JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Complete suppression of the gut microbiome prevents acute graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The hypothesis that elimination of facultative and strict anaerobic microorganisms from the gastro-intestinal tract by antimicrobial drugs in the period of time around allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) prevents acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), was examined in a cohort of 112 children grafted between 1989 and 2002 for hematological malignancies. All patients received T-cell replete marrow from human leukocyte antigens (HLA) matched sibling donors under identical transplantation conditions. To eliminate microorganisms from the gastro-intestinal tract, total gastro-intestinal decontamination (GID) was applied by high doses of non-absorbable antimicrobial drugs while the graft recipient was maintained in strict protective isolation. About half of the children (51%) proved to be successfully decontaminated, and about half (49%) unsuccessfully. One recipient got acute GVHD in the first group and 8 in the second group (p?=?0.013). The degree of success of total GID was decisive for the occurrence of acute GVHD, irrespective of the presence of other risk factors such as higher age of recipient and/or donor, female donor for male recipient and carriership or reactivation of herpesviruses. Our results demonstrate that successful total GID of the graft recipient prevents moderate to severe acute GVHD. We suppose that substantial translocation of gastro-intestinal microorganisms or parts of these, functioning as microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMP's), triggering macrophages/dendritic cells via pattern recognizing receptors (PRR's) is prohibited. As a consequence the initiation and progression of an inflammatory process leading to acute GVHD is inhibited.
Related JoVE Video
Mesenchymal stromal cell therapy is associated with increased adenovirus-associated but not cytomegalovirus-associated mortality in children with severe acute graft-versus-host disease.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Beneficial effects of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in patients with severe steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) have been reported. However, controversy exists about the effect of MSCs on virus-specific T cells. We evaluated 56 patients with grade II-IV aGvHD who responded to steroids (n = 21) or were steroid refractory receiving either MSCs (n = 22) or other second-line therapy (n = 13). Although the overall incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus, and human adenovirus (HAdV) infections was not significantly increased, HAdV infection was associated with decreased survival in children treated with MSCs. Thus, we investigated in vitro the effects of MSCs on virus-specific T cells. Both CMV-specific and, to a lesser extent, HAdV-specific T-cell activation and proliferation were negatively affected by MSCs either after induction of a response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or after restimulation of virus-specific T-cell lines. In patient-derived PBMCs, CMV-specific proliferative responses were greatly decreased on first-line treatment of aGvHD with systemic steroids and slowly recovered after MSC administration and tapering of steroids. HAdV-specific T-cell proliferation could not be detected. In contrast, the proportion of CMV- and HAdV-specific effector T cells, measured as interferon-?-secreting cells, remained stable or increased after treatment with MSCs. In conclusion, although in vitro experimental conditions indicated a negative impact of MSCs on CMV- and HAdV-specific T-cell responses, no solid evidence was obtained to support such an effect of MSCs on T-cell responses in vivo. Still, the susceptibility of steroid-refractory severe aGvHD patients to viral reactivation warrants critical viral monitoring during randomized controlled trials on second-line treatment including MSCs.
Related JoVE Video
Treosulfan-based conditioning regimens for allogeneic HSCT in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Standard myeloablative conditioning regimens for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia are based on total body irradiation (TBI). However, TBI causes profound short-term and long-term side effects, provoking the necessity for alternative regimens. Treosulfan combines a potent immunosuppressive and antileukaemic effect with myeloablative activity and low toxicity profile. We retrospectively studied toxicity and outcome of 71 paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) following treosulfan-based conditioning aiming to identify risk factors for treatment failure and dose-depending outcome differences. Early regimen-related toxicity was low. No case of veno-occlusive disease was reported. There was no association of toxicity with age or number of HSCT. Event-free survival (EFS) of infants was significantly better compared to older children. Overall survival (OS) at 3 years was 51 % and not significantly influenced by number of HSCT (first HSCT 54 %, ?second HSCT 44 %, p?=?0.71). In multivariate analysis, OS and EFS were significantly worse for patients transplanted without complete remission (p?=?0.04 and 0.004). Treatment-related mortality was low at 14 %. We conclude that treosulfan-based conditioning is a safe and efficacious approach for paediatric ALL.
Related JoVE Video
Will Post-Transplantation Cell Therapies for Pediatric Patients Become Standard of Care?
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative approach for many pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies and some nonmalignant disorders, some critical obstacles remain to be overcome, including relapse, engraftment failure, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and infection. Harnessing the immune system to induce a graft-versus-tumor effect or rapidly restore antiviral immunity through the use of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) has been remarkably successful in some settings. Unfortunately, however, the responses to DLI can be variable, and GVHD is common. Thus, manipulations to minimize GVHD while restoring antiviral immunity and enhancing the graft-versus-tumor effect are needed to improve outcomes after allogeneic HSCT. Cellular therapies, defined as treatment modalities in which hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic cells are used as therapeutic agents, offer this promise for improving outcomes post-HSCT. This review presents an overview of the field for pediatric cell therapies in the transplant setting and discusses how we can broaden applicability beyond phase I.
