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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile depend on body fat in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile in adolescents from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) cross-sectional study (2006-7), and to assess the role of body fat-related variables in these associations. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol, TAG, apoB and apoA1 were measured in 454 adolescents (44 % boys) aged 12·5-17·5 years. Macronutrient intake (g/4180 kJ per d (1000 kcal per d)) was assessed using two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Associations were evaluated by multi-level analysis and adjusted for sex, age, maternal education, centre, sum of four skinfolds, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet quality index for adolescents. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with HDL-C (? = - 0·189, P< 0·001). An inverse association was found between fat intake and TAG (? = - 0·319, P< 0·001). Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipids varied according to adiposity levels, i.e. an inverse association between carbohydrate intake and HDL-C was only observed in those adolescents with a higher waist:height ratio. As serum lipids and excess body fat are the major markers of CVD, these findings should be considered when developing strategies to prevent the risk of CVD among adolescents.
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REFERENCE VALUES FOR LEPTIN, CORTISOL, INSULIN AND GLUCOSE, AMONG EUROPEAN ADOLESCENTS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH ADIPOSITY: THE HELENA STUDY.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Adequate concentrations of leptin, cortisol, and insulin are important for a suitable metabolism and development during adolescence. These hormones jointly with glucose play a major role in fat metabolism and development of childhood obesity. Our main objective was to quantify biomarkers as leptin, cortisol, insulin and glucose status in European adolescents to contribute to establish reference ranges.
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Physical Activity Modifies the Associations between Genetic Variants and Blood Pressure in European Adolescents.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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We hypothesized that physical activity and sedentary behavior could modify the associations between known genetic variants blood pressure-associated genes in European adolescents. Meeting current physical activity recommendations (?60 minutes/day) was able attenuate the deleterious effect of the NOS3 rs3918227 polymorphism on systolic blood pressure in European adolescents.
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Is red meat required for the prevention of iron deficiency among children and adolescents?
Curr Pediatr Rev
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Iron deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide despite the fact that global prevention is a high priority. Recent guidelines suggest intake of red meat both in infants and toddlers to prevent iron deficiency. However frequent consumption of red and processed meat may be associated with an increased risk for cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Evidence also suggests that even in vegetarian diets or diets with little consumption of white or red meat, iron status may not be adversely affected. The Eastern Orthodox Christian Church dietary recommendations which is a type of periodic vegetarian diet, has proved beneficial for the prevention of iron deficiency and avoidance of excess iron intake. This paper aims to provide examples of meals for children and adolescents that may be sufficient to meet age specific iron requirements without consumption of red meat beyond the recommended consumption which is once or twice per month.
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Self-reported sleep duration, white blood cell counts and cytokine profiles in European adolescents: the HELENA study.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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Sleep patterns face important changes during adolescence. This can have implications for the immune system, which is regulated by the sleep-wake cycle; however, most studies relating sleep and immune system have been conducted on adults.
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Trends in metabolic syndrome risk factors among adolescents in rural Crete between 1989 and 2011.
Hormones (Athens)
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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To investigate all the important factors contributing to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as well as to explore the changes of these factors, over time, by comparing adolescent populations of rural areas of Heraklion, Crete, for the years 2011 and 1989.
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Leptin, vitamin D, and cardiorespiratory fitness as risk factors for insulin resistance in European adolescents: gender differences in the HELENA Study.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The purpose of this study was to identify the relevance of a set of risk factors for insulin resistance in adolescents from Europe and to consider their possible gender-specific associations. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) was conducted in 1053 European adolescents (mean age, 14.9 years) in a school setting in 9 countries. Three anthropometric markers of body fat and a dietary index were calculated. Total energy intake was estimated from a questionnaire. C-reactive protein, leptin, and vitamin D were assessed, and physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular strength were measured. Center, socioeconomic status, pubertal status, and season were used as potential confounders. The main outcome was the homeostasis model assessment used as a marker of insulin resistance. Correlations, analyses of covariance, and logistic regression models were used. In males, leptin was the only risk factor for insulin resistance after adjusting for confounders including markers of body fat (odds ratios (ORs) from 1.49 to 1.60). In females, leptin, vitamin D, and fitness were the remaining independent risk factors for insulin resistance after adjustments (OR 2.11; 95% confidential interval (CI) 1.29-3.45; OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.80; and OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.87, respectively). Our observations suggest a gender dimorphism in the identification of risk factors for high insulin resistance. Preventive strategies should focus on improving modifiable factors such as cardiorespiratory fitness and on ensuring vitamin D sufficiency. Randomized controlled trials focusing on these strategies are necessary to test their efficacy.
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Associations of early life and sociodemographic factors with menarcheal age in European adolescents.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Early menarche has been associated with adult overweight, cardiovascular risk factors, and other diseases. Little is known about the determinants of menarcheal age (MA). Therefore, the main aim of this study was to examine the associations between early life programming factors and menarcheal age in European adolescents. Secondly, the influence of sociodemographical factors on menarcheal age was also studied. A total of 1,069 European girls from the HELENA cross-sectional study, aged 12.5-17.5 years, were included in this study. Using multilevel linear regression models, a possible association between birth weight and length, ponderal index at birth, gestational age, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and menarcheal age was examined. Associations between geographical gradient, number of siblings, physical activity (PA), dietary factors, and menarcheal age were also examined. After adjustment, menarcheal age was positively associated with birth weight and length (p?=?0.01 and p?=?0.01). Conclusion: These findings confirm that birth weight and length may have a programming effect on menarcheal age. Next to this finding, sociodemographic factors were not associated with menarcheal age.
