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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: How Long Does Every Behavior Last, and Are Particular Behaviors Associated With PRN Antipsychotic Agent Use?
J Gerontol Nurs
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) affect approximately all residents in nursing homes at some point; however, the course of BPSD among this group is not well known. The goal of the current study was to describe the course of each measured BPSD over a period of 6 months. A secondary explorative objective was to identify which BPSD are associated with as-needed (PRN) antipsychotic drug use. This secondary analysis study of 146 nursing home residents was drawn from a prospective, observational, multisite (N = 7) cohort study. Results showed that BPSD lasted for an average of 2.3 months, and the BPSD saying things that do not make sense had the longest duration, with 3.6 months. PRN antipsychotic drug administration was associated with nocturnal BPSD and requesting help unnecessarily. Within 3 months, most BPSD were resolved by usual care; use of PRN antipsychotic medication was not associated with behaviors that put the residents or their caregivers at risk. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, xx(xx), xx-xx.].
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Core symptoms not meeting criteria for delirium are associated with cognitive and functional impairment and mood and behavior problems in older long-term care residents.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The immediate clinical significance of Confusion Assessment Method (CAM)-defined core symptoms of delirium not meeting criteria for delirium is unclear. This study proposed to determine if such symptoms are associated with cognitive and functional impairment, mood and behavior problems and increased Burden of Care (BOC) in older long-term care (LTC) residents.
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Increases in Emergency Department Occupancy Are Associated With Adverse 30-day Outcomes.
Acad Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The associations between emergency department (ED) crowding and patient outcomes have not been investigated comprehensively in different types of ED. The study objective was to examine the associations of changes over time in ED occupancy with patient outcomes in a sample of EDs that vary by size and location. A secondary objective was to explore whether the relationship between ED occupancy and patient outcomes differed by ED characteristics (size/type and medical and nursing staffing ratios).
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Estimating genome-wide significance for whole-genome sequencing studies.
Genet. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Although a standard genome-wide significance level has been accepted for the testing of association between common genetic variants and disease, the era of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) requires a new threshold. The allele frequency spectrum of sequence-identified variants is very different from common variants, and the identified rare genetic variation is usually jointly analyzed in a series of genomic windows or regions. In nearby or overlapping windows, these test statistics will be correlated, and the degree of correlation is likely to depend on the choice of window size, overlap, and the test statistic. Furthermore, multiple analyses may be performed using different windows or test statistics. Here we propose an empirical approach for estimating genome-wide significance thresholds for data arising from WGS studies, and we demonstrate that the empirical threshold can be efficiently estimated by extrapolating from calculations performed on a small genomic region. Because analysis of WGS may need to be repeated with different choices of test statistics or windows, this prediction approach makes it computationally feasible to estimate genome-wide significance thresholds for different analysis choices. Based on UK10K whole-genome sequence data, we derive genome-wide significance thresholds ranging between 2.5 × 10(-8) and 8 × 10(-8) for our analytic choices in window-based testing, and thresholds of 0.6 × 10(-8) -1.5 × 10(-8) for a combined analytic strategy of testing common variants using single-SNP tests together with rare variants analyzed with our sliding-window test strategy.
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Exploring the potential benefits of stratified false discovery rates for region-based testing of association with rare genetic variation.
Front Genet
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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When analyzing the data that arises from exome or whole-genome sequencing studies, window-based tests, (i.e., tests that jointly analyze all genetic data in a small genomic region), are very popular. However, power is known to be quite low for finding associations with phenotypes using these tests, and therefore a variety of analytic strategies may be employed to potentially improve power. Using sequencing data of all of chromosome 3 from an interim release of data on 2432 individuals from the UK10K project, we simulated phenotypes associated with rare genetic variation, and used the results to explore the window-based test power. We asked two specific questions: firstly, whether there could be substantial benefits associated with incorporating information from external annotation on the genetic variants, and secondly whether the false discovery rate (FDRs) would be a useful metric for assessing significance. Although, as expected, there are benefits to using additional information (such as annotation) when it is associated with causality, we confirmed the general pattern of low sensitivity and power for window-based tests. For our chosen example, even when power is high to detect some of the associations, many of the regions containing causal variants are not detectable, despite using lax significance thresholds and optimal analytic methods. Furthermore, our estimated FDR values tended to be much smaller than the true FDRs. Long-range correlations between variants-due to linkage disequilibrium-likely explain some of this bias. A more sophisticated approach to using the annotation information may improve power, however, many causal variants of realistic effect sizes may simply be undetectable, at least with this sample size. Perhaps annotation information could assist in distinguishing windows containing causal variants from windows that are merely correlated with causal variants.