Related JoVE Video
Macrophages inhibit human osteosarcoma cell growth after activation with the bacterial cell wall derivative liposomal muramyl tripeptide in combination with interferon-?.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In osteosarcoma, the presence of tumor-infiltrating macrophages positively correlates with patient survival in contrast to the negative effect of tumor-associated macrophages in patients with other tumors. Liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide (L-MTP-PE) has been introduced in the treatment of osteosarcoma patients, which may enhance the potential anti-tumor activity of macrophages. Direct anti-tumor activity of human macrophages against human osteosarcoma cells has not been described so far. Hence, we assessed osteosarcoma cell growth after co-culture with human macrophages.
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacokinetics of treosulfan in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Ther Drug Monit
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High-dose treosulfan is used in conditioning regimens before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children. Pharmacokinetic data to optimize treosulfan dosing are scarce in this patient population. The aims of this study were the development and validation of an analytical method for treosulfan in human serum and the development of a pharmacokinetic model for treosulfan in pediatric patients. Furthermore, we aimed to develop a limited sampling strategy to estimate treosulfan systemic exposure with a minimum of inconvenience and risk for the patient.
Related JoVE Video
Early cytomegalovirus reactivation leaves a specific and dynamic imprint on the reconstituting T cell compartment long-term after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation frequently occurs during the early phase of immune recovery after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Whereas the recovery of virus-specific immunity in the early phase after HSCT is extensively studied, the impact of CMV on the reconstitution and composition of the T cell compartment long-term after HSCT is unknown. We analyzed T cell reconstitution 1 to 2 years after HSCT in 131 pediatric patients. One year after HSCT, patients with early CMV reactivation (n = 46) had 3-fold higher CD8(+) T cell numbers (median, 1323 versus 424 cells/?L; P < .0001) compared with patients without CMV reactivation (n = 85). This effect, caused by a major expansion of CD8(+) effector memory (EM) and end-stage effector (EMRA) T cells, was independent of pretransplantation donor and recipient CMV serostatus and not seen after Epstein-Barr virus or adenovirus reactivations. At 1 and 2 years after HSCT, the absolute numbers of CD8(+) naive and central memory T cells, as well as CD4(+) naive, CM, EM, and EMRA T cells, did not differ between patients with or without CMV reactivation. In the second year after HSCT, a significant contraction of the initially expanded CD8(+) EM and EMRA T cell compartments was observed in patients with early CMV reactivation. In conclusion, CMV reactivation early after pediatric HSCT leaves a specific and dynamic imprint on the size and composition of the CD8(+) T cell compartment without compromising the reconstitution of CD8(+) and CD4(+) naive and central memory T cells pivotal in the response to neo and recall antigens.
Related JoVE Video
Similar recombination-activating gene (RAG) mutations result in similar immunobiological effects but in different clinical phenotypes.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
V(D)J recombination takes place during lymphocyte development to generate a large repertoire of T- and B-cell receptors. Mutations in recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG1) and RAG2 result in loss or reduction of V(D)J recombination. It is known that different mutations in RAG genes vary in residual recombinase activity and give rise to a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of human mesenchymal stem cells from ewing sarcoma patients. Pathogenetic implications.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ewing Sarcoma (EWS) is a mesenchymal-derived tumor that generally arises in bone and soft tissue. Intensive research regarding the pathogenesis of EWS has been insufficient to pinpoint the early events of Ewing sarcomagenesis. However, the Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) is currently accepted as the most probable cell of origin.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of genetic variants GSTA1 and CYP39A1 and age on busulfan clearance in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Pharmacogenomics
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Busulfan is used in preparative regimens prior to stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients. There is significant interpatient variability in busulfan pharmacokinetics (PK) and exposure is related to outcome. To date, only polymorphisms in genes encoding for glutathione-S-transferases were studied, but could only explain a small portion of the variability in PK.
Related JoVE Video
Challenges and opportunities for international cooperative studies in pediatric hematopoeitic cell transplantation: priorities of the Westhafen Intercontinental Group.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
More than 20% of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) are performed in children and adolescents at a large number of relatively small centers. Unlike adults, at least one-third of HCTs in children are performed for rare, nonmalignant indications. Clinical trials to improve HCT outcomes in children have been limited by small numbers and these pediatric-specific features. The need for a larger number of pediatric HCT centers to participate in trials has led to the involvement of international collaborative groups. Representatives of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium, European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantations Pediatric Working Group, International Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (iBFm) Stem Cell Transplantation Committee, and Childrens Oncology Groups Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Discipline Committee met on October 3, 2012, in Frankfurt, Germany to develop a consensus on the highest priorities in pediatric HCT. In addition, it explored the creation of an international consortium to develop studies focused on HCT in children and adolescents. This meeting led to the creation of an international HCT network, dubbed the Westhafen Intercontinental Group, to develop worldwide priorities and strategies to address pediatric HCT issues. This review outlines the priorities of need as identified by this consensus group.