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Health inequalities in urban adolescents: role of physical activity, diet, and genetics.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Coordinated European projects relying on standardized methods are needed to identify health inequalities across Europe. This study aimed to compare fitness, fatness, and cardiometabolic risk between urban adolescents from the south and center-north of Europe and to explore whether physical activity (PA) and other factors might explain these differences.
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Physical activity, sedentary time, and liver enzymes in adolescents: the HELENA study.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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To examine the association between physical activity (PA) and liver enzyme levels in adolescents from nine European countries.
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The relationship between cotinine concentrations and inflammatory markers among highly secondhand smoke exposed non-smoking adolescents.
Cytokine
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a risk factor of respiratory, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, however its association with inflammatory markers among highly SHS exposed adolescents has not yet been explored.
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The combination of daily breakfast consumption and optimal breakfast choices in childhood is an important public health message.
Int J Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the association of breakfast consumption with children's diet quality and cardiometabolic risk factors. Study sample consisted of 1558 children aged 4-8 years from Cyprus. Breakfast frequency was assessed through a parental questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, blood lipid profile and blood pressure were examined in relation to breakfast frequency consumption. Habitual breakfast consumers' daily nutrient intake was assessed through a 24-Hour Dietary Recall, according to their breakfast choices. Girls who have breakfast on a daily basis had lower mean BMI and BMI z-score; they were also less likely of having abnormal levels of serum triglycerides, atheromatic index (total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio) and diastolic blood pressure after controlling for several confounding factors. Within regular breakfast consumers, of both boys and girls, those having ready to eat cereals had a superior nutrient intake profile. Daily breakfast consumption along with good breakfast choices is an important public health message for Cypriot children.
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Vitamins and iron blood biomarkers are associated with blood pressure levels in European adolescents. The HELENA study.
Nutrition
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Previous research showed that low concentration of biomarkers in the blood during adolescence (i.e., iron status; retinol; and vitamins B6, B12, C, and D) may be involved in the early stages of development of many chronic diseases, such as hypertension. The aim was to evaluate if iron biomarkers and vitamins in the blood are associated with blood pressure in European adolescents.
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Socioeconomic factors are associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and related biomarkers concentrations in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.
Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Because socioeconomic factors (SEFs) may influence dietary quality and vitamin intakes, this study aimed to examine associations between socioeconomic factors and folate and vitamin B12 intakes as well as their related biomarkers in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Vitamin intakes were obtained from two 24-hour recalls in 2253 participants (47% males). Vitamin B biomarkers were assessed in a subsample of 977 participants (46% males). Socioeconomic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and 1-way analysis of covariance and linear regression analysis were applied. For males and females, mean intakes of folate were 211.19 and 177.18 ?g/d, and for vitamin B12, 5.98 and 4.54 ?g/d, respectively. Levels of plasma folate, red blood cell folate, serum B12, and holotranscobalamin were 18.74, 807.19, 330.64, and 63.04 nmol/L in males, respectively, and 19.13, 770.16, 377.9, and 65.63 nmol/L in females, respectively. Lower folate intakes were associated with several SEFs, including maternal and paternal education in both sexes. Regarding folate biomarkers, lower plasma folate intakes were associated with single/shared care in males and with lower paternal occupation in females. Lower vitamin B12 intakes were associated with almost all the studied SEFs, except paternal occupation in both sexes. In females, when considering vitamin B12 biomarkers, lower plasma vitamin B12 was associated with lower maternal education and occupation, and lower holotranscobalamin was associated with lower maternal education and lower paternal occupation. In conclusion, from the set of socioeconomic determinants studied in a sample of European adolescents, maternal education and paternal occupation were more consistently associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and biomarkers concentrations.
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A 50-year follow-up of the Seven Countries Study: Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, food and nutrient intakes among Cretans.
Hormones (Athens)
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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To identify the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk-factor status and dietary habits of the surviving elderly participants of the initial Seven Countries Study (SCS) cohort and newly recruited middle-aged men from the same villages.
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Seasonal variation in physical activity and sedentary time in different European regions. The HELENA study.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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This report aims (1) to examine the association between seasonality and physical activity (PA) and sedentary time in European adolescents and (2) to investigate whether this association was influenced by geographical location (Central-North versus South of Europe), which implies more or less extreme weather and daylight hours. Valid data on PA, sedentary time and seasonality were obtained in 2173 adolescents (1175 females; 12.5-17.5 years) included in this study. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometers. ANCOVA was conducted to analyse the differences in PA and sedentary time across seasons. Results showed that girls had lower levels of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and average PA, and spent more time in sedentary activities in winter compared with spring (all P < 0.05). Stratified analyses showed differences in PA and sedentary time between winter and spring in European girls from Central-North of Europe (P < 0.05 for sedentary time). There were no differences between PA and sedentary time across seasonality in boys. In conclusion, winter is related with less time spent in MVPA, lower average PA and higher time spent in sedentary activities in European adolescent girls, compared with spring. These differences seem to mainly occur in Central-North Europe.
