the prospective ureteric mesenchyme does not reflect an active condensation process but is due to a specific loss of Tbx18 expression in the mesenchyme out of range of signals from the ureteric epithelium. These cells either contribute to the renal stroma or undergo apoptosis aiding in severing the ureter from its surrounding tissues. We show that Tbx18-deficient cells do not respond to epithelial signals suggesting that Tbx18 is required to prepattern the ureteric mesenchyme. Our study provides new insights into the molecular diversity of urogenital progenitor cells and helps to understand the specification of the ureteric mesenchymal sub-lineage.
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Regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell turnover by endothelial cell-secreted microRNA-126: role of shear stress.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Endothelial microRNA-126 (miR-126) modulates vascular development and angiogenesis. However, its role in the regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) function is unknown.
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Hormone receptor-negative breast cancer: undertreatment of patients over 80.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Patients older than 80 years represent a significant breast cancer population but are underrepresented in clinical trials. It is established that estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)-negative status confers a worse prognosis in patients under 70, but this is not well studied in those over 80. We examined the prognosis of patients over 80 with ER/PR-negative disease to determine whether these patients are more likely to die of breast cancer than cardiovascular disease and to study treatment patterns.
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Adjunct corticosteroids in children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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To determine if systemic corticosteroid therapy is associated with improved outcomes for children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).
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Oncologic safety of skin-sparing and nipple-sparing mastectomy: a discussion and review of the literature.
Int J Surg Oncol
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Breast conservation therapy has been the cornerstone of the surgical treatment of breast cancer for the last 20 years; however, recently, the use of mastectomy has been increasing. Mastectomy is one of the most frequently performed breast operations, and with novel surgical techniques, preservation of the skin envelope and/or the nipple-areolar complex is commonly performed. The goal of this paper is to review the literature on skin-sparing mastectomy and nipple-sparing mastectomy and to evaluate the oncologic safety of these techniques. In addition, this paper will discuss the oncologic importance of margin status and type of mastectomy as it pertains to risk of local recurrence and relative need for adjuvant therapy.
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Canonical Wnt signaling regulates smooth muscle precursor development in the mouse ureter.
Development
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Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are a key component of many visceral organs, including the ureter, yet the molecular pathways that regulate their development from mesenchymal precursors are insufficiently understood. Here, we identified epithelial Wnt7b and Wnt9b as possible ligands of Fzd1-mediated ?-catenin (Ctnnb1)-dependent (canonical) Wnt signaling in the adjacent undifferentiated ureteric mesenchyme. Mice with a conditional deletion of Ctnnb1 in the ureteric mesenchyme exhibited hydroureter and hydronephrosis at newborn stages due to functional obstruction of the ureter. Histological analysis revealed that the layer of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells directly adjacent to the ureteric epithelium did not undergo characteristic cell shape changes, exhibited reduced proliferation and failed to differentiate into SMCs. Molecular markers for prospective SMCs were lost, whereas markers of the outer layer of the ureteric mesenchyme fated to become adventitial fibroblasts were expanded to the inner layer. Conditional misexpression of a stabilized form of Ctnnb1 in the prospective ureteric mesenchyme resulted in the formation of a large domain of cells that exhibited histological and molecular features of prospective SMCs and differentiated along this lineage. Our analysis suggests that Wnt signals from the ureteric epithelium pattern the ureteric mesenchyme in a radial fashion by suppressing adventitial fibroblast differentiation and initiating smooth muscle precursor development in the innermost layer of mesenchymal cells.
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Macrolide therapy and outcomes in a multicenter cohort of children hospitalized with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.
J Hosp Med
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in childhood. Few studies have addressed the association of antimicrobial treatment and outcomes.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.