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Emergency department conditions associated with the number of patients who leave a pediatric emergency department before physician assessment.
Pediatr Emerg Care
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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As emergency department (ED) waiting times and volumes increase, substantial numbers of patients leave without being seen (LWBS) by a physician. The objective of this study was to identify ED conditions reflecting patient input, throughput, and output associated with the number of patients who LWBS in a pediatric setting.
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Observer-rated depression in long-term care: Frequency and risk factors.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the prevalence and 6-month incidence of observer-rated depression in residents age 65 and over of long-term care (LTC) facilities; (2) to describe risk factors for depression, at baseline and over time. A multisite, prospective observational study was conducted in residents aged 65 and over of 7 LTC facilities. The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) was completed by nurses monthly for 6 months. We measured demographic, medical, and functional factors at baseline and monthly intervals, using data from research assessments, nurse interviews, and chart reviews. 274 residents were recruited and completed baseline depression assessments. The prevalence of depression (CSDD score of 6+) was 19.0%. The incidence of depression among those without prevalent depression was 73.3 per 100 person-years. A delirium diagnosis, pain, and diabetes were independently associated with prevalent depression. CSDD score at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were independent risk factors for incident depression. A diagnosis of delirium and uncorrected visual impairment at follow-up occurred concurrently with incident depression. The results of this study have implications for the detection and prevention of depression in LTC. Delirium diagnosis, pain and diabetes at baseline were associated with prevalent depression; depression symptoms at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were risk factors for incident depression.
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Childhood trauma and dissociation in first-episode psychosis, chronic schizophrenia and community controls.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Increasing evidence supports the role of childhood trauma in the etiology of psychosis but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Early maltreatment has been linked to dissociative symptoms in psychosis patients. We explored associations between childhood trauma (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale) in first-episode psychotic patients (n=62), chronic psychotic patients (n=43), and non-psychotic community controls (n=66). Multivariate analyses of covariance were used to test associations between childhood trauma and dissociation by group while controlling for sex. Chronic patients reported the highest level of dissociation. More severe childhood trauma was associated with greater dissociative symptoms in all groups although most strongly in chronic patients. Emotional abuse showed the strongest associations with dissociation, with these being strongest for chronic patients, followed by first-episode patients--and least for controls. Men showed a stronger association between physical neglect and dissociation than women, irrespective of group. There were no significant group by sex interactions. Our findings replicate the strong association between childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms in chronic and first-episode psychotic patients relative to non-psychotic control subjects. We also demonstrate the salience of emotional abuse in explaining variance in dissociation, especially in chronic patients.
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Feasibility and acceptability of a delirium prevention program for cognitively impaired long term care residents: a participatory approach.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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In this participatory action research study, researchers conducted a total of 3 implementation cycles to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a new delirium prevention program (DPP) for cognitively impaired residents in long term care (LTC) settings. Researchers interviewed 95 health care staff to obtain feedback on their use of the DPP and then modified the DPP and tested the changes in the next implementation cycle. Our results indicated that the DPP was feasible and that health care staff would accept it under certain conditions. We found there were 4 keys to successful implementation of the DPP: support for the program from both the administration and the users; effective clinician leadership to ensure proper delivery of the DPP (format, content and values) and its appropriate adaptation to the LTC facilitys internal culture and policies; a sense of ownership among the DPP users; and, last, practical hands-on training as well as theoretical training for staff.