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Impact of the choice of threshold on physical activity patterns in free living conditions among adolescents measured using a uniaxial accelerometer: The HELENA study.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the choice of threshold on physical activity patterns measured in adolescents under free living conditions (FLC) using a uniaxial accelerometer. The study comprised 2043 adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) participating in the HELENA Study. Participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer for 7 days. The PA patterns were assessed using thresholds determined from six different studies. For each of the thresholds used, the number of adolescents fulfilling the recommendation of 60 min of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) per day was also calculated. A significant difference was found between thresholds regardless of the activity level: differences of 38%, 207%, 136%, and 2780% for sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity PA, respectively (P < 0.001). Time of MVPA varied between methods from 25.3 to 55.2 min · day(-1). The number of adolescents fulfilling the recommendation varied from 5.9% to 37% according to the thresholds used. The kappa coefficient for concordance in the assessment of the number of adolescents achieving the PA recommendations was generally low. The definition of the threshold for PA intensity may considerably affect the PA patterns in FLC when assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer and the number of participants fulfilling the recommendations.
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Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in european adolescents: the HELENA study.
J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Evidence indicates low 25-hydroxyvitamin D [(25(OH)D] concentrations in European adolescents. Identification of potential determinants is therefore essential to guide public health initiatives aiming at optimizing vitamin D status across Europe. The aim of the study was to identify potential influencing factors of 25(OH)D concentrations in European adolescents aged 12.5 to 17.5 y, participating in the multi-centre cross-sectional Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. A subset of 1,006 participants (46.8% males) was drawn from the main study. Measures of body composition, biochemical markers, socioeconomic status, dietary intake, physical activity, fitness, sleep time and vitamin D genetic polymorphism (rs1544410) were assessed. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted stratified by gender. In males, linear regression of 25(OH)D, suggested that (1) winter season (?=-0.364; p<0.01), (2) higher latitudes (?=-0.246; p<0.01), (3) BMI z-score (?=-0.198; p<0.05) and (4) retinol concentration (?=0.171; p<0.05) independently influenced 25(OH)D concentrations. In females, (1) winter season (?=-0.370; p<0.01), (2) sleep time (?=-0.231; p<0.01), (3) supplement intake (?=0.221; p<0.05), (4) flexibility (?=0.184; p<0.05), (5) body fat % (?=0.201; p<0.05) (6), BMI z-score (?=-0.272; p<0.05), (7) higher latitudes (?=-0.219; p<0.01) and (8) handgrip strength (?=0.206; p<0.05) independently influenced 25(OH)D concentrations. Season, latitude, fitness, adiposity, sleep time and micronutrient supplementation were highly related to 25(OH)D concentrations found in European adolescents.
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Impact of weight loss and maintenance with ad libitum diets varying in protein and glycemic index content on metabolic syndrome.
Nutrition
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
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We investigated the effects of weight loss and maintenance with diets that varied with regard to protein content and glycemic index (GI) on metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) status.
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High fat diets are associated with higher abdominal adiposity regardless of physical activity in adolescents; the HELENA study.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Failure to attain fat balance may contribute to obesity development even without excessive energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine the associations of dietary macronutrient distribution with abdominal adiposity in adolescents and to evaluate whether these relationships were attenuated by physical activity.
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Metabolic syndrome, circulating RBP4, testosterone, and SHBG predict weight regain at 6 months after weight loss in men.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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Weight loss helps reduce the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the obese, but weight regain after active weight loss is common. The changes and predictive role of circulating adipokines and sex hormones for weight regain in men during dietary intervention, and also the effect of basal MetS status on weight regain, were investigated.
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Dietary and lifestyle quality indices with/without physical activity and markers of insulin resistance in European adolescents: the HELENA study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Emerging data indicate that higher levels of insulin resistance (IR) are common among children and adolescents and are related to cardiometabolic risk; therefore, IR requires consideration early in life. In addition, there is a lack of conclusive evidence regarding the role of dietary nutrients on IR. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) was conducted in European adolescents aged 12·5–17·5 years. A total of 637 participants with valid homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index data and who completed at least a 2 d 24 h dietary recall were included in the study (60% of the total HELENA-CSS sample). There were two dietary indices calculated, with the only difference between them being the inclusion or not of physical activity (PA). Markers of IR such as HOMA and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated. Pubertal status, BMI and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were measured as potential confounders. The dietary index including PA was inversely associated with HOMA and directly with the QUICKI in females, but not in males, after adjusting for pubertal status, centre, BMI and CRF. In conclusion, the present study indicates that considering PA as part of the dietary index is of relevance as the resulted index is inversely related to IR independently of potential confounders including CRF. Overall, these findings suggest that intervention studies aimed at preventing IR in young people should focus on increasing the quality of the diet and also on including an optimal PA level in healthy adolescents.
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Adipose tissue fatty acid composition in Greek patients with breast cancer versus those with benign breast tumors.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue is a most reliable biomarker of long-term dietary fatty acid intake. Few studies have implemented biomarkers of fatty acid intake in relation to breast cancer. In this study the relation between adipose tissue composition and breast cancer was investigated.
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Association between self-reported sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Evidence has grown supporting the role for short sleep duration as an independent risk factor for weight gain and obesity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents. The sample consisted of 1522 adolescents (aged 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the European multi-centre cross-sectional ‘Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence’ study. Sleep duration was estimated by a self-reported questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24 h recalls. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents with Meal index (DQI-AM) was used to calculate overall dietary quality, considering the components dietary equilibrium, dietary diversity, dietary quality and a meal index. An average sleep duration of ? 9 h was classified as optimal, between 8 and 9 h as borderline insufficient and < 8 h as insufficient. Sleep duration and the DQI-AM score were positively associated (? = 0.027, r 0.130, P< 0.001). Adolescents with insufficient (62.05 (sd 14.18)) and borderline insufficient sleep (64.25 (sd 12.87)) scored lower on the DQI-AM than adolescents with an optimal sleep duration (64.57 (sd 12.39)) (P< 0.001; P= 0.018). The present study demonstrated in European adolescents that short sleep duration was associated with a lower dietary quality. This supports the hypothesis that the health consequences of insufficient sleep may be mediated by the relationship of insufficient sleep to poor dietary quality.
