C57BL/6N inbred mice are used as the genetic background for producing knockout mice in large-scale projects worldwide; however, the genetic divergence among C57BL/6N-derived substrains has not been verified. Here, we identified novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) specific to the C57BL/6NJ strain and selected useful SNPs for the genetic monitoring of C57BL/6N-derived substrains. Informative SNPs were selected from the public SNP database at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute by comparing sequence data from C57BL/6NJ and C57BL/6J mice. A total of 1,361 candidate SNPs from the SNP database could distinguish the C57BL/6NJ strain from 12 other inbred strains. We confirmed 277 C57BL/6NJ-specific SNPs including 10 nonsynonymous SNPs by direct sequencing, and selected 100 useful SNPs that cover all of the chromosomes except Y. Genotyping of 11 C57BL/6N-derived substrains at these 100 SNP loci demonstrated genetic differences among the substrains. This information will be useful for accurate genetic monitoring of mouse strains with a C57BL/6N-derived background.
Morphological detection of cancer cells in the rabbit VX2 allograft transplantation model is often difficult in a certain region such as serosal cavity where reactive mesothelial cells mimic cancer cells and both cells share common markers such as cytokeratins. Therefore, tagging VX2 cells with a specific and sensitive marker that easily distinguishes them from other cells would be advantageous. Thus, we tried to establish a successively transplantable, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing VX2 model. Cancer cells obtained from a conventional VX2-bearing rabbit were cultured in vitro and transfected with an EGFP-encoding vector, and then successively transplanted in Healthy Japanese White rabbits (HJWRs) (n = 8). Besides, conventional VX2 cells were transplanted in other HJWRs (n = 8). Clinicopathological comparison analyses were performed between the two groups. The success rate of transplantation was 100 % for both groups. The sensitivity and specificity of EGFP for immunohistochemical detection of VX2 cells were 84.3 and 100 %, respectively. No significant differences in cancer cell morphology, tumor size (P = 0.742), Ki-67 labeling index (P = 0.878), or survival rate (P = 0.592) were observed between the two. VX2 cells can be genetically altered, visualized by EGFP, and successively transplanted without significant alteration of morphological and biological properties compared to those of the conventional model.
A large body of accumulated data has now revealed that podocytes play a major role in the development of proteinuria. However, the mechanisms of podocyte injury, leading to foot process effacement and proteinuria, are still unclear partly due to the current lack of an appropriate strategy for preparing podocytes. In this study, we have developed a novel method of rapid isolation of podocytes from mice using magnetic activated cell sorting with an anti-nephrin antibody.
This study aimed at evaluating the usefulness of topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) for predicting the effect of anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. The TOP2A status was examined using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in 14 pre-chemotherapeutic breast cancer tissues, and was also assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 14 pairs of pre- and post-chemotherapeutic breast cancer specimens. TOP2A gene aberration by IHC tended to show a correlation with pathological responses but this was not statistically significant (p=0.060). On the other hand, the low TOP2A/CEP17 ratio correlated with good pathological responses (p=0.012). TOP2A overexpression was not significantly associated with response (p=0.580). Our results thus suggest that the TOP2A/CEP17 ratio may be a useful predictor of the effects of anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
Reported herein is a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurring in a 25-year-old Japanese man who was diagnosed with Crohns disease (CD) at 14 years of age; treatment included predonisolone, azathioprine, and infliximab. The tumor was located in right upper lobe and the size was 8 cm in diameter; histology was poorly differentiated HCC with pleomorphic cellular changes. Adjacent normal liver showed no evidence of cirrhosis or viral hepatitis. Until now, only six cases of HCC arising in patients with CD have been reported in the English-language literature. Most of these patients had early onset of CD and HCC: none had cirrhosis or virus hepatitis. Most patients had a long disease history of CD and were being medicated with several immunosuppressive agents. Some factors associated with CD might indirectly or directly be related to the development of HCC in CD patients, although the possibility that these HCC occurred coincidentally in CD patients, including the present patient, cannot be ruled out. Accumulation of cases is necessary to evaluate the relationship between CD and HCC precisely.
We report a 44-year-old female with lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM) of the kidney and retroperitoneum. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a right kidney tumor, and she was referred to our department. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a para-aortic phyma in addition to the tumor. We performed retroperitoneal tumorectomy and partial resection of the right kidney via laparotomy. Pathological findings suggested LAM. LAM usually induces pulmonary lesions and its prognosis is relatively unfavorable. Female hormones are considered to be involved in the aggravation of LAM. The lesion may not have reached the lung in this postmenopausal woman because of the absence of these hormones.
