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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
IL-17 in Severe Asthma. Where Do We Stand?
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Asthma is a major chronic disease ranging from mild to severe refractory disease and is classified into various clinical phenotypes. Severe asthma is difficult to treat and frequently requires high doses of systemic steroids. In some cases, severe asthma even responds poorly to steroids. Several studies have suggested a central role of IL-17 (also called IL-17A) in severe asthma. Indeed, high levels of IL-17 are found in induced sputum and bronchial biopsies obtained from patients with severe asthma. The recent identification of a steroid-insensitive pathogenic Th17 pathway is therefore of major interest. In addition, IL-17A has been described in multiple aspects of asthma pathogenesis, including structural alterations of epithelial cells and smooth muscle contraction. In this perspective article, we frame the topic of IL-17A effects in severe asthma by reviewing updated information from human studies. We summarize and discuss the implications of IL-17 in the induction of neutrophilic airway inflammation, steroid insensitivity, the epithelial cell profile, and airway remodeling.
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Tissue remodelling in chronic bronchial diseases: from the epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype.
Eur Respir Rev
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Airway remodelling is a critical feature of chronic bronchial diseases, characterised by aberrant repair of the epithelium and accumulation of fibroblasts, which contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition resulting in fixed bronchial obstruction. Recently, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been identified as a new source of fibroblasts that could contribute to the remodelling of the airways. This phenomenon consists of the loss of the epithelial phenotype by bronchial epithelial cells and the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype. These cells are then able to migrate and secrete ECM molecules. Herein, we review the different types of EMT. We will then focus on the signalling pathways that are involved, such as transforming growth factor-? and Wnt, as well as the more recently described Sonic Hedgehog pathway. Finally, we will highlight the implication of EMT in airway remodelling in specific chronic bronchial pathologies, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiolitis obliterans following lung transplantation. Despite the limitations of in vitro models, future studies of EMT in vivo are warranted to shed new light on the pathomechanisms of bronchial obstruction.
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Systematic analysis of blood cell transcriptome in end-stage chronic respiratory diseases.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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End-stage chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) have systemic consequences, such as weight loss and susceptibility to infection. However the mechanisms of such dysfunctions are as yet poorly explained. We hypothesized that the genes putatively involved in these mechanisms would emerge from a systematic analysis of blood mRNA profiles from pre-transplant patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), pulmonary hypertension (PAH), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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Block copolymer/DNA vaccination induces a strong allergen-specific local response in a mouse model of house dust mite asthma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Allergic asthma is caused by abnormal immunoreactivity against allergens such as house dust mites among which Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) is a common species. Currently, immunotherapy is based on allergen administration, which has variable effect from patient to patient and may cause serious side effects, principally the sustained risk of anaphylaxis. DNA vaccination is a promising approach by triggering a specific immune response with reduced allergenicity.
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A proof-of-concept, randomized, controlled trial of omalizumab in patients with severe, difficult-to-control, nonatopic asthma.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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While up to 50% of patients with severe asthma have no evidence of allergy, IgE has been linked to asthma, irrespective of atopic status. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, is reported to significantly benefit a subset of patients with severe, persistent, allergic asthma. Therefore, we investigated whether omalizumab has biologic and clinical effects in patients with refractory nonatopic asthma.
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Maternal exposure to air pollution before and during pregnancy related to changes in newborns cord blood lymphocyte subpopulations. The EDEN study cohort.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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Toxicants can cross the placenta and expose the developing fetus to chemical contamination leading to possible adverse health effects, by potentially inducing alterations in immune competence. Our aim was to investigate the impacts of maternal exposure to air pollution before and during pregnancy on newborns immune system.
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[Difficult to control severe asthma].