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Lunch at school, at home or elsewhere. Where do adolescents usually get it and what do they eat? Results of the HELENA Study.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Considering the lack of uniformity regarding school meals in Europe, information on adolescents school lunch patterns is of public health importance. Thus, the aim of this analysis was to describe and evaluate lunchtime energy and food intake of European adolescents at different lunch locations. Data on nutritional and health-related parameters were derived from the HEalthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS). A sub-sample of 891 adolescents (47% male) with plausible data on total and lunchtime energy intake (2×24h recall) as well as usual lunch location was considered. Food intake was compared to lunch of the Optimized Mixed Diet (OMD) for children and adolescents. Although energy intake was nearly in line with the recommendations, food intake was suboptimal compared to the OMD regardless of usual lunch location. Adolescents had more potatoes and less sweets at school, and more drinks (water, coffee and tea) and vegetables at home when each compared with the other locations. Food intake of adolescents getting their lunch elsewhere was characterized by the smallest amounts of potatoes and the highest amounts of sweets. Although lunch patterns may differ among countries, schools in Europe do not seem to reveal all their potential to offer access to a healthy lunch for adolescents yet.
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Association of objectively measured physical activity with body components in European adolescents.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Physical activity (PA) is suggested to contribute to fat loss not only through increasing energy expenditure "per se" but also increasing muscle mass; therefore, it would be interesting to better understand the specific associations of PA with the different bodys components such as fat mass and muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between objectively measured PA and indices of fat mass and muscle components independently of each other giving, at the same time, gender-specific information in a wide cohort of European adolescents.
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A multicentre weight loss study using a low-calorie diet over 8 weeks: regional differences in efficacy across eight European cities.
Swiss Med Wkly
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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The efficacy of low-calorie diets (LCDs) has not been investigated in large-scale studies or among people from different regions, who are perhaps unaccustomed to such methods of losing weight. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in obesity measures among overweight/obese adults from eight European cities (from Northern, Central and Southern Europe) during the 8-week LCD phase of the DiOGenes study (2006-2007), a family-based, randomised, controlled dietary intervention.
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Validity of the cohort of Crete in the Seven Countries Study: A time-series study applied to the cancer mortality trend between 1960 and 2011.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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We examined whether the Cretan cohort of the Seven Countries Study (SCS) is representative for the entire population in the island using cancer mortality registries. The analysis was carried out on the Cretan cohort of the SCS cancer mortality data and a similar cancer registry for the general population during a 51-year follow-up (1960-2011). Information about the causes of mortality was obtained from official death certificates and classified according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9). Two time-series models of mortalities from cancer, using data from the Cretan cohort and the Hellenic Statistical Office (EL. STAT), were developed using Matlab software. The existence of long-term memory in the data was tested by rescaled range analysis (Hurst-Mandelbrot). State-space reconstruction was applied to identify the simplest system that was able to re-create the present time-series. In the cohort, cancer mortalities accounted for 18.9% of total mortalities. The EL.STAT time-series analysis generated mean V statistics (95%CI) of 0.69815 (0.398-0.999) and 0.677143 (0.301-0.897) for the general population and the seven countries cohort, respectively. The embedding dimension for the EL.STAT data was equal to 1 for the general population and for the Cretan cohort (m=1). The exponent H values for the two time-series were almost equal. In the two time-series the proposed time delay of cancer mortalities was 2. The Cretan cohort of the SCS and the entire population of the island followed similar patterns of cancer mortality over time.
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More physically active and leaner adolescents have higher energy intake.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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To test whether youths who engage in vigorous physical activity are more likely to have lean bodies while ingesting relatively large amounts of energy. For this purpose, we studied the associations of both physical activity and adiposity with energy intake in adolescents.
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Predicting cardiometabolic risk: waist-to-height ratio or BMI. A meta-analysis.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The identification of increased cardiometabolic risk among asymptomatic individuals remains a huge challenge. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the association of body mass index (BMI), which is an index of general obesity, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), an index of abdominal obesity, with cardiometabolic risk in cross-sectional and prospective studies.
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Effect of Mediterranean diet versus prudent diet combined with physical activity on OSAS: a randomised trial.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
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We aimed to evaluate the effect of the Mediterranean diet (MD) compared with a prudent diet (PD) combined with physical activity on obese obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) patients who were treated with continuous positive airway pressure. 900 patients were evaluated and 40 obese patients (body mass index ? 30.0 kg · m(-2)) who met the inclusion criteria, with moderate-to-severe OSAS (apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) >15 events · h(-1) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale score >10) based on overnight attended polysomnography, were included in the study. After randomisation, 20 patients followed the MD and 20 a PD for a 6-month period. All patients were counselled to increase their physical activity. Concerning sleep parameters, only AHI during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was reduced to a statistically significant degree, by mean ± SD 18.4 ± 17.6 events · h(-1) in the MD group and by 2.6 ± 23.7 events · h(-1) in the PD group (p<0.05). The MD group also showed a greater reduction in waist circumference (WC) (-8.7 ± 3.6 cm), WC/height ratio (-0.04 ± 0.02 cm · m(-1)) and WC/hip ratio (-0.04 ± 0.03 cm · cm(-1)), compared with the other group (-2.6 ± 1.7 events · h(-1), -5.7 ± 3.8 cm, -0.03 ± 0.02 cm · m(-1) and 0.02 ± 0.02 cm · cm(-1), respectively; p<0.05). Our results showed that the MD combined with physical activity for a 6-month period was effective in reducing the AHI during REM sleep without any statistically significant effect in the other sleep parameters, compared with a PD in obese adults with moderate-to-severe OSAS.
