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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Monitoring Daily Function in Persons With Transfemoral Amputations Using a Commercial Activity Monitor: A Feasibility Study.
PM R
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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The purpose of this feasibility study is to assess the mobility of persons with transfemoral amputations using data collected from a popular, consumer-oriented activity monitor (Fitbit).
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In vivo (31)P NMR spectroscopy assessment of skeletal muscle bioenergetics after spinal cord contusion in rats.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Muscle paralysis after spinal cord injury leads to muscle atrophy, enhanced muscle fatigue, and increased energy demands for functional activities. Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS) offers a unique non-invasive alternative of measuring energy metabolism in skeletal muscle and is especially suitable for longitudinal investigations. We determined the impact of spinal cord contusion on in vivo muscle bioenergetics of the rat hind limb muscle using (31)P-MRS.
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A Simple ERP Method for Quantitative Analysis of Cognitive Workload in Myoelectric Prosthesis Control and Human-Machine Interaction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Common goals in the development of human-machine interface (HMI) technology are to reduce cognitive workload and increase function. However, objective and quantitative outcome measures assessing cognitive workload have not been standardized for HMI research. The present study examines the efficacy of a simple event-related potential (ERP) measure of cortical effort during myoelectric control of a virtual limb for use as an outcome tool. Participants trained and tested on two methods of control, direct control (DC) and pattern recognition control (PRC), while electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded. Eighteen healthy participants with intact limbs were tested using DC and PRC under three conditions: passive viewing, easy, and hard. Novel auditory probes were presented at random intervals during testing, and significant task-difficulty effects were observed in the P200, P300, and a late positive potential (LPP), supporting the efficacy of ERPs as a cognitive workload measure in HMI tasks. LPP amplitude distinguished DC from PRC in the hard condition with higher amplitude in PRC, consistent with lower cognitive workload in PRC relative to DC for complex movements. Participants completed trials faster in the easy condition using DC relative to PRC, but completed trials more slowly using DC relative to PRC in the hard condition. The results provide promising support for ERPs as an outcome measure for cognitive workload in HMI research such as prosthetics, exoskeletons, and other assistive devices, and can be used to evaluate and guide new technologies for more intuitive HMI control.
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Daily intermittent hypoxia enhances walking after chronic spinal cord injury: A randomized trial.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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To test the hypothesis that daily acute intermittent hypoxia (dAIH) and dAIH combined with overground walking improve walking speed and endurance in persons with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI).
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Global Position Sensing and Step Activity as Outcome Measures of Community Mobility and Social Interaction for an Individual With a Transfemoral Amputation Due to Dysvascular Disease.
Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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Community mobility of individuals following lower limb amputation is highly variable and has a great impact on their quality of life. Currently, clinical assessments of ambulatory ability and motivation influence prosthetic prescription. However, these outcome measures do not effectively quantify community mobility (ie, mobility outside of the clinic) of individuals with an amputation. Advances in global positioning systems (GPSs) and other wearable step-monitoring devices allow for objective, quantifiable measurement of community mobility. This case report will examine the combined use of a GPS unit and a step activity monitor to quantify community mobility and social interaction of an individual with transfemoral amputation due to dysvascular disease.
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Mucormycosis in maxilla: Rehabilitation of facial defects using interim removable prostheses: A clinical case report.
J Pharm Bioallied Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Maxilla is one of the facial bones with rich vascular supply. Necrosis of maxillary bone is rare and may occur due to infection, trauma and rare metabolic disorders. Maxilla is essential bone forming the roof of oral cavity. Mucormycosis is one of the most common fungal infection, which affects maxilla especially in diabetes and immunocompromised patients. We report a case of maxillary necrosis due to mucormycosis in an uncontrolled diabetic patient. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can reduce the mortality and morbidity of this lethal fungal infection.
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Short-term maximal-intensity resistance training increases volitional function and strength in chronic incomplete spinal cord injury: a pilot study.
J Neurol Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Recent research shows that individuals with an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) have a reserve of force-generating capability that is observable during repeated intermittent maximal volitional effort contractions. Previous studies suggest that increased neural drive contributes to the enhanced short-term force-generating capabilities. Whether this reserve can be harnessed with repeated training is unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of 4 weeks of maximal-intensity resistance training, compared with conventional progressive resistance training, on lower extremity function and strength in chronic incomplete SCI.