Related JoVE Video
Multiple infusions of mesenchymal stromal cells induce sustained remission in children with steroid-refractory, grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) infusions have been reported to be effective in patients with steroid-refractory, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) but comprehensive data on paediatric patients are limited. We retrospectively analysed a cohort of 37 children (aged 3 months-17 years) treated with MSCs for steroid-refractory grade III-IV aGvHD. All patients but three received multiple MSC infusions. Complete response (CR) was observed in 24 children (65%), while 13 children had either partial (n = 8) or no response (n = 5). Cumulative incidence of transplantation-related mortality (TRM) in patients who did or did not achieve CR was 17% and 69%, respectively (P = 0.001). After a median follow-up of 2.9 years, overall survival (OS) was 37%; it was 65% vs. 0% in patients who did or did not achieve CR, respectively (P = 0.001). The median time from starting steroids for GvHD treatment to first MSC infusion was 13 d (range 5-85). Children treated between 5 and 12 d after steroid initiation showed a trend for better OS (56%) and lower TRM (17%) as compared with patients receiving MSCs 13-85 d after steroids (25% and 53%, respectively; P = 0.22 and 0.06, respectively). Multiple MSC infusions are safe and effective for children with steroid-refractory aGvHD, especially when employed early in the disease course.
Related JoVE Video
Antibody-dependent cell lysis by NK cells is preserved after sarcoma-induced inhibition of NK cell cytotoxicity.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Osteosarcoma and Ewings sarcoma tumor cells are susceptible to IL15-induced or antibody-mediated cytolytic activity of NK cells in short-term cytotoxicity assays. When encountering the tumor environment in vivo, NK cells may be in contact with tumor cells for a prolonged time period. We explored whether a prolonged interaction with sarcoma cells can modulate the activation and cytotoxic activity of NK cells. The 40 h coculture of NK cells with sarcoma cells reversibly interfered with the IL15-induced expression of NKG2D, DNAM-1 and NKp30 and inhibited the cytolytic activity of NK cells. The inhibitory effects on receptor expression required physical contact between NK cells and sarcoma cells and were independent of TGF-?. Five days pre-incubation of NK cells with IL15 prevented the down-regulation of NKG2D and cytolytic activity in subsequent cocultures with sarcoma cells. NK cell Fc?RIIIa/CD16 receptor expression and antibody-mediated cytotoxicity were not affected after the coculture. Inhibition of NK cell cytotoxicity was directly linked to the down-regulation of the respective NK cell-activating receptors. Our data demonstrate that the inhibitory effects of sarcoma cells on the cytolytic activity of NK cells do not affect the antibody-dependent cytotoxicity and can be prevented by pre-activation of NK cells with IL15. Thus, the combination of cytokine-activated NK cells and monoclonal antibody therapy may be required to improve tumor targeting and NK cell functionality in the tumor environment.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab enhances the cytolytic activity of natural killer cells toward osteosarcoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Osteosarcoma and Ewings sarcoma are the most common bone tumors in children and adolescents. Despite intensive chemotherapy, patients with advanced disease have a poor prognosis, illustrating the need for alternative therapies. Sarcoma cells are susceptible to the cytolytic activity of resting natural killer (NK) cells which can be improved by interleukin (IL)-15 stimulation. In this study, we explored whether the cytolytic function of resting NK cells can be augmented and specifically directed toward sarcoma cells by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC).
Related JoVE Video
High titers of pre-existing adenovirus serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies in the host predict viral reactivation after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in children.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human adenovirus (HAdV) infections are frequent in children after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) and may become fatal. Whether these infections occur through reactivation of endogenous virus or transmission via the graft remains a matter of debate.