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Dietary exposure assessments for children in europe (the EXPOCHI project): rationale, methods and design.
Arch Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2011
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The number of dietary exposure assessment studies focussing on children is very limited. Children are however a vulnerable group due to their higher food consumption level per kg body weight. Therefore, the EXPOCHI project aims 1 to create a relational network of individual food consumption databases in children, covering different geographical areas within Europe, and 2 to use these data to assess the usual intake of lead, chromium, selenium and food colours.
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Food intake of European adolescents in the light of different food-based dietary guidelines: results of the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Since inadequate food consumption patterns during adolescence are not only linked with the occurrence of obesity in youth but also with the subsequent risk of developing diseases in adulthood, the establishment and maintenance of a healthy diet early in life is of great public health importance. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe and evaluate the food consumption of a well-characterized sample of European adolescents against food-based dietary guidelines for the first time.
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Vitamin D status among adolescents in Europe: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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An adequate vitamin D status is essential during childhood and adolescence, for its important role in cell growth, skeletal structure and development. It also reduces the risk of conditions such as CVD, osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, infections and autoimmune disease. As comparable data on the European level are lacking, assessment of vitamin D concentrations was included in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. Fasting blood samples were obtained from a subsample of 1006 adolescents (470 males; 46·8 %) with an age range of 12·5-17·5 years, selected in the ten HELENA cities in the nine European countries participating in this cross-sectional study, and analysed for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) by ELISA using EDTA plasma. As specific reference values for adolescents are missing, percentile distribution were computed by age and sex. Median 25(OH)D levels for the whole population were 57·1 nmol/l (5th percentile 24·3 nmol/l, 95th percentile 99·05 nmol/l). Vitamin D status was classified into four groups according to international guidelines (sufficiency/optimal levels ? 75 nmol/l; insufficiency 50-75 nmol/l; deficiency 27·5-49·99 nmol/l and severe deficiency < 27·5 nmol/l). About 80 % of the sample had suboptimal levels (39 % had insufficient, 27 % deficient and 15 % severely deficient levels). Vitamin D concentrations increased with age (P < 0·01) and tended to decrease according to BMI. Geographical differences were also identified. Our study results indicate that vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition in European adolescents and should be a matter of concern for public health authorities.
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Blood profiling of proteins and steroids during weight maintenance with manipulation of dietary protein level and glycaemic index.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, a high-protein and low-glycaemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance. The objective of the present study was to identify (1) blood profiles associated with continued weight loss and weight regain (2) blood biomarkers of dietary protein and GI levels during the weight-maintenance phase. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after 8 weeks of low-energy diet-induced weight loss and after a 6-month dietary intervention period from female continued weight losers (n 48) and weight regainers (n 48), evenly selected from four dietary groups that varied in protein and GI levels. The blood concentrations of twenty-nine proteins and three steroid hormones were measured. The changes in analytes during weight maintenance largely correlated negatively with the changes during weight loss, with some differences between continued weight losers and weight regainers. Increases in leptin (LEP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly associated with weight regain (P < 0·001 and P = 0·005, respectively), and these relationships were influenced by the diet. Consuming a high-protein and high-GI diet dissociated the positive relationship between the change in LEP concentration and weight regain. CRP increased during the weight-maintenance period only in weight regainers with a high-protein diet (P < 0·001). In addition, testosterone, luteinising hormone, angiotensinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, resistin, retinol-binding protein 4, insulin, glucagon, haptoglobin and growth hormone were also affected by the dietary intervention. The blood profile reflects not only the weight change during the maintenance period, but also the macronutrient composition of the dietary intervention, especially the protein level.
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Sexual dimorphism in the early life programming of serum leptin levels in European adolescents: the HELENA study.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a lower birth weight, as an indicator of adverse intrauterine environment, is associated with higher serum leptin levels in European adolescents. We also examined the possible sexual dimorphism in this relationship.
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Effect of Mediterranean diet on lipid peroxidation marker TBARS in obese patients with OSAHS under CPAP treatment: a randomised trial.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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The aim of our study was to examine the possible effect of the Mediterranean diet on thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) who are under continuous positive airway pressure treatment.
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Secular trends in fitness, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and TV-viewing among first grade school children of Crete, Greece between 1992/93 and 2006/07.
J Sci Med Sport
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2011
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To assess secular changes in physical fitness (PF), moderate-to-vigorous-physical activity (MVPA) and TV-viewing in 1st-grade children from Crete, Greece.
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Fitness and fatness are independently associated with markers of insulin resistance in European adolescents; the HELENA study.
Int J Pediatr Obes
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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To examine the independent association of total and central body fat and cardiorespiratory fitness with markers of insulin resistance after controlling for several potential confounders in European adolescents participating in the HELENA-CSS (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional) study.