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Monitoring functional capability of individuals with lower limb amputations using mobile phones.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To be effective, a prescribed prosthetic device must match the functional requirements and capabilities of each patient. These capabilities are usually assessed by a clinician and reported by the Medicare K-level designation of mobility. However, it is not clear how the K-level designation objectively relates to the use of prostheses outside of a clinical environment. Here, we quantify participant activity using mobile phones and relate activity measured during real world activity to the assigned K-levels. We observe a correlation between K-level and the proportion of moderate to high activity over the course of a week. This relationship suggests that accelerometry-based technologies such as mobile phones can be used to evaluate real world activity for mobility assessment. Quantifying everyday activity promises to improve assessment of real world prosthesis use, leading to a better matching of prostheses to individuals and enabling better evaluations of future prosthetic devices.
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Exposure to acute intermittent hypoxia augments somatic motor function in humans with incomplete spinal cord injury.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Neural plasticity may contribute to motor recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI). In rat models of SCI with respiratory impairment, acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) strengthens synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons, thereby improving respiratory function by a mechanism known as respiratory long-term facilitation. Similar intermittent hypoxia-induced facilitation may be feasible in somatic motor pathways in humans.
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Central excitability contributes to supramaximal volitional contractions in human incomplete spinal cord injury.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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Despite greater muscle fatigue in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) when compared to neurologically intact subjects using neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)protocols, few studies have investigated the extent of volitional fatigue in motor incomplete SCI. Using an established protocol of 20 repeated, intermittent, maximal volitional effort (MVE) contractions, we previously demonstrated that subjects with incomplete SCI unexpectedly demonstrated a 15% increase in peak knee extensor torques within the first five MVEs with minimal evidence of fatigue after 20 contraction. In the present study, we investigated potential segmental mechanisms underlying this supramaximal torque generation. Changes in twitch properties and maximum compound muscle action potentials (M-waves) were assessed prior to and following one, three and five MVEs, revealing a significant 17% increase only in maximum twitch torques after a single MVE. Despite this post-activation potentiation of the muscle, use of conventional NMES protocols to elicit repeated muscular contractions resulted in a significant decrease in evoked torque generation, suggesting limited the muscular contributions to the observed phenomenon. To evaluate potential central mechanisms underlying the augmented torques, non-linear responses to wide-pulse width (1 ms), low-intensity, variable-frequency (25–100 Hz) NMES were also tested prior to and following repeated MVEs.When variable-frequency NMES was applied following the repeated MVEs, augmented and prolonged torques were observed and accompanied by sustained quadriceps electromyographic activity often lasting > 2s after stimulus termination. Such data suggest a potential contribution of elevated spinal excitability to the reserve in volitional force generation in incomplete SCI.
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Methods to quantify pharmacologically induced alterations in motor function in human incomplete SCI.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
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Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating disorder, which produces profound deficits in volitional motor control. Following medical stabilization, recovery from SCI typically involves long term rehabilitation. While recovery of walking ability is a primary goal in many patients early after injury, those with a motor incomplete SCI, indicating partial preservation of volitional control, may have the sufficient residual descending pathways necessary to attain this goal. However, despite physical interventions, motor impairments including weakness, and the manifestation of abnormal involuntary reflex activity, called spasticity or spasms, are thought to contribute to reduced walking recovery. Doctrinaire thought suggests that remediation of this abnormal motor reflexes associated with SCI will produce functional benefits to the patient. For example, physicians and therapists will provide specific pharmacological or physical interventions directed towards reducing spasticity or spasms, although there continues to be little empirical data suggesting that these strategies improve walking ability. In the past few decades, accumulating data has suggested that specific neuromodulatory agents, including agents which mimic or facilitate the actions of the monoamines, including serotonin (5HT) and norepinephrine (NE), can initiate or augment walking behaviors in animal models of SCI. Interestingly, many of these agents, particularly 5HTergic agonists, can markedly increase spinal excitability, which in turn also increases reflex activity in these animals. Counterintuitive to traditional theories of recovery following human SCI, the empirical evidence from basic science experiments suggest that this reflex hyper excitability and generation of locomotor behaviors are driven in parallel by neuromodulatory inputs (5HT) and may be necessary for functional recovery following SCI. The application of this novel concept derived from basic scientific studies to promote recovery following human SCI would appear to be seamless, although the direct translation of the findings can be extremely challenging. Specifically, in the animal models, an implanted catheter facilitates delivery of very specific 5HT agonist compounds directly onto the spinal circuitry. The translation of this technique to humans is hindered by the lack of specific surgical techniques or available pharmacological agents directed towards 5HT receptor subtypes that are safe and effective for human clinical trials. However, oral administration of commonly available 5HTergic agents, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), may be a viable option to increase central 5HT concentrations in order to facilitate walking recovery in humans. Systematic quantification of how these SSRIs modulate human motor behaviors following SCI, with a specific focus on strength, reflexes, and the recovery of walking ability, are missing. This video demonstration is a progressive attempt to systematically and quantitatively assess the modulation of reflex activity, volitional strength and ambulation following the acute oral administration of an SSRI in human SCI. Agents are applied on single days to assess the immediate effects on motor function in this patient population, with long-term studies involving repeated drug administration combined with intensive physical interventions.