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Environmental factors predict the severity of delirium symptoms in long-term care residents with and without delirium.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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To identify potentially modifiable environmental factors (including number of medications) associated with changes over time in the severity of delirium symptoms and to explore the interactions between these factors and resident baseline vulnerability.
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Symptoms of delirium predict incident delirium in older long-term care residents.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Detection of long-term care (LTC) residents at risk of delirium may lead to prevention of this disorder. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the presence of one or more Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) core symptoms of delirium at baseline assessment predicts incident delirium. Secondary objectives were to determine if the number or the type of symptoms predict incident delirium.
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Adjusted sequence kernel association test for rare variants controlling for cryptic and family relatedness.
Genet. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Recent progress in sequencing technologies makes it possible to identify rare and unique variants that may be associated with complex traits. However, the results of such efforts depend crucially on the use of efficient statistical methods and study designs. Although family-based designs might enrich a data set for familial rare disease variants, most existing rare variant association approaches assume independence of all individuals. We introduce here a framework for association testing of rare variants in family-based designs. This framework is an adaptation of the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) which allows us to control for family structure. Our adjusted SKAT (ASKAT) combines the SKAT approach and the factored spectrally transformed linear mixed models (FaST-LMMs) algorithm to capture family effects based on a LMM incorporating the realized proportion of the genome that is identical by descent between pairs of individuals, and using restricted maximum likelihood methods for estimation. In simulation studies, we evaluated type I error and power of this proposed method and we showed that regardless of the level of the trait heritability, our approach has good control of type I error and good power. Since our approach uses FaST-LMM to calculate variance components for the proposed mixed model, ASKAT is reasonably fast and can analyze hundreds of thousands of markers. Data from the UK twins consortium are presented to illustrate the ASKAT methodology.
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Nursing Documentation in Long-Term Care Settings: New Empirical Evidence Demands Changes be Made.
Clin Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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In this study on nursing documentation in long-term care facilities, a set of 9 delirium symptoms was used to evaluate the agreement between symptoms reported by nurses during monthly interviews and those documented in the nursing notes for the same 7-day observation period. Residents aged 65 and above (N = 280) were assessed monthly over a 6-month period for the presence of delirium and its symptoms using the Confusion Assessment Method. The proportion of symptoms documented in the nursing notes ranged from 1.9% to 53.5%. A trend toward a lower proportion of documented symptoms for higher resident-nurse ratios was observed, although the difference was not statistically significant. Efforts should be made to improve the situation by revisiting the content of academic and clinical training given to nurses in addition to exploring innovative ways to make nursing documentation more efficient and less time-consuming within the current context of nurses work overload.
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The course of subsyndromal delirium in older long-term care residents.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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To determine the course of incident subsyndromal delirium (SSD) in older long-term care (LTC) residents. A secondary objective was to explore the use of a more restrictive definition of SSD on the findings of the study.
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Subsyndromal delirium in older long-term care residents: incidence, risk factors, and outcomes.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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To determine the incidence of, risk factors for, and outcomes of subsyndromal delirium (SSD) in older long-term care (LTC) residents and, secondarily, to explore the use of a more-restrictive definition of SSD.
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Delirium superimposed on dementia: defining disease states and course from longitudinal measurements of a multivariate index using latent class analysis and hidden Markov chains.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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The study of mental disorders in the elderly presents substantial challenges due to population heterogeneity, coexistence of different mental disorders, and diagnostic uncertainty. While reliable tools have been developed to collect relevant data, new approaches to study design and analysis are needed. We focus on a new analytic approach.
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Varicocele and male factor infertility treatment: a new meta-analysis and review of the role of varicocele repair.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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Varicocele is a common condition, found in many men who present for infertility evaluation.
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Antisperm antibodies are not associated with pregnancy rates after IVF and ICSI: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Several studies have examined the relationship between direct antisperm antibody (ASA) levels in semen and pregnancy rate after advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) but the results have been inconsistent. The aim of our study was to further evaluate the relationship between ASA and pregnancy after IVF or ICSI by systematic review and meta-analysis.