The C57BL/6 mouse is the most well-known inbred mouse strain, and has been widely used as a genetic background for congenic and mutant mice. A number of C57BL/6 substrains have been derived from the C57BL/6 founder line and are reported to differ in several phenotypes. There are several major sources of C57BL/6 substrains for the biomedical research community. The importance of their genetic and phenotypic differences among substrains, however, has not yet been well recognized by biomedical researchers. Here, we report the result of screening of the functional deletion of the nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (Nnt) gene and 1,446 SNPs genotyping among seven C57BL/6 substrains from different sources, such as C57BL/6J, C57BL/6JJcl, C57BL/6JJmsSlc, C57BL/6NJcl, C57BL/6NCrlCrlj, C57BL/6NTac, and C57BL/6CrSlc. The deletion of exon 7-11 in the Nnt gene that was previously reported in C57BL/6J was also observed in other C57BL/6J substrains, indicating that this functional deletion probably occurred at an early stage in the establishment of C57BL/6J substrains. The genotyping of SNP loci clearly demonstrate genetic differences between C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N substrains at 11 loci. Besides, we found another SNP differing between C57BL/6J and other C57BL/6J substrains available from commercial breeders. No genetic difference was detected among C57BL/6N substrains. The C57BL/6CrSlc mouse, originally derived from the National Cancer Institute of the NIH was found to be the same as the C57BL/6N substrains by the SNP pattern. These data will be useful for accurate genetic monitoring of genetically engineered mice with the C57BL/6 background.
Mice are one of the most important model organisms for studying biological phenomena and diseases processes in life sciences. The biomedical research community has succeeded in launching large scale strategic knockout mouse projects around the world. RIKEN BRC, a comprehensive government funded biological resource center was established in 2001. RIKEN BRC has been acting as the core facility for the mouse resources of the National BioResource Project (NBRP) of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan since 2002. RIKEN BRC is a founding member of the Federation of International Mouse Resources (FIMRe) together with the Jackson Laboratory, the European Mouse Mutant Archive, and other centers, and has participated in the International Mouse Strain Resource (IMSR) to distribute mouse strains worldwide. With the support of the scientific community, RIKEN BRC has collected over 3,800 strains including inbred, transgenic, knockout, wild-derived, and ENU-induced mutant strains. Excellent mouse models for human diseases and gene functions from academic organizations and private companies are distributed through RIKEN BRC. To meet research and social needs, our mice will be rederived to a specific pathogen-free state, strictly monitored for their health, and accurately tested for their genetic modifications and backgrounds. Users can easily access our mouse resources through the internet and obtain the mouse strains for a minimal fee. Cryopreservation of embryos and sperm is used for efficient preservation of the increasing number of mouse resources. RIKEN BRC collaborates with FIMRe members to support Japanese scientists in the use of valuable mouse resources from around the world.
Sebaceous carcinoma (SC) of the breast is a rare malignant tumor and only nine cases, including the present one, have been reported in the English-language literature. The present report describes a case of mammary SC in a 50-year-old Japanese woman. The tumor was gray-white on cut surface and separate from the skin and the nipple. Microscopically, lobules encircled by a fibrous envelope and cords or small cell nests in the stroma were noted. These two types of structures were composed of dark cells and clear foamy cells. The dark cells had large nuclei and amphophilic cytoplasm. The clear foamy cells had numerous lipid vacuoles, confirmed on immunostaining with anti-adipophilin antibody and electron microscopy. In the lobules the gradual transitions from basal dark cells to central clear foamy cells and comedo-like necrosis were observed. The tumor cells were positive on immunohistochemistry for cytokeratins (CAM5.2, AE1/AE3), Her2/neu and androgen receptor but negative for estrogen and progesterone receptors. This is the first case of an androgen receptor-positive mammary SC to be reported, and therefore contributes to the understanding of the clinicopathological features of SC of the breast.
We report a case of glomerular cystic kidney disease (GCKD) associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in a neonate. The patient displayed progressive abdominal enlargement attributed to GCKD associated with TSC. After birth, the right kidney was resected because it compressed his liver and right lung, and possible malignancy could not be excluded. Macroscopically, the resected kidney was markedly enlarged, and histologically the kidney had numerous glomerular cysts accompanied by papillary epithelial growth. Notably, a small area of normal parenchyma was observed at the lower pole. The epithelial cells of the cysts displaying a papillary growth pattern were positive for mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR, and phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein (p-S6). The morphologically noncystic, normal-looking tubular epithelium was also positive for p-S6. These results imply that one more molecular event might be necessary for cyst formation in GCKD associated with TSC, in addition to the activation of mTOR signaling.
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