Rev Prat
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2011
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Difficult to control severe asthma is characterized by the persistence of inacceptable symptoms of asthma despite a continuous treatment with at least high doses of inhaled steroids and long acting bronchodilators. The diagnosis is done after a period of observation and some investigations that will allow confirm the diagnosis of asthma, eliminate alternative diagnosis and etiological forms that would be difficult to treat intrinsically (allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis, Churg and Strauss disease, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, occupational asthma). At the end of this period devoted to diagnosis a systematic approach is set up to take care of these patients. Therapeutic education includes action plans and measures for triggering factors avoidance in order to prevent exacerbations. Comorbidities such as rhinitis, nasal polyposis, gastro-oesophageal reflux and obesity are taken into account. Lastly, the treatment must be adapted according to the patients preferences and aims, and to the asthma severity. Ultimately in steroid-dependent asthma, the lowest efficient dose is tracked continuously. For these patients, new molecules are needed.
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Preventing asthma exacerbations: what are the targets?
Pharmacol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2011
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Exacerbations of asthma are the main cause of asthma morbidity. They induce acute respiratory failure, and sometimes death. Two immunological signals acting in synergy are necessary for inducing asthma exacerbations. The first, triggered by allergens and/or unknown agents leads to the chronic Th2 inflammation characteristic of asthma. The second, caused by either viral infection, allergens, pollutants or a combination of these, results in an acute Th1 and Th2 inflammation precipitating symptoms. In both, innate and adaptive immunities are involved, providing a series of potential targets for therapy. Molecules associated to the first, chronic inflammation constitute targets for preventing therapies, when these related to the second, acute signal provide the rationale for curative treatments. Toll like receptors and bronchial epithelial cell-derived cytokines, engaged upstream of inflammation constitute interesting candidates for future treatments. The great heterogeneity of asthma has to be taken into account when considering targets for therapy to identify clusters of responders and nonresponders, and an integrative system biology approach will be necessary to go further.
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Differences in allergen-induced T cell activation between allergic asthma and rhinitis: Role of CD28, ICOS and CTLA-4.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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Th2 cell activation and T regulatory cell (Treg) deficiency are key features of allergy. This applies for asthma and rhinitis. However with a same atopic background, some patients will develop rhinitis and asthma, whereas others will display rhinitis only. Co-receptors are pivotal in determining the type of T cell activation, but their role in allergic asthma and rhinitis has not been explored. Our objective was to assess whether allergen-induced T cell activation differs from allergic rhinitis to allergic rhinitis with asthma, and explore the role of ICOS, CD28 and CTLA-4.
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CX3CR1 is required for airway inflammation by promoting T helper cell survival and maintenance in inflamed lung.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
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Allergic asthma is a T helper type 2 (T(H)2)-dominated disease of the lung. In people with asthma, a fraction of CD4(+) T cells express the CX3CL1 receptor, CX3CR1, and CX3CL1 expression is increased in airway smooth muscle, lung endothelium and epithelium upon allergen challenge. Here we found that untreated CX3CR1-deficient mice or wild-type (WT) mice treated with CX3CR1-blocking reagents show reduced lung disease upon allergen sensitization and challenge. Transfer of WT CD4(+) T cells into CX3CR1-deficient mice restored the cardinal features of asthma, and CX3CR1-blocking reagents prevented airway inflammation in CX3CR1-deficient recipients injected with WT T(H)2 cells. We found that CX3CR1 signaling promoted T(H)2 survival in the inflamed lungs, and injection of B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 protein (BCl-2)-transduced CX3CR1-deficient T(H)2 cells into CX3CR1-deficient mice restored asthma. CX3CR1-induced survival was also observed for T(H)1 cells upon airway inflammation but not under homeostatic conditions or upon peripheral inflammation. Therefore, CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 may represent attractive therapeutic targets in asthma.
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Knocking down Cav1 calcium channels implicated in Th2 cell activation prevents experimental asthma.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Th2 cells orchestrate allergic asthma and the cytokines they produce (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) are deleterious in allergy. Therefore, it is important to identify key signaling molecules expressed by Th2 cells that are essential for their function. We have previously shown that dihydropyridines selectively modulate Th2 cell functions.
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Allergen-specific immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis and asthma. Mechanisms and proof of efficacy.
Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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Appeared at the beginning of the 20th century, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) has long been used in allergic rhinitis and asthma without any knowledge of its mechanisms of action or any tangible proof of its efficacy. However, from the beginning of the era of evidence-based medicine, a number of placebo-controlled studies have been published and reached a sufficient number to assess the cellular events induced by SIT and allow meta-analysis to provide guidelines based on proofs. Controlled studies and meta-analysis concerned not only subcutaneous immunotherapy but also the sublingual route, demonstrating an effect of SIT on symptoms and medication use. Most recently sublingual tablets were proposed in allergic rhinitis. This paper reviews the mechanisms of SIT, the evidence of efficacy of SIT from the injective to the sublingual route and reminds the current guidelines.
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Research needs in allergy: an EAACI position paper, in collaboration with EFA.
Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Ioana Agache, Sevim Bavbek, Beatrice M Bilo, Fulvio Braido, Victòria Cardona, Adnan Custovic, Jan Demonchy, Pascal Demoly, Philippe Eigenmann, Jacques Gayraud, Clive Grattan, Enrico Heffler, Peter W Hellings, Marek Jutel, Edward Knol, Jan Lötvall, Antonella Muraro, Lars K Poulsen, Graham Roberts, Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Massimo Triggiani, Ronald Vanree, Thomas Werfel, Breda Flood, Susanna Palkonen, Roberta Savli, Pia Allegri, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Francesco Annunziato, Dario Antolin-Amerigo, Christian Apfelbacher, Miguel Blanca, Ewa Bogacka, Patrizia Bonadonna, Matteo Bonini, Onur Boyman, Knut Brockow, Peter Burney, Jeroen Buters, Indre Butiene, Moises Calderon, Lars Olaf Cardell, Jean-Christoph Caubet, Sevcan Celenk, Ewa Cichocka-Jarosz, Cemal Cingi, Mariana Couto, Nicolette Dejong, Stefano Del Giacco, Nikolaos Douladiris, Filippo Fassio, Jean-Luc Fauquert, Javier Fernández, Montserrat Fernandez Rivas, Marta Ferrer, Carsten Flohr, James Gardner, Jon Genuneit, Philippe Gevaert, Anna Groblewska, Eckard Hamelmann, Hans Jürgen Hoffmann, Karin Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Lilit Hovhannisyan, Valérie Hox, Frode L Jahnsen, Omer Kalayci, Ayse Füsun Kalpaklioglu, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, George Konstantinou, Marcin Kurowski, Susanne Lau, Roger Lauener, Antti Lauerma, Kirsty Logan, Antoine Magnan, Joanna Makowska, Heidi Makrinioti, Paraskevi Mangina, Felicia Manole, Adriano Mari, Angel Mazon, Clare Mills, Ervinç Mingomataj, Bodo Niggemann, Gunnar Nilsson, Markus Ollert, Liam O'Mahony, Serena O'Neil, Gianni Pala, Alberto Papi, Gianni Passalacqua, Michael Perkin, Oliver Pfaar, Constantinos Pitsios, Santiago Quirce, Ulrike Raap, Monika Raulf-Heimsoth, Claudio Rhyner, Paula Robson-Ansley, Rodrigo Rodrigues Alves, Zeljka Roje, Carmen Rondón, Odilija Rudzeviciene, Franziska Rueff, Maia Rukhadze, Gabriele Rumi, Cansin Sackesen, Alexandra F Santos, Annalisa Santucci, Christian Scharf, Carsten Schmidt-Weber, Benno Schnyder, Jürgen Schwarze, Gianenrico Senna, Svetlana Sergejeva, Sven Seys, Andrea Siracusa, Isabel Skypala, Milena Sokolowska, François Spertini, Radoslaw Spiewak, Aline Sprikkelman, Gunter Sturm, Ines Swoboda, Ingrid Terreehorst, Elina Toskala, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Carina Venter, Berber Vlieg-Boerstra, Paul Whitacker, Margitta Worm, Paraskevi Xepapadaki, Cezmi A Akdis.