Related JoVE Video
Mutations in ZBTB24 are associated with immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial anomalies syndrome type 2.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autosomal-recessive immunodeficiency, centromeric instability, and facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome is mainly characterized by recurrent, often fatal, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. About 50% of patients carry mutations in the DNA methyltransferase 3B gene (DNMT3B) (ICF1). The remaining patients carry unknown genetic defects (ICF2) but share with ICF1 patients the same immunological and epigenetic features, including hypomethylation of juxtacentromeric repeat sequences. We performed homozygosity mapping in five unrelated ICF2 patients with consanguineous parents and then performed whole-exome sequencing in one of these patients and Sanger sequencing in all to identify mutations in the zinc-finger- and BTB (bric-a-bric, tramtrack, broad complex)-domain-containing 24 (ZBTB24) gene in four consanguineously descended ICF2 patients. Additionally, we found ZBTB24 mutations in an affected sibling pair and in one patient for whom it was not known whether his parents were consanguineous. ZBTB24 belongs to a large family of transcriptional repressors that include members, such as BCL6 and PATZ1, with prominent regulatory roles in hematopoietic development and malignancy. These data thus indicate that ZBTB24 is involved in DNA methylation of juxtacentromeric DNA and in B cell development and/or B and T cell interactions. Because ZBTB24 is a putative DNA-binding protein highly expressed in the lymphoid lineage, we predict that by studying the molecular function of ZBTB24, we will improve our understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of ICF syndrome and of lymphocyte biology in general.
Related JoVE Video
Tumor-infiltrating macrophages are associated with metastasis suppression in high-grade osteosarcoma: a rationale for treatment with macrophage activating agents.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High-grade osteosarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor with a peak incidence in adolescence. Overall survival (OS) of patients with resectable metastatic disease is approximately 20%. The exact mechanisms of development of metastases in osteosarcoma remain unclear. Most studies focus on tumor cells, but it is increasingly evident that stroma plays an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. We investigated the development of metastasis by studying tumor cells and their stromal context.
Related JoVE Video
Chemotherapy-resistant osteosarcoma is highly susceptible to IL-15-activated allogeneic and autologous NK cells.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High-grade osteosarcoma occurs predominantly in adolescents and young adults and has an overall survival rate of about 60%, despite chemotherapy and surgery. Therefore, novel treatment modalities are needed to prevent or treat recurrent disease. Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes with cytotoxic activity toward virus-infected or malignant cells. We explored the feasibility of autologous and allogeneic NK cell-mediated therapies for chemotherapy-resistant and chemotherapy-sensitive high-grade osteosarcoma. The expression by osteosarcoma cells of ligands for activating NK cell receptors was studied in vitro and in vivo, and their contribution to NK cell-mediated cytolysis was studied by specific antibody blockade. Chromium release cytotoxicity assays revealed chemotherapy-sensitive and chemotherapy-resistant osteosarcoma cell lines and osteosarcoma primary cultures to be sensitive to NK cell-mediated cytolysis. Cytolytic activity was strongly enhanced by IL-15 activation and was dependent on DNAM-1 and NKG2D pathways. Autologous and allogeneic activated NK cells lysed osteosarcoma primary cultures equally well. Osteosarcoma patient-derived NK cells were functionally and phenotypically unimpaired. In conclusion, osteosarcoma cells, including chemoresistant variants, are highly susceptible to lysis by IL-15-induced NK cells from both allogeneic and autologous origin. Our data support the exploitation of NK cells or NK cell-activating agents in patients with high-grade osteosarcoma.
Related JoVE Video
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease due to SAP/SH2D1A deficiency: a multicenter study on the manifestations, management and outcome of the disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP1) is a rare immunodeficiency characterized by severe immune dysregulation and caused by mutations in the SH2D1A/SAP gene. Clinical manifestations are varied and include hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia, often triggered by Epstein-Barr virus infection. Historical data published before improved treatment regimens shows very poor outcome. We describe a large cohort of 91 genetically defined XLP1 patients collected from centers worldwide and report characteristics and outcome data for 43 patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and 48 untransplanted patients. The advent of better treatment strategies for HLH and malignancy has greatly reduced mortality for these patients, but HLH still remains the most severe feature of XLP1. Survival after allogeneic HSCT is 81.4% with good immune reconstitution in the large majority of patients and little evidence of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. However, survival falls to 50% in patients with HLH as a feature of disease. Untransplanted patients have an overall survival of 62.5% with the majority on immunoglobulin replacement therapy, but the outcome for those untransplanted after HLH is extremely poor (18.8%). HSCT should be undertaken in all patients with HLH, because outcome without transplant is extremely poor. The outcome of HSCT for other manifestations of XLP1 is very good, and if HSCT is not undertaken immediately, patients must be monitored closely for evidence of disease progression.