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FADS1 genetic variability interacts with dietary ?-linolenic acid intake to affect serum non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations in European adolescents.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Two rate-limiting enzymes in PUFA biosynthesis, ?5- and ?6-desaturases, are encoded by the FADS1 and FADS2 genes, respectively. Genetic variants in the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster are associated with changes in plasma concentrations of PUFA, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, and TG. However, little is known about whether dietary PUFA intake modulates these associations, especially in adolescents. We assessed whether dietary linoleic acid (LA) or ?-linolenic acid (ALA) modulate the association between the FADS1 rs174546 polymorphism and concentrations of PUFA, other lipids, and lipoproteins in adolescents. Dietary intakes of LA and ALA, FADS1 rs174546 genotypes, PUFA levels in serum phospholipids, and serum concentrations of TG, cholesterol, and lipoproteins were determined in 573 European adolescents from the HELENA study. The sample was stratified according to the median dietary LA (?9.4 and >9.4 g/d) and ALA (?1.4 and >1.4 g/d) intakes. The associations between FADS1 rs174546 and concentrations of PUFA, TG, cholesterol, and lipoproteins were not affected by dietary LA intake (all P-interaction > 0.05). Similarly, the association between the FADS1 rs174546 polymorphism and serum phospholipid concentrations of ALA or EPA was not modified by dietary ALA intake (all P-interaction > 0.05). In contrast, the rs174546 minor allele was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.01 under the dominant model) and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations (P = 0.02 under the dominant model) in the high-ALA-intake group but not in the low-ALA-intake group (P-interaction = 0.01). These results suggest that dietary ALA intake modulates the association between FADS1 rs174546 and serum total and non-HDL-cholesterol concentrations at a young age.
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Fatty acid composition of Greek margarines and their change in fatty acid content over the past decades.
Int J Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2011
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Thirty-one brands of margarines from the Greek market were analyzed for their fatty acid composition including trans-fatty acids by gas chromatography. Trans fatty acids (TFAs) were found within the range of 0.16-0.97% of total fat content, with no sample found to have TFA in a concentration more than 1% of the total fat content. Increased levels of either saturated or cis-unsaturated was observed in each brand. Saturated, cis-monounsaturated and cis-polyunsaturated were found in the ranges of 11.26-51.75%, 22.98-60.37% and 12.09-56.30% of total fat content respectively, with mean values of 30.81 ± 10.40%, 34.41 ± 10.46% and 34.28 ± 14.02% of total fat. The chemical analysis of Greek margarines over the past decades has indicated that the TFA content of Greek margarines has declined over the past 20 years by approximately 95%.
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Presence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents and University students in Crete (Greece), according to different levels of snack consumption.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2011
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The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) risk factors in adolescents and University students in Crete (Greece), according to different levels of snack consumption. 237 adolescents (14.2-16.3 years) and 196 University students (19.5-31.5 years) participated during 2002/3 and 2004/5. Dietary intake (24-h dietary recalls), cardiorespiratory fitness, smoking habits, time spent watching television, anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were assessed in all subjects. Adolescents consumed snacks more often than University students (62% vs. 49.5%, P < 0.05) and had significantly higher total energy intake (8629 vs. 7641 kJ, P < 0.05) and energy intake from snacks (2537 vs. 1767 kJ, P < 0.001). Snack consumers had higher energy intake than non-consumers in both groups. No relationship was found between snack consumption and MetSyn risk factors, cardiorespiratory fitness and smoking. However, University students who consumed snacks had 15.36 times higher risk of having ? 2 MetSyn risk factors than adolescent snack consumers, had considerably higher LDL-cholesterol levels, total: HDL-cholesterol ratio and watched more television than non-consumers. These findings emphasize the need for developing effective nutrition interventions to promote healthier snack choices in adolescents and young adults with characteristics similar to our sample, in order to prevent cardiovascular risk later in adulthood.
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The effect of ponderal index at birth on the relationships between common LEP and LEPR polymorphisms and adiposity in adolescents.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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This study examined the effect of ponderal index (PI) at birth on the relationships between eight common polymorphisms of the leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes and adiposity in adolescents. A total of 823 European adolescents (45.4% girls) aged 14.8 ± 1.4 years were genotyped for the LEP (rs2167270, rs12706832, rs10244329, rs2071045, and rs3828942) and LEPR (rs1137100, rs1137101, and rs8179183) polymorphisms. The PI was calculated from parental reports of birth weight and length. Fat mass index (FMI) was calculated. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders. An "adiposity-risk-allele score" based on genotypes at the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with adolescents FMI in adolescents within the lower tertile of PI was calculated. The LEP rs10244329 and rs3828942 polymorphisms were associated with higher FMI only in adolescents within the lower PI tertile (+0.55 kg/m(2) per minor T allele, P = 0.040, and +0.58 kg/m(2) per major G allele, P = 0.028, respectively). The LEPR rs8179183 polymorphism was significantly associated with higher FMI in adolescents within the lower PI tertile (+0.87 kg/m(2) per minor C allele, P = 0.006). After correction for multiple comparisons, only the association between the LEPR rs8179183 and FMI persisted. However, each additional risk allele conferred 0.53 kg/m(2) greater FMI in adolescents within the lower tertile of PI (P = 0.008). In conclusion, our results suggest that those adolescents born with lower PI could be more vulnerable to the influence of the LEP rs10244329 and rs3828942 polymorphisms and LEPR rs8179183 polymorphism on total adiposity content. Due to the relatively small sample size, these findings should be replicated in further larger population samples.
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Telomere length and mental well-being in elderly men from the Netherlands and Greece.