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Corticospinal tract integrity correlates with knee extensor weakness in chronic stroke survivors.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Muscle weakness develops rapidly after stroke, adversely affecting motor performance, and contributing to reduced functional ability. While the contributions of structural and functional alterations in skeletal muscle to post-stroke weakness have been well described, the relationship between motor pathway integrity, measured using both radiological and electrophysiological techniques, and post-stroke muscle weakness is not clear. This study sought to determine the role of corticospinal tract (CST) integrity on knee extensor weakness in chronic stroke survivors.
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Impact of treadmill locomotor training on skeletal muscle IGF1 and myogenic regulatory factors in spinal cord injured rats.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2010
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The objective of this study was to determine the impact of treadmill locomotor training on the expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF1) and changes in myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) in rat soleus muscle following spinal cord injury (SCI). Moderate, midthoracic (T(8)) contusion SCIs were produced using a NYU (New York University) impactor. Animals were randomly assigned to treadmill training or untrained groups. Rats in the training group were trained starting at 1 week after SCI, for either 3 bouts of 20 min over 1.5 days or 10 bouts over 5 days. Five days of treadmill training completely prevented the decrease in soleus fiber size resulting from SCI. In addition, treadmill training triggered increases in IGF1, MGF and IGFBP4 mRNA expression, and a concurrent reduction of IGFBP5 mRNA in skeletal muscle. Locomotor training also caused an increase in markers of muscle regeneration, including small muscle fibers expressing embryonic myosin and Pax7 positive nuclei and increased expression of the MRFs, myogenin and MyoD. We concluded that treadmill locomotor training ameliorated muscle atrophy in moderate contusion SCI rats. Training-induced muscle regeneration and fiber hypertrophy following SCI was associated with an increase in IGF1, an increase in Pax7 positive nuclei, and upregulation of MRFs.
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Regenerative responses in slow- and fast-twitch muscles following moderate contusion spinal cord injury and locomotor training.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
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The aim of this study was to use the rat moderate spinal cord contusion model to investigate the effects of incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) on the muscle regeneration process, comparing regeneration of slow-twitch plantarflexor soleus muscle and fast-twitch dorsiflexor tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. Additionally, we wanted to examine the effect of a week of locomotor training following incomplete SCI on the muscle regeneration process in these muscles and also determine if a week of similar locomotor training is sufficient to initiate muscle regeneration in control, non-injured rats. Thirty-two, adult, female, Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the study. Moderate, midthoracic contusion SCIs were produced using a NYU (New York University) impactor in all rats except controls. Animals were randomly assigned to treadmill training or untrained groups. Rats in the treadmill training group were manually treadmill trained starting at 1 week after SCI, for 10 bouts (2 sessions of 20 min of actual stepping) over 5 days and control rats in the training group received similar training. Our results indicate that a muscle regenerative response was initiated only in the slow-twitch soleus muscle in the initial 2 weeks following SCI, the addition of 1 week of locomotor treadmill training led to a significant increase in soleus regenerative process. No significant regenerative process was observed in the fast-twitch TA. Increased muscle regeneration in soleus is suggested by our findings of increased expression of (1) insulin-like growth factor-1, involved in the activation of satellite cells; (2) Pax7, a marker of satellite cell activation; (3) myogenin, a muscle regulatory protein; and (4) embryonic myosin, an indicator of new muscle fiber formation. Locomotor training in control, non-injured animals did not induce similar changes towards the regenerative process.
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Fall classification by machine learning using mobile phones.
PLoS ONE
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Fall prevention is a critical component of health care; falls are a common source of injury in the elderly and are associated with significant levels of mortality and morbidity. Automatically detecting falls can allow rapid response to potential emergencies; in addition, knowing the cause or manner of a fall can be beneficial for prevention studies or a more tailored emergency response. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate techniques to not only reliably detect a fall but also to automatically classify the type. We asked 15 subjects to simulate four different types of falls-left and right lateral, forward trips, and backward slips-while wearing mobile phones and previously validated, dedicated accelerometers. Nine subjects also wore the devices for ten days, to provide data for comparison with the simulated falls. We applied five machine learning classifiers to a large time-series feature set to detect falls. Support vector machines and regularized logistic regression were able to identify a fall with 98% accuracy and classify the type of fall with 99% accuracy. This work demonstrates how current machine learning approaches can simplify data collection for prevention in fall-related research as well as improve rapid response to potential injuries due to falls.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.