Related JoVE Video
Pro-inflammatory chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions within the Ewing sarcoma microenvironment determine CD8(+) T-lymphocyte infiltration and affect tumour progression.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive round cell sarcoma with poor patient prognosis, particularly in cases of advanced-stage disease. Dynamic tumor-host immune interations within the tumor microenvironment may polarize in situ immune responses and shape tumor development and/or progression. To gain insight into the nature of tumour-host immune interactions within the Ewing sarcoma microenvironment, the presence and spatial distribution of infiltrating CD8(+) /CD4(+) T-lymphocytes were evaluated in therapy-naive Ewing sarcoma. Expression profiling of 40 different chemokines and several chemokine receptors was performed in therapy-naive tumours and cell lines by qPCR, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Considerable inter-tumour variation was observed regarding density, type, and distribution of infiltrating T-lymphocytes. Tumour-infiltrating T-cells contained significantly higher percentages of CD8(+) T-lymphocytes as compared to stroma-infiltrating cells, suggesting preferential migration of this T-cell type into tumour areas. Gene expression levels of several type 1-associated, pro-inflammatory chemokines (CXCR3- and CCR5-ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL5) correlated positively with infiltrating (CD8(+) ) T-lymphocyte numbers expressing corresponding chemokine receptors. Survival analyses demonstrated an impact of tumour-infiltrating, and not stroma-infiltrating, CD8(+) T-lymphocytes on tumour progression. At protein level, both tumour and stromal cells expressed the IFN?-inducible chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10. CCR5-ligand CCL5 was exclusively expressed by non-tumoural stromal/infiltrating cells. Together, our results indicate that an inflammatory immune microenvironment with high expression of type 1-associated chemokines may be critical for the recruitment of (CD8(+) ) T-lymphocytes expressing corresponding chemokine receptors. The observed impact of tumour-infiltrating (CD8(+) ) T-lymphocytes is consistent with a role for adaptive anti-tumour immunity in the prevention of Ewing sarcoma progression. Recognition of the merits and exploitation/induction of an inflammatory microenvironment may improve the efficacy of natural immune responses against, and (adoptive) immunotherapeutic approaches for, Ewing sarcoma.
Related JoVE Video
Impaired Epstein-Barr virus-specific CD8+ T-cell function in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease is restricted to SLAM family-positive B-cell targets.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a condition associated with mutations in the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP; SH2D1A). SAP functions as an adaptor, binding to and recruiting signaling molecules to SLAM family receptors expressed on T and natural killer cells. XLP is associated with extreme sensitivity to primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, often leading to a lethal infectious mononucleosis. To investigate EBV-specific immunity in XLP patients, we studied 5 individuals who had survived EBV infection and found CD8(+) T-cell responses numerically comparable with healthy donors. However, further investigation of in vitro-derived CD8(+) T-cell clones established from 2 of these donors showed they efficiently recognized SLAM ligand-negative target cells expressing EBV antigens, but showed impaired recognition of EBV-transformed, SLAM ligand-positive, lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Importantly, LCL recognition was restored when interactions between the SLAM receptors CD244 and natural killer-, T-, and B-cell antigen (NTBA) and their ligands on LCLs were blocked. We propose that XLP patients particular sensitivity to EBV, and not to other viruses, reflects at least in part EBVs strict tropism for B lymphocytes and the often inability of the CD8(+) T-cell response to contain the primary infection of SLAM ligand-expressing target cells.
Related JoVE Video
Combined CD8+ and CD4+ adenovirus hexon-specific T cells associated with viral clearance after stem cell transplantation as treatment for adenovirus infection.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human adenovirus can cause morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Reconstitution of adenovirus-specific CD4(+) T cells has been reported to be associated with sustained protection from adenovirus disease, but epitope specificity of these responses has not been characterized. Since mainly CD4(+) T cells and no CD8(+) T cells specific for adenovirus have been detected after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, the relative contribution of adenovirus-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in protection from adenovirus disease remains to be elucidated.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term follow-up and factors influencing outcomes after related HLA-identical cord blood transplantation for patients with malignancies: an analysis on behalf of Eurocord-EBMT.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We analyzed risk factors influencing outcomes after related (R) human leukocyte antigen-identical cord blood transplantation (CBT) for 147 patients with malignancies reported to Eurocord-European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. CBT has been performed since 1990; median follow-up was 6.7 years. Median patient age was 5 years. Acute leukemia was the most frequent diagnosis (74%). At CBT, 40 patients had early, 70 intermediate, and 37 advanced disease. CB grafts contained a median of 4.1 × 10(7)/kg total nucleated cells (TNCs) after thawing. The cumulative incidence (CI) of neutrophil recovery was 90% at day +60. CIs of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 12% and 10% at 2 years, respectively. At 5 years, CIs of nonrelapse mortality and relapse were 9% and 47%, respectively; the probability of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival were 44% and 55%, respectively. Among other factors, higher TNCs infused was associated with rapid neutrophil recovery and improved DFS. The use of methotrexate as GVHD prophylaxis decreased the CI of engraftment. Patients without advanced disease had improved DFS. These results support banking and use of CB units for RCBT. Cell dose, GVHD prophylaxis not including methotrexate, and disease status are important factors for outcomes after RCBT.
Related JoVE Video
Immunotherapy in the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: the emerging role of natural killer cells and mesenchymal stromal cells.