Behav. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Telomeres, repetitive DNA sequences that promote chromosomal stability, have been related to different measures of mental well-being and self-rated health, but mainly in women during adulthood. We aimed to investigate whether accelerated telomere shortening is associated with poor mental well-being and poor self-rated health in community-dwelling elderly men. Leukocyte telomere length was measured using quantitative PCR in two different samples of 203 elderly men (mean age 78 years) from the Netherlands in 1993, and 123 elderly men (mean age 84 years) from Greece in 2000. We also obtained follow-up data in 2000 from 144 Dutch subjects, of whom 75 had paired telomere length data in 1993 and 2000. Mental well-being was conceptualized as dispositional optimism, depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning, and loneliness. Linear regression analyses were used to study the association between telomere length, measures of mental well being, and self-rated health, while adjusting for potential confounders. In cross-sectional analyses, leukocyte telomere length was not associated with measures of mental well-being and self-rated health, neither in the Netherlands nor in Greece. Also, the rate of leukocyte telomere shortening (mean decrease: 0.28 kbp over 7 years) in the 75 Dutch participants with longitudinal data was not associated with changes in different measures of mental well-being and self-rated health. Thus, our results provide no support for a relationship between leukocyte telomere length and mental well-being in elderly community-dwelling men.
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Determinants of 40-year all-cause mortality in the European cohorts of the Seven Countries Study.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
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If a few risk factors had predictive power for all-cause mortality in different geographical-cultural areas, then preventive efforts might be concentrated on these. Thirteen potential risk factors were measured in 6,554 men aged 40-59 around 1960 in Northern, Southern and Eastern European areas of the Seven Countries Study. In 40 years 85.3% of men died in the pooled areas (87.9, 81.8 and 87.9% in Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe, respectively). Six risk factors were significant predictors of events in all three areas: directly for age, smoking habits, mean blood pressure, heart rate and ECG abnormalities; inversely for forced expiratory volume. In a pooled model also father and mother life status, socio-economic status, and arm circumference (the last one in an inverse way) had significant coefficients that were not heterogeneous across areas (except for socio-economic status). Serum cholesterol was around significance. ROC curves had values of 0.833, 0.806 and 0.819 respectively in Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe, and 0.827 in the pooled areas. Correlation coefficients between observed and expected cases in deciles of estimated risk were between 0.98 and 0.99. Survivors after 40 years in the lower half of the estimated risk were 10.7, 23.6 and 13.3% in Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe, respectively. Under- or over-estimate of cross-applying risk functions did not exceed 15%. All-cause mortality and survival in middle aged men during 40 years were strongly associated with a few, mainly cardiovascular, risk factors, whose predictive power was similar in different cultures across Europe.
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The association between active/passive smoking and toxic metals among pregnant women in Greece.
Xenobiotica
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Exposure to toxic metals during pregnancy may have detrimental effects on foetal development. We assessed the role of sociodemographic characteristics and active and passive smoking on blood concentrations of metals (As, Cd, Pb, Hg, Sb, U, Mn and Mo). Venous blood drawn from 50 pregnant women, randomly selected from the mother-child birth cohort Rhea. Extensive questionnaire data on active and passive smoking were collected. Urinary cotinine was measured to validate self-reported exposure and non-smoking status. Smokers had higher concentrations of Cd (1.0 µg/L) as compared with non-smokers (0.29 µg/L, P?
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Levels of physical activity that predict optimal bone mass in adolescents: the HELENA study.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Physical activity is necessary for bone mass development in adolescence. There are few studies quantifying the associations between physical activity and bone mass in adolescents.
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Food and drink intake during television viewing in adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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To compare food consumption during television (TV) viewing among adolescents who watched >2 h/d v. ?2 h/d; and to examine the association between sociodemographic variables (age, gender and socio-economic status (SES)) and the consumption of energy-dense foods and drinks during TV viewing.
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Comparison of the IPAQ-A and actigraph in relation to VO2max among European adolescents: the HELENA study.
J Sci Med Sport
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2011
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The purpose was to compare data obtained from a modified, long, self-administered version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-A) with objective data obtained in parallel from Actigraph accelerometers, and VO(2)max in adolescents. The study comprised a total of 2018 adolescents (46% male) from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. Physical activity was assessed over seven consecutive days by accelerometry and expressed as min/day of moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous (MVPA) physical activity (PA). PA was also assessed with the IPAQ-A. VO(2)max was estimated from a 20-m shuttle run test. Poor to fair correlations between the two methodologies were found for the whole study sample and when stratified by age and gender (r(s) = 0.08-0.26, p < 0.01). On average, the self-reported time spent in moderate PA was higher compared to the time measured with the accelerometer, while the differences between both instruments were less clear for vigorous intensity. Adolescents reporting high levels of PA (3rd tertile IPAQ-A) also showed higher levels of PA (accelerometers) in all the study variables (moderate, vigorous and MVPA), compared to adolescents reporting low PA (1st tertile IPAQ-A) (all p < 0.001). Both methods were moderately correlated with estimated VO(2)max. Within the HELENA-study, the IPAQ-A showed the modest comparability with the accelerometer data for assessing PA in each intensity level and was the highest for vigorous intensity. Both instruments are able to detect the adolescents with the highest cardio respiratory fitness, which are the most active adolescents.
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Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: the HELENA study.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2011
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Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents.
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Secular changes in anthropometric measurements and blood pressure in children of Crete, Greece, during 1992/93 and 2006/07.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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To examine secular changes in anthropometric measurements and blood pressure (BP) in 1st-grade children in Crete, Greece, during 1992/93 and 2006/07.