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Self-reported risks for multiple-drug resistance among new tuberculosis cases: implications for drug susceptibility screening and treatment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Multiple drug-resistance in new tuberculosis (TB) cases accounts for the majority of all multiple drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) worldwide. Effective control requires determining which new TB patients should be tested for MDR disease, yet the effectiveness of global screening recommendations of high-risk groups is unknown.
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Use of complementary and alternative medicine by cancer patients at a Montreal hospital.
Integr Cancer Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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To assess feasibility of methods for a future study of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by cancer patients treated in conventional health care settings.
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Third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations: defining high-risk clinical clusters.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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Statistical methods that measure the independent contribution of individual factors for third-/fourth-degree perineal laceration (TFPL) fall short when the clinician is faced with a combination of factors. Our objective was to demonstrate how a statistical technique, classification and regression trees (CART), can identify high-risk clinical clusters.
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Association of resident and room characteristics with antipsychotic use in long-term care facilities (LTCF).
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Inappropriate and widespread prescribing of antipsychotics in LTCF is of concern. This study aimed to explore the association of resident and room characteristics with antipsychotic use in this setting. This is cross-sectional secondary analysis of the baseline data of 280 residents ? 65 years old, from a prospective, observational, LTCF multi-site (n=7) cohort study on delirium. Demographic data included age, sex and length of stay. Resident characteristics assessed were presence of dementia, disruptive behavior, delirium and use of restraints. Room characteristics assessed were single room, clock/calendar, and telephone. Separate logistic regression models were used to explore the association of resident and room characteristics with antipsychotic use, adjusting for demographic variables. Mean age was 84.9 ± 7.0 years (± S.D.) with 56% female. The mean prevalence of antipsychotics use was 31.1% (range: 25.6-50.0%). The regression model of resident characteristics revealed a significant association between disruptive behavior (OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.12-1.25) and antipsychotic use. The model of room characteristics revealed a significant association between absence of a clock or calendar (OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.04-3.56) and absence of a telephone (OR=2.79, 95% CI=1.48-5.25). Our results suggest that behavior problems are associated with a higher likelihood of antipsychotic use. Absence of a clock/calendar and of a telephone was related to antipsychotic use. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.
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Prevalence and incidence of delirium in long-term care.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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(1) To describe the prevalence and 6-month incidence of delirium in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents age 65 and over; (2) To describe differences in these measures by resident baseline characteristics.
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Use of nurse-observed symptoms of delirium in long-term care: effects on prevalence and outcomes of delirium.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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Previous studies have reported that nurse detection of delirium has low sensitivity compared to a research diagnosis. As yet, no study has examined the use of nurse-observed delirium symptoms combined with research-observed delirium symptoms to diagnose delirium. Our specific aims were: (1) to describe the effect of using nurse-observed symptoms on the prevalence of delirium symptoms and diagnoses in long-term care (LTC) facilities, and (2) to compare the predictive validity of delirium diagnoses based on the use of research-observed symptoms alone with those based on research-observed and nurse-observed symptoms.
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Emergency department visits and primary care among adults with chronic conditions.
Med Care
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
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An emergency department (ED) visit may be a marker for limited access to primary medical care, particularly among those with ambulatory care sensitive chronic conditions (ACSCC).
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Detection of delirium and its symptoms by nurses working in a long term care facility.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
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To investigate the ability of nurses to recognize delirium and its symptoms and to investigate the factors associated with undetected delirium.
