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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
OmpU as a biomarker for rapid discrimination between toxigenic and epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 and non-epidemic Vibrio cholerae in a modified MALDI-TOF MS assay.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae. Outbreaks are caused by a genetically homogenous group of strains from serogroup O1 or O139 that are able to produce the cholera toxin. Rapid detection and identification of these epidemic strains is essential for an effective response to cholera outbreaks.
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Rapid identification of Bacillus anthracis spores in suspicious powder samples by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Rapid and reliable identification of Bacillus anthracis spores in suspicious powders is important to mitigate the safety risks and economic burdens associated with such incidents. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a rapid and reliable laboratory-based matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis method for identifying B. anthracis spores in suspicious powder samples. A reference library containing 22 different Bacillus sp. strains or hoax materials was constructed and coupled with a novel classification algorithm and standardized processing protocol for various powder samples. The methods limit of B. anthracis detection was determined to be 2.5 × 10(6) spores, equivalent to a 55-?g sample size of the crudest B. anthracis-containing powder discovered during the 2001 Amerithrax incidents. The end-to-end analysis method was able to successfully discriminate among samples containing B. anthracis spores, closely related Bacillus sp. spores, and commonly encountered hoax materials. No false-positive or -negative classifications of B. anthracis spores were observed, even when the analysis method was challenged with a wide range of other bacterial agents. The robustness of the method was demonstrated by analyzing samples (i) at an external facility using a different MALDI-TOF MS instrument, (ii) using an untrained operator, and (iii) using mixtures of Bacillus sp. spores and hoax materials. Taken together, the observed performance of the analysis method developed demonstrates its potential applicability as a rapid, specific, sensitive, robust, and cost-effective laboratory-based analysis tool for resolving incidents involving suspicious powders in less than 30 min.
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Indigenous Infection with Francisella tularensis holarctica in The Netherlands.
Case Rep Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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We report here the first case of indigenous tularemia detected in The Netherlands, a nonendemic country, since 1953. Whole genome DNA sequence analysis assigned the isolate BD11-00177 to the genomic group B.FTNF002-00, which previously has been exclusively reported from Spain, France, Italy, Switzerland, and Germany. The patient had not been abroad for years, which implies that this is an indigenous infection. The current case might predict an upcoming distribution of Francisella tularensis holarctica genomic group B.FTNF002-00 in Europe.
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Reliable identification at the species level of Brucella isolates with MALDI-TOF-MS.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
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The genus Brucella contains highly infectious species that are classified as biological threat agents. The timely detection and identification of the microorganism involved is essential for an effective response not only to biological warfare attacks but also to natural outbreaks. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is a rapid method for the analysis of biological samples. The advantages of this method, compared to conventional techniques, are rapidity, cost-effectiveness, accuracy and suitability for the high-throughput identification of bacteria. Discrepancies between taxonomy and genetic relatedness on the species and biovar level complicate the development of detection and identification assays.
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Evolution in quantum leaps: multiple combinatorial transfers of HPI and other genetic modules in Enterobacteriaceae.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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Horizontal gene transfer is a key step in the evolution of Enterobacteriaceae. By acquiring virulence determinants of foreign origin, commensals can evolve into pathogens. In Enterobacteriaceae, horizontal transfer of these virulence determinants is largely dependent on transfer by plasmids, phages, genomic islands (GIs) and genomic modules (GMs). The High Pathogenicity Island (HPI) is a GI encoding virulence genes that can be transferred between different Enterobacteriaceae. We investigated the HPI because it was present in an Enterobacter hormaechei outbreak strain (EHOS). Genome sequence analysis showed that the EHOS contained an integration site for mobile elements and harbored two GIs and three putative GMs, including a new variant of the HPI (HPI-ICEEh1). We demonstrate, for the first time, that combinatorial transfers of GIs and GMs between Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates must have occurred. Furthermore, the excision and circularization of several combinations of the GIs and GMs was demonstrated. Because of its flexibility, the multiple integration site of mobile DNA can be considered an integration hotspot (IHS) that increases the genomic plasticity of the bacterium. Multiple combinatorial transfers of diverse combinations of the HPI and other genomic elements among Enterobacteriaceae may accelerate the generation of new pathogenic strains.