Pediatr. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Immunotherapy in the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been dominated for many years by T-cell- and dendritic-cell-based treatment modalities. During the last decade, insight into the biology of natural killer (NK) cells and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has rapidly increased and resulted in NK- and MSC-based therapeutic strategies in clinical practice. This article reviews current knowledge of the biology and clinical aspects of NK cells and MSC.
Related JoVE Video
Cancer immunotherapy: will expanding knowledge lead to success in pediatric oncology?
Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The past 25 years have seen an increase in our understanding of immunology and further expansion in the clinical use of immunotherapeutic modalities. How immunotherapy will be integrated with chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery remains to be established. Although there have been successes in the field of immunotherapy, they have been inconsistent, and it is hoped that increased understanding of the basic principles of immunology will improve the consistency of beneficial effects. In this article, we briefly provide a general overview of our current understanding of the immune system, with a focus on concepts in tumor immunology, followed by a discussion of how these concepts are being used in the clinic.
Related JoVE Video
Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I insensitivity of fibroblasts isolated from a patient with an I{kappa}B{alpha} mutation.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Context: NF-kappaB is a family of transcription factors involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Objective: We have recently demonstrated that NF-kappaB is expressed in the growth plate and it mediates the growth-promoting effects of IGF-I on chondrogenesis and longitudinal bone growth. Humans with defects of the NF-kappaB pathway exhibit growth failure, which suggests a possible regulatory role for NF-kappaB in statural growth. We have previously reported a child with ectodermal dysplasia, immunodeficiency, and growth retardation, harboring a heterozygous mutation of IkappaBalpha, an essential component of the NF-kappaB pathway. Since he was found with low IGF-l and IGFBP-3, and elevated GH secretion, an IGF-l generation test was carried out: baseline IGF-l was low and only responded to a high dose of GH. Thus, the diagnosis of GH resistance was made. Results: To assess the underlying mechanisms of his GH resistance, we cultured the patients skin fibroblasts with GH and/or IGF-I. While both GH and IGF-l induced cell proliferation and NF-kappaB activity in controls fibroblasts, they had no effect on the patients fibroblasts. In the fibroblasts of the patients father (who displays mosaicism for the IkappaBalpha mutation), GH and IGF-l elicited an attenuated stimulatory effect. In addition, GH stimulated STAT5 phosphorylation and IGF-l mRNA expression in controls and the fathers fibroblasts, while IGF-l induced PI3K activity and mRNA and protein expression of TDAG51, a target gene for IGF-I. In contrast, none of these effects was elicited by GH or IGF-l in the patients fibroblasts. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that this patients IkappaBalpha mutation caused GH and IGF-l resistance which, in turn, contributed to his growth failure.
Related JoVE Video
Delayed immune recovery following sequential orthotopic liver transplantation and haploidentical stem cell transplantation in erythropoietic protoporphyria.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A nine-yr-old boy with EPP suffered from severe skin burns and liver failure caused by progressive cholestasis and fibrosis. OLT was performed without major complications. Four months following liver transplantation he underwent parental haploidentical HSCT. The myeloablative conditioning regimen was relatively well tolerated and hematological engraftment was rapid (on day 10). Protoporphyrin concentrations returned to normal following HSCT. However, immune recovery was significantly delayed. Varicella zoster virus reactivation resulted in impaired vision, prolonged hospitalization and eventually in multiorgan failure and death. Sequential liver and haploidentical HSCT proved feasible though a high risk procedure in this EPP patient. The management of post-IST after these combined transplantations remains a challenge and needs to be further established.
Related JoVE Video
Complement factor 7 gene mutations in relation to meningococcal infection and clinical recurrence of meningococcal disease.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Meningococcal disease is caused by Neisseria meningitidis which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recurrences of meningococcal infection have been observed in patients with terminal complement component defects, because of the inefficient formation of the lytic membrane attack complex (MAC), C5b-9. Complement component C7 is one of the five plasma proteins to form the MAC. The gene C7 may carry mutations that cause functional abnormalities or the mere absence of the C7 protein. More than 200 patients were screened for aberrant C7 protein by isoelectric focusing (C7 IEF). These were compared with patients in whom recurrent meningococcal infection had resulted in the diagnosis of complete C7 absence (C7Q0). A higher proportion of C7 IEF variants were found in meningitis cases compared to controls (p=0.03). In contrast to C7Q0 patients, recurrent meningococcal infection was never observed in C7 IEF cases. Whereas C7Q0 sera were defective in meningococcal serogroup B and W135 killing assays, the sera of patients with C7 IEF variants were only defective in complement-mediated killing when classical pathway activation by (endogenous) anti-meningococcal antibodies was blocked. Upon sequence analysis we characterized the genetic background of the C7*6 and C7*8 IEF pattern and identified three novel C7 gene mutations in 13 C7Q0 patients. In conclusion, C7 IEF variants can determine meningococcal killing in the early stage of infection when antibody-independent killing prevails. The results endorse the lack of clinical recurrences once antibodies are present, whereas in C7Q0 patients the anti-meningococcal antibodies may not suffice to protect from recurrent meningococcal infection.