Clin Transl Allergy
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In less than half a century, allergy, originally perceived as a rare disease, has become a major public health threat, today affecting the lives of more than 60 million people in Europe, and probably close to one billion worldwide, thereby heavily impacting the budgets of public health systems. More disturbingly, its prevalence and impact are on the rise, a development that has been associated with environmental and lifestyle changes accompanying the continuous process of urbanization and globalization. Therefore, there is an urgent need to prioritize and concert research efforts in the field of allergy, in order to achieve sustainable results on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this most prevalent chronic disease of the 21st century.The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is the leading professional organization in the field of allergy, promoting excellence in clinical care, education, training and basic and translational research, all with the ultimate goal of improving the health of allergic patients. The European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA) is a non-profit network of allergy, asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) patients organizations. In support of their missions, the present EAACI Position Paper, in collaboration with EFA, highlights the most important research needs in the field of allergy to serve as key recommendations for future research funding at the national and European levels.Although allergies may involve almost every organ of the body and an array of diverse external factors act as triggers, there are several common themes that need to be prioritized in research efforts. As in many other chronic diseases, effective prevention, curative treatment and accurate, rapid diagnosis represent major unmet needs. Detailed phenotyping/endotyping stands out as widely required in order to arrange or re-categorize clinical syndromes into more coherent, uniform and treatment-responsive groups. Research efforts to unveil the basic pathophysiologic pathways and mechanisms, thus leading to the comprehension and resolution of the pathophysiologic complexity of allergies will allow for the design of novel patient-oriented diagnostic and treatment protocols. Several allergic diseases require well-controlled epidemiological description and surveillance, using disease registries, pharmacoeconomic evaluation, as well as large biobanks. Additionally, there is a need for extensive studies to bring promising new biotechnological innovations, such as biological agents, vaccines of modified allergen molecules and engineered components for allergy diagnosis, closer to clinical practice. Finally, particular attention should be paid to the difficult-to-manage, precarious and costly severe disease forms and/or exacerbations. Nonetheless, currently arising treatments, mainly in the fields of immunotherapy and biologicals, hold great promise for targeted and causal management of allergic conditions. Active involvement of all stakeholders, including Patient Organizations and policy makers are necessary to achieve the aims emphasized herein.
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Safety and tolerability of an SQ-standardized GRAss ALlergy immunotherapy tablet (GRAZAX®) in a real-life setting for three consecutive seasons - the GRAAL trial.
Clin Drug Investig
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GRAZAX(®) (Phleum Pratense, 75,000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU, ALK, Denmark), an SQ-standardized grass allergy sublingual immunotherapy tablet for the desensitization of grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis, has been developed to facilitate patient access to specific immunotherapy (SIT), while minimizing the risk of serious treatment-related adverse events. As a minimum duration of 3 years is recommended for SIT treatment, the GRAAL trial aimed to assess the safety profile of GRAZAX(®) in real-world conditions during long-term treatment of patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC).
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DNA/amphiphilic block copolymer nanospheres reduce asthmatic response in a mouse model of allergic asthma.
Hum. Gene Ther.
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Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory, respiratory disease caused by an abnormal reactivity against allergens. The most promising treatments for asthma are based on specific immunotherapies, but they lack efficiency and can induce deleterious side effects. Among new modalities of immunotherapy currently in development, DNA vaccination presents a promising approach, as it enables targeted immunotherapy in association with reduced allergenicity. We have developed an innovative, DNA-based vaccine against Dermatophagoides farinae 1 allergen (Der f 1), one of the allergens most commonly encountered by asthma patients in Europe. Intramuscular administration of a Der f 1-encoding plasmid formulated with the block copolymer 704 in healthy mice induced a strong humoral and cellular response with a pro-helper T cell type 1 bias. Administration of the same formulation in asthmatic mice, according to an early vaccination protocol, led to a reduction of airway hyperresponsiveness and a significant decrease in the level of inflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage of Der f 1-vaccinated mice.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.