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Temporary work and depressive symptoms: a propensity score analysis.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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Recent decades have seen a tremendous increase in the complexity of work arrangements, through job sharing, flexible hours, career breaks, compressed work weeks, shift work, reduced job security, and part-time, contract and temporary work. In this study, we focus on one specific group of workers that arguably most embodies non-standard employment, namely temporary workers, and estimate the effect of this type of employment on depressive symptom severity. Accounting for the possibility of mental health selection into temporary work through propensity score analysis, we isolate the direct effects of temporary work on depressive symptoms with varying lags of time since exposure. We use prospective data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), which has followed, longitudinally, from 1979 to the present, a nationally representative cohort of American men and women between 14 and 22 years of age in 1979. Three propensity score models were estimated, to capture the effect of different time lags (immediately following exposure, and 2 and 4 years post exposure) between the period of exposure to the outcome. The only significant effects were found among those who had been exposed to temporary work in the two years preceding the outcome measurement. These workers report 1.803 additional depressive symptoms from having experienced this work status (than if they had not been exposed). Moreover, this difference is both statistically and substantively significant, as it represents a 50% increase from the average level of depressive symptoms in this population.
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Efficacy of black cohosh-containing preparations on menopausal symptoms: a meta-analysis.
Altern Ther Health Med
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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This study aimed to review the evidence on the efficacy of herbal preparations containing black cohosh for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. A systematic search of three databases (PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library) was conducted to identify relevant literature. Two reviewers independently abstracted the data from the eligible studies. Of the 288 English language citations screened, nine randomized placebo-controlled trials were included. Among these trials, six demonstrated a significant improvement in the black cohosh group compared with the placebo group. Using data from seven trials, we calculated a combined estimate for the change in menopausal vasomotor symptoms. Preparations containing black cohosh improved these symptoms overall by 26% (95% confidence interval 11%-40%); there was, however, significant heterogeneity between these trials. Given that black cohosh is one of the most frequently used herbal medications for menopausal vasomotor symptoms in North America, more data are warranted on its effectiveness and safety.
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The nature of informal caregiving for medically ill older people with and without depression.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2009
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To describe patient and caregiver perceptions of the nature of informal caregiving in a sample of older medical inpatients with and without depression.
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Factor structure of the restricted academic situation scale: implications for ADHD.
J Atten Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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To study the factor structure of the Restricted Academic Situation Scale (RASS), a psychometric tool used to assess behavior in children with ADHD, 117 boys and 21 girls meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria for ADHD and aged between 6 and 12 years were recruited. Assessments were carried out before and 65 min after the administration of either a placebo or 0.25 mg/kg of methylphenidate. Placebo and methylphenidate were each administered according to a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design.
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Understanding the social patterning of smoking practices: a dynamic typology.
Sociol Health Illn
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
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In many countries, cigarette consumption has been on a declining trend for over 20 years. However, different patterns of smoking practices have emerged. Our goal is to explore how the patterning of smoking practices occurs and persists over time, and to investigate the factors that could help interpret these patterns. Data were derived from the National Population Health Surveys and comprise a large representative sample of the population. Dynamic Typology methods reveal two main classes of typology: monothetic groups with stable patterns of behaviour over time (never-smokers, chronically addicted smokers, long-term ex-smokers); and polythetic groups with substantial behavioural variations. Moreover, socioeconomic inequalities are found among all groups, and gender-specific clusters of behaviour become apparent, with specific risk groups, such as the group of young women aged 20-24 at risk of becoming highly addicted. Our results also show that the effects of socioeconomic position on smoking practices are not significantly mediated by psychosocial variables such as self-esteem and personal control in both females and males. However, these variables still exert independent and differential effects on smoking practices in both genders. Our findings indicate that analysis of temporal patterns of smoking is crucial for tailoring type and timing of health-promoting interventions.
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Persistent delirium in older hospital patients: a systematic review of frequency and prognosis.
Age Ageing
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
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one explanation for the poor prognosis of delirium among older hospital patients may be that many of these patients do not recover from delirium. We sought to determine the frequency and prognosis of persistent delirium (PerD) in older hospital patients by systematically reviewing original research on this topic.