Related JoVE Video
Atypical varicella zoster infection associated with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two adolescents, on immunosuppressive therapy for graft-versus-host disease, developed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) after varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation. In the absence of dermatome restricted characteristic skin lesions, VZV reactivation was not immediately recognized and treatment with acyclovir was delayed. The first patient developed optical neuritis and died 2 months after the VZV episode due to massive intracranial hemorrhage. The second patient presented with severe abdominal pain and pancreatitis, followed by atypical skin eruptions, which prompted a faster diagnosis. Both patients recovered from their HLH, the first patient being successfully treated with immunosuppressive agents and the second with VZV treatment only. These two cases demonstrate the difficulties in recognizing VZV reactivation, and in order to start adequate and timely treatment, the need to consider VZV as a possible cause of HLH in severely immunocompromised patients.
Related JoVE Video
Reduced human leukocyte antigen expression in advanced-stage Ewing sarcoma: implications for immune recognition.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a tumour most commonly arising in bone, although on occasion in soft tissue, with a poor prognosis in patients with refractory or relapsed disease, despite multimodal therapy. Immunotherapeutic strategies based on tumour-reactive T and/or natural killer cells may improve the treatment of advanced-stage EWS. Since cellular immune recognition critically depends on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression, knowledge about HLA expression in EWS is crucial in the design of cellular immunotherapeutic strategies. Constitutive and IFNgamma-induced HLA class I expression was analysed in EWS cell lines (n = 6) by flow cytometry, using antibodies against both monomorphic and allele-specific antigens. Expression of antigen processing pathway components and beta-2 microglobulin (beta2m) was assessed by western blot. Expression of class II transactivator (CIITA), and its contribution to HLA class II expression, was evaluated by qRT-PCR, transduction assays, and flow cytometry. beta2m/HLA class I and class II expression was validated in EWS tumours (n = 67) by immunofluorescence. Complete or partial absence of HLA class I expression was observed in 79% of EWS tumours. Lung metastases consistently lacked HLA class I and sequential tumours demonstrated a tendency towards decreased expression upon disease progression. Together with absent or low constitutive expression levels of specific HLA class I loci and alleles, and differential induction of identical alleles by IFNgamma in different cell lines, these results may reflect the existence of an immune escape mechanism. Inducible expression of TAP-1/-2, tapasin, LMP-2/-7, and the beta2m/HLA class I complex by IFNgamma suggests that regulatory mechanisms are mainly responsible for heterogeneity in constitutive class I expression. EWSs lack IFNgamma-inducible HLA class II, due to lack of functional CIITA. The majority of EWS tumours, particularly if advanced-stage, exhibit complete or partial absence of both classes of HLA. This knowledge will be instrumental in the design of cellular immunotherapeutic strategies for advanced-stage EWS.
Related JoVE Video
Association between busulfan exposure and outcome in children receiving intravenous busulfan before hematologic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Busulfan, combined with therapeutic drug monitoring-guided dosing, is associated with higher event-free survival (EFS) rates due to fewer graft failures/relapses and lower toxicity. The optimal target area under the curve (AUC) and dosing schedule of intravenous busulfan in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remain unclear, however. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the association between busulfan exposure and clinical outcome in 102 children age 0.2 to 21 years who received busulfan 1 or 4 times daily before undergoing HSCT (46 malignant and 56 nonmalignant indications). EFS and overall survival after a median of 2 years of follow-up were 68% and 72%, respectively. EFS was optimal when the exposure of busulfan (AUC) was 78 mg x h/L (95% confidence interval=74 to 82 mg x h/L). Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) grade II-IV occurred more frequently with greater busulfan exposure. The addition of melphalan was an independent risk factor; melphalan use combined with high busulfan exposure (AUC >74 mg x h/L) was associated with high incidences of aGVHD (58%), veno-occlusive disease (66%), and mucositis grade III-IV (26%). Dosing frequency (1 or 4 times daily) was not related to any outcome. In conclusion, dose targeting of busulfan to a narrow therapeutic range was found to increase EFS in children. Adding melphalan to optimal busulfan exposure is associated with a high incidence of toxicity.
Related JoVE Video
Effective treatment of refractory CMV reactivation after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with in vitro-generated CMV pp65-specific CD8+ T-cell lines.