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Gluteal adipose-tissue polyunsaturated fatty-acids profiles and depressive symptoms in obese adults with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome: a cross-sectional study.
Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Biomarkers of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) have been related to depressive symptoms in healthy adults. It is also known that depression is high prevalent in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) and obesity. The aim of our study was to examine a possible association between PUFAs of the n-6 and n-3 families and depressive symptoms in obese OSAHS patients. Sixty three patients with OSAHS based on overnight attended polysomnography were included. Gluteal adipose tissue biopsies were performed in all participants. Fatty acids were analyzed by gas chromatography. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. The majority of participants had grade II obesity (BMI: 36.2±4.3 kg/m(2)) and moderate to severe OSAHS. Mild depressive symptoms were found to affect 27.8% of the studied patients. No link between symptoms of depression and individual n-6 and/or n-3 PUFAs of gluteal adipose tissue was detected. However, multiple linear regression analysis showed a positive correlation between depressive symptoms and 20:3n-6/18:3n-6 ratio, and a negative association with age and n-6/n-3 ratio. The possible influence of OSAHS and obesity in depression development and the quiescent nature of gluteal adipose tissue may account for the absence of any significant relations between n-6 and/or n-3 PUFAs and depressive symptoms in our sample. The positive relationship between symptoms of depression and the particular fatty acid ratio probably indicates an increase in prostaglandins family although this needs further research.
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Polymorphisms in the CD36/FAT gene are associated with plasma vitamin E concentrations in humans.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Blood vitamin E concentrations are modulated by dietary, metabolic, and genetic factors. CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36), a class B scavenger receptor, might be involved in tissue vitamin E uptake and thus would influence blood vitamin E concentrations.
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Excessive sedentary time and low cardiorespiratory fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA study.
Arch. Dis. Child.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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The aims of this study were to examine what amount of sedentary time is associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in adolescents and whether this association is independent of physical activity.
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Effects of different protein content and glycemic index of ad libitum diets on diabetes risk factors in overweight adults: the DIOGenes multicentre, randomised, dietary intervention trial.
Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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Dpt. Physiology and Nutrition, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain (EG, JAM); Institute of Preventive Medicine, Centre for Health and Society, Copenhagen, Denmark (CH), Department of Human Biology, Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands (WS); Human Nutrition Research, Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Cambridge, UK (SJ); Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine & Nutrition Clinic, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece (AK); Department of Clinical Nutrition, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuhetal, Germany (AP); National Multiprofile Transport Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria (SH); Obesity Management Centre, Institute of Endocrinology, Prague, Czech Republic (PH); Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Gentofte University Hospital, Denmark (SS); Department of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark (TL, AA). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The effect of protein and glycemic index on childrens body composition: the DiOGenes randomized study.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2010
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To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study.
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Adolescents physical activity levels and relatives physical activity engagement and encouragement: the HELENA study.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2010
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The aim of this article is to examine the association between adolescents physical activity (PA) levels and their relatives (father, mother, brothers, sisters and best friend) PA engagement and encouragement.
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Protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding against infections during infancy: a prospective study.
Arch. Dis. Child.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2010
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To prospectively investigate the effects of breastfeeding on the frequency and severity of infections in a well-defined infant population with adequate vaccination coverage and healthcare standards.
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Recommended levels and intensities of physical activity to avoid low-cardiorespiratory fitness in European adolescents: The HELENA study.
Am. J. Hum. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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The purpose of this study was to determine the sex-specific physical activity (PA) intensity thresholds that best discriminate between unhealthy/healthy cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF).
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Assessing the nutritional status of Palestinian adolescents from East Jerusalem: a school-based study 2002-03.
J. Trop. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
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In Palestine, there is a little information about nutrition of adolescents compared to other age groups. This study was designed to assess the nutritional status of Palestinian school-aged children (11-16 years) in East Jerusalem during 2002-03. A school-based cross-sectional study targeted randomly 313 adolescents from public and private schools. A previously validated and reliable questionnaire was administered through interviews that included anthropometric and hemoglobin measurements, 24-h dietary intake recall and physical activity questionnaire. It was found that being overweight (24.3%) or obese (9.9%) coexisted with being underweight (4.8%) and/or anemic (23.3%). Only 22.4% of the study subject had physical activity for ?5?days a week with boys being more physically active than girls (p?
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Comparison of several anthropometric indices with insulin resistance proxy measures among European adolescents: The Helena Study.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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The aim of the current study was to compare the association of several anthropometric indices, with insulin resistance (IR) proxy measures in European adolescents. The present study comprises 1,097 adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 from ten European cities participating in the HELENA study. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference, skinfolds thickness, fat mass (FM), fasting plasma glucose (G(F)) and serum insulin (I(F)) levels were measured. HOMA (as indicator of IR body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. I(F) and HOMA were statistically significantly related to BMI, WC, skinfold sum, WHtR, WHR and FM. BMI, WC, WHtR, skinfold sum and FM displayed similar correlation with I(F) and HOMA as opposed to WHR where lower correlation with IR indices was detected in the overall sample. Similar results were found for boys, girls and underweight/normal weight adolescents. On the other hand, WC and WHtR were found to be more strongly associated with IR proxy measures compared to the rest of anthropometric indices among overweight/obese subjects. Based on the current findings, WC and WHtR could be used, alternatively, to identify the overweight/obese adolescent at risk for developing IR. In addition, all aforementioned anthropometric indices, except WHR, could be used among the underweight/normal weight adolescents.
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