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Dietary patterns and risk of cancer of various sites in the Norwegian European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort: the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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An indicator of common diets among groups of individuals can be found by identifying dietary patterns. We found previously six dietary patterns in the Norwegian European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort and labelled them fish, healthy, average, western, bread and alcohol. We examined the relationship between the different patterns and risk of total cancer, breast cancer and gastrointestinal cancers in 34 471 women from the Norwegian European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, in which there were 1355 cancer cases. The hazard ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Stratified analysis on menopausal status and smoking status was performed. Alcohol, meat, fish and fruit and vegetable consumption are suspected to have an influence on different cancers; thus we decided to perform stratified analysis on high versus low consumption of the above-mentioned variables as well. We found no overall relationship between cancers and the six different dietary patterns in this study. When stratifying on alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption and fatty fish consumption, there was a statistically higher risk of total cancer and breast cancer with high alcohol consumption, and a significantly higher risk of breast cancer with low consumption of fruit and vegetables or with low consumption of fatty fish in the western group only. A significantly higher risk of total cancer with low intake of fatty fish in the alcohol group was also observed.
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Primary Care Organization and Outcomes of an Emergency Visit among Seniors.
Healthc Policy
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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This study explored whether organizational characteristics of primary care services provided by area of residence in two Quebec regions are related to outcomes of an emergency department (ED) visit among seniors discharged home. Provincial administrative databases on a sample of seniors who made an ED visit and their 30-day outcomes were linked by area of residence to data from a survey of key informants from primary care clinics. Measures of organizational characteristics included three scales derived from principal components analysis and one theoretically derived global score that measured the degree of conformity to characteristics of ideal emerging primary care models. In multivariate analyses, adjusting for patient characteristics, patients living in areas in the lowest quartile for the global score had higher rates of return ED visits without hospitalization. Emerging primary care organizational models along the lines currently being pursued in Quebec may help to reduce the growing burden of ED care of seniors.
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A psychometric evaluation of the French Canadian version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in a large primary care population.
J Affect Disord
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The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate the psychometric properties of a French Canadian version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-FC) in a large population of primary care patients in Quebec, Canada; (2) conduct a transcultural validation of the original HADS in a subsample of English-speaking patients; (3) explore HADS properties in subgroups with or without multimorbidity.
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Symptoms of delirium occurring before and after episodes of delirium in older long-term care residents.
J Am Geriatr Soc
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To describe Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) core symptoms of delirium occurring before and after incident episodes of delirium in older long-term care (LTC) residents. A secondary objective was to describe the mean number of symptoms before and after episodes by dementia status.
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Prenatal maternal stress affects motor function in 5½-year-old children: project ice storm.
Dev Psychobiol
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Evidence suggests that prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) has long-term effects on several outcomes, yet effects on neuromotor function are relatively unknown. We aimed to determine whether disaster-related PNMS predicts motor functioning in young children and whether timing of exposure and sex of the child moderate these effects. Objective and subjective PNMS levels were assessed among pregnant women exposed to a natural disaster. Their childrens bilateral coordination, balance, and visual motor integration (VMI) were assessed at 5½ years. Girls performed better than boys. Objective stress exposure and subjective distress interacted such that when subjective distress was high, no added effect of objective hardship was observed; when subjective distress was low, objective hardship showed a negative effect. In girls, late pregnancy exposure was associated with poorer outcomes. In conclusion, disaster-related PNMS is associated with relatively lower motor functions in exposed offspring. Exposure timing, sex, and type of stress influenced the effects.
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Subsyndromal delirium in older people: a systematic review of frequency, risk factors, course and outcomes.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
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To determine the frequency, risk factors, course and outcomes of subsyndromal delirium (SSD) in older people by systematically reviewing evidence on these topics.
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Multiple regression methods show great potential for rare variant association tests.