J. Immunother.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To treat patients with refractory cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, a phase I/II clinical study on adoptive transfer of in vitro-generated donor-derived or patient-derived CMV pp65-specific CD8* T-cell lines was performed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CMV seropositive donors or patients were stimulated with HLA-A*0201-restricted and/or HLA-B*0702-restricted CMV pp65 peptides (NLV/TPR) and 1 day after stimulation interferon-?)-producing cells were enriched using the CliniMACS Cytokine Capture System (interferon-?), and cultured with autologous feeders and low-dose interluekin-2. After 7-14 days of culture, quality controls were performed and the CMV-specific T-cell lines were administered or cryopreserved. The T-cell lines generated contained 0.6-17 × 10(6) cells, comprising 54%-96% CMV pp65-specific CD8 T cells, and showed CMV-specific lysis of target cells. Fifteen CMV-specific T-cell lines were generated of which 8 were administered to patients with refractory CMV reactivation. After administration, no acute adverse events and no graft versus host disease were observed and CMV load disappeared. In several patients, a direct relation between administration of the T-cell line and the in vivo appearance of CMV pp65-specific T cells could be documented. In conclusion, administration of CMV pp65-specific CD8* T-cell lines was found to be feasible and safe, and enduring efficacy of administered CMV pp65-specific CD8* T-cell lines could be demonstrated.
Related JoVE Video
Immunotherapy: Is it different for sarcomas?
Oncoimmunology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Janus-faced roles of macrophages in cancer imply both tumor-suppressive and -stimulating actions of these innate immune cells. Whereas the balance is toward tumor promotion in most epithelial cancers, we have recently shown that osteosarcoma metastasis seems to be inhibited by macrophages. Here we discuss the possible mechanism of this observation.
Related JoVE Video
Histone deacetylase inhibitors enhance expression of NKG2D ligands in Ewing sarcoma and sensitize for natural killer cell-mediated cytolysis.
Clin Sarcoma Res
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ewing sarcoma patients have a poor prognosis despite multimodal therapy. Integration of combination immunotherapeutic strategies into first-/second-line regimens represents promising treatment options, particularly for patients with intrinsic or acquired resistance to conventional therapies. We evaluated the susceptibility of Ewing sarcoma to natural killer cell-based combination immunotherapy, by assessing the capacity of histone deacetylase inhibitors to improve immune recognition and sensitize for natural killer cell cytotoxicity.
Related JoVE Video
Adenovirus type 35, but not type 5, stimulates NK cell activation via plasmacytoid dendritic cells and TLR9 signaling.
Mol. Immunol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, disseminated adenoviral infections during the first two months after HSCT can lead to severe complications and fatal outcome. Since NK cells are usually the first lymphocytes to reconstitute after HSCT and have been implicated in the clearance of adenovirus-infected cells, it was investigated whether NK cells are activated by adenovirus in vitro. Exposure of PBMC to human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5) or HAdV35 resulted in the up-regulation of the activation marker CD69 on NK cells and enhanced the cytolytic activity of NK cells. HAdV5-induced NK cell activation relied on the contribution of T cells as the depletion of T cells from PBMC abolished NK cell activation. In contrast, NK cell activation in response to HAdV35 occurred in the absence of T cells. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) were necessary and sufficient to mediate NK cell activation. HAdV35 induced significantly more interferon-? (IFN-?) production by pDC than HAdV5. The increased IFN-? production and NK cell activation correlated with a higher infection efficiency of viruses with the type 35 fiber. The IFN-? response of pDC was enhanced by the presence of NK cells, suggesting a reciprocal interaction between pDC and NK cells. Incubation with a TLR9 antagonist impaired the IFN-? production by pDC as well as NK cell activation, implying that TLR9 signaling is critically involved in the IFN-? response of pDC and NK cell activation after HAdV35 exposure. In conclusion, two human adenovirus serotypes from two different species differ considerably in their capacity to stimulate pDC and NK cells.
Related JoVE Video
Intact interferon signaling in peripheral blood leukocytes of high-grade osteosarcoma patients.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High-grade osteosarcoma has a poor prognosis with an overall survival rate of about 60 percent. The recently closed European and American Osteosarcoma Study Group (EURAMOS)-1 trial investigates the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy with or without interferon-?. It is however unknown whether the interferon-signaling pathways in immune cells of osteosarcoma patients are functional. We studied the molecular and functional effects of interferon treatment on peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes of osteosarcoma patients, both in vivo and ex vivo. In contrast to other tumor types, in osteosarcoma, interferon signaling as determined by the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 at residue 701 was intact in immune cell subsets of 33 osteosarcoma patients as compared to 19 healthy controls. Also, cytolytic activity of interferon-? stimulated natural killer cells against allogeneic (n = 7 patients) and autologous target cells (n = 3 patients) was not impaired. Longitudinal monitoring of three osteosarcoma patients on interferon-? monotherapy revealed a relative increase in the CD16-positive subpopulation of monocytes during treatment. Since interferon signaling is intact in immune cells of osteosarcoma patients, there is a potential for indirect immunological effects of interferon-? treatment in osteosarcoma.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.