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Yersiniabactin reduces the respiratory oxidative stress response of innate immune cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2009
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Enterobacteriaceae that contain the High Pathogenicity Island (HPI), which encodes the siderophore yersiniabactin, display increased virulence. This increased virulence may be explained by the increased iron scavenging of the bacteria, which would both enhance bacterial growth and limit the availability of iron to cells of the innate immune system, which require iron to catalyze the Haber-Weiss reaction that produces hydroxyl radicals. In this study, we show that yersiniabactin increases bacterial growth when iron-saturated lactoferrin is the main iron source. This suggests that yersiniabactin provides bacteria with additional iron from saturated lactoferrin during infection. Furthermore, the production of ROS by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes, and a mouse macrophage cell line is blocked by yersiniabactin, as yersiniabactin reduces iron availability to the cells. Importantly, iron functions as a catalyst during the Haber-Weiss reaction, which generates hydroxyl radicals. While the physiologic role of the Haber-Weiss reaction in the production of hydroxyl radicals has been controversial, the siderophores yersiniabactin, aerobactin, and deferoxamine and the iron-chelator deferiprone also reduce ROS production in activated innate immune cells. This suggests that this reaction takes place under physiological conditions. Of the tested iron chelators, yersiniabactin was the most effective in reducing the ROS production in the tested innate immune cells. The likely decreased bacterial killing by innate immune cells resulting from the reduced production of hydroxyl radicals may explain why the HPI-containing Enterobacteriaceae are more virulent. This model centered on the reduced killing capacity of innate immune cells, which is indirectly caused by yersiniabactin, is in agreement with the observation that the highly pathogenic group of Yersinia is more lethal than the weakly pathogenic and the non-pathogenic group.
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Identification of resistance and virulence factors in an epidemic Enterobacter hormaechei outbreak strain.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2009
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Bacterial strains differ in their ability to cause hospital outbreaks. Using comparative genomic hybridization, Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates were studied to identify genetic markers specific for Enterobacter cloacae complex outbreak strains. No outbreak-specific genes were found that were common in all investigated outbreak strains. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify specific genetic markers for an Enterobacter hormaechei outbreak strain (EHOS) that caused a nationwide outbreak in The Netherlands. Most EHOS isolates carried a large conjugative plasmid (pQC) containing genes encoding heavy-metal resistance, mobile elements, pili-associated proteins and exported proteins as well as multiple-resistance genes. Furthermore, the chromosomally encoded high-pathogenicity island (HPI) was highly associated with the EHOS strain. In addition, other DNA fragments were identified that were associated with virulence: three DNA fragments known to be located on a virulence plasmid (pLVPK), as well as phage- and plasmid-related sequences. Also, four DNA fragments encoding putative pili with the most homology to pili of Salmonella enterica were associated with the EHOS. Finally, four DNA fragments encoding putative outer-membrane proteins were negatively associated with the EHOS. In conclusion, resistance and putative virulence genes were identified in the EHOS that may have contributed to increased epidemicity. The high number of genes detected in the EHOS that were related to transferable elements reflects the genomic plasticity of the E. cloacae complex and may explain the emergence of the EHOS in the hospital environment.
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Reduced expression of PBP-2A by neonatal mecA-positive coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) blood isolates: ?-lactams are useful first-line agents for the treatment of neonatal CoNS sepsis, restricting the use of vancomycin.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
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Vancomycin use for neonatal coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) sepsis is based on a high CoNS carriage rate of mecA, encoding penicillin-binding protein (PBP)-2a, with low affinity for, and associated with resistance to, ?-lactam antibiotics. The relationship between mecA gene carriage, phenotypic expression of the gene by PBP-2a production and in vitro resistance to the ?-lactam antibiotics oxacillin, cefazolin and amoxicillin/clavulanate was determined for 85 CoNS blood isolates randomly obtained from our collection of isolates from neonates with CoNS sepsis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.