PLoS ONE
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The investigation of associations between rare genetic variants and diseases or phenotypes has two goals. Firstly, the identification of which genes or genomic regions are associated, and secondly, discrimination of associated variants from background noise within each region. Over the last few years, many new methods have been developed which associate genomic regions with phenotypes. However, classical methods for high-dimensional data have received little attention. Here we investigate whether several classical statistical methods for high-dimensional data: ridge regression (RR), principal components regression (PCR), partial least squares regression (PLS), a sparse version of PLS (SPLS), and the LASSO are able to detect associations with rare genetic variants. These approaches have been extensively used in statistics to identify the true associations in data sets containing many predictor variables. Using genetic variants identified in three genes that were Sanger sequenced in 1998 individuals, we simulated continuous phenotypes under several different models, and we show that these feature selection and feature extraction methods can substantially outperform several popular methods for rare variant analysis. Furthermore, these approaches can identify which variants are contributing most to the model fit, and therefore both goals of rare variant analysis can be achieved simultaneously with the use of regression regularization methods. These methods are briefly illustrated with an analysis of adiponectin levels and variants in the ADIPOQ gene.
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Prodrome of delirium among long-term care residents: what clinical changes can be observed in the two weeks preceding a full-blown episode of delirium?
Int Psychogeriatr
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Delirium among long-term care (LTC) residents is frequent and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Identification of clinical changes during the prodromal phase of delirium could lead to prevention of a full-blown episode and perhaps limit the deleterious consequences of this syndrome. The aim of the present study was to identify clinical changes observable in the 2-week period prior to the onset of full-blown delirium.
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Classification of emergency departments according to their services for community-dwelling seniors.
Acad Emerg Med
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The goal was to develop a classification of emergency departments (EDs) based on their organization of services for seniors discharged to the community.
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The course of delirium in older long-term care residents.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
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The purpose of this study was to determine the course of delirium in older long-term care (LTC) residents.
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Principal components of heritability for high dimension quantitative traits and general pedigrees.
Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol
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For many complex disorders, genetically relevant disease definition is still unclear. For this reason, researchers tend to collect large numbers of items related directly or indirectly to the disease diagnostic. Since the measured traits may not be all influenced by genetic factors, researchers are faced with the problem of choosing which traits or combinations of traits to consider in linkage analysis. To combine items, one can subject the data to a principal component analysis. However, when family date are collected, principal component analysis does not take family structure into account. In order to deal with these issues, Ott & Rabinowitz (1999) introduced the principal components of heritability (PCH), which capture the familial information across traits by calculating linear combinations of traits that maximize heritability. The calculation of the PCHs is based on the estimation of the genetic and the environmental components of variance. In the genetic context, the standard estimators of the variance components are Langes maximum likelihood estimators, which require complex numerical calculations. The objectives of this paper are the following: i) to review some standard strategies available in the literature to estimate variance components for unbalanced data in mixed models; ii) to propose an ANOVA method for a genetic random effect model to estimate the variance components, which can be applied to general pedigrees and high dimensional family data within the PCH framework; iii) to elucidate the connection between PCH analysis and Linear Discriminant Analysis. We use computer simulations to show that the proposed method has similar asymptotic properties as Langes method when the number of traits is small, and we study the efficiency of our method when the number of traits is large. A data analysis involving schizophrenia and bipolar quantitative traits is finally presented to illustrate the PCH methodology.
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Outcomes of community-dwelling seniors vary by type of emergency department.
Acad Emerg Med
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The specific objectives were: 1) to compare the characteristics and 6-month outcomes of community-dwelling seniors in Quebec, Canada, who visited three different emergency department (ED) types and 2) to explore whether the differences in outcomes by ED type were seen among subgroups of seniors.
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Development of a delirium risk screening tool for long-term care facilities.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
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The aim of this study is to develop a delirium risk screening tool for use in long-term care (LTC) facilities.
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Men had a higher risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism than women: a large population study.
Gend Med
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Most reports of sex differences in the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) are based on small or moderate sized cohorts of selected patients with VTE.
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Prenatal exposure to a natural disaster increases risk for obesity in 5½-year-old children.
Pediatr. Res.
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An adverse environment in utero, including exposure to prenatal maternal stress (PNMS), can result in poor birth outcomes such as low birth weight, which increases risk of later cardiometabolic diseases such as hypertension and obesity. It is unclear to what extent PNMS influences obesity risk independent of its impact on birth characteristics, especially among humans. Our objective was to determine whether PNMS resulting from a natural disaster influenced risk of childhood obesity.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.