Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) is associated with high mortality due to right ventricular failure and hypoxia, therefore to understand the mechanism by which pulmonary vascular remodeling initiates these processes is very important. We used a well-characterized monocrotaline (MCT)-induced rat PH model, and analyzed lung morphology, expression of cytokines, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI-3k-Akt) pathway and nuclear factor (NF)-?B activation in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which sildenafil's protective effect in PH is exerted. Besides its protective effect on lung morphology, sildenafil suppressed multiple cytokines involved in neutrophil and mononuclear cells recruitment including cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2?/?, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, interleukin (IL)-1?, lipopolysaccharide induced CXC chemokine (LIX), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1?, and MIP-3?. NF-?B activation and phosphorylation were also attenuated by sildenafil. Furthermore, sildenafil reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 MAPK activation while enhanced activation of the cytoprotective Akt pathway in PH. These data suggest a beneficial effect of sildenafil on inflammatory and kinase signaling mechanisms that substantially contribute to its protective effects, and may have potential implications in designing future therapeutic strategies in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.
Purpose: Sensitizing cancer cells to irradiation is a major challenge in clinical oncology. We aimed to define the signal transduction pathways involved in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor-induced radiosensitization in various mammalian cancer lines. Materials and methods: Clonogenic survival assays and Western blot examinations were performed following telecobalt irradiation of cancer cells in the presence or absence of various combinations of PARP- and selective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors. Results: HO3089 resulted in significant cytotoxicity when combined with irradiation. In human U251 glioblastoma and A549 lung cancer cell lines, Erk1/2 and JNK/SAPK were found to mediate this effect of HO3089 since inhibitors of these kinases ameliorated it. In murine 4T1 breast cancer cell line, p38 MAPK rather than Erk1/2 or JNK/SAPK was identified as the main mediator of HO3089's radiosensitizing effect. Besides the aforementioned changes in kinase signaling, we detected increased p53, unchanged Bax and decreased Bcl-2 expression in the A549 cell line. Conclusions: HO3089 sensitizes cancer cells to photon irradiation via proapoptotic processes where p53 plays a crucial role. Activation of MAPK pathways is regarded the consequence of irradiation-induced DNA damage, thus their inhibition can counteract the radiosenzitizing effect of the PARP inhibitor.
The free radical theory of aging was defined in the 1950s. On the base of this theory, the reactive oxygen species formed in the metabolic pathways can play pivotal role in ageing. The theory was modified by defining the mitochondrial respiration as the major cellular source of reactive oxygen species and got the new name mitochondrial theory of aging. Later on the existence of a "vicious cycle" was proposed, in which the reactive oxygen species formed in the mitochondrial respiration impair the mitochondrial DNA and its functions. The formation of reactive oxygen species are elevated due to mitochondrial dysfunction. The formation of mitochondrial DNA mutations can be accelerated by this "vicious cycle", which can lead to accelerated aging. The exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase ?, the polymerase responsible for the replication of mitochondrial DNA was impaired in mtDNA mutator mouse recently. The rate of somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA was elevated and an aging phenotype could have been observed in these mice. Surprisingly, no oxidative impairment neither elevated reactive oxygen species formation could have been observed in the mtDNA mutator mice, which may question the existence of the "vicious cycle".
Oxidative stress and neurohumoral factors play important role in the development of hypertension-induced vascular remodeling, likely by disregulating kinase cascades and transcription factors. Oxidative stress activates poly(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP-1), which promotes inflammation and cell death. We assumed that inhibition of PARP-1 reduces the hypertension-induced adverse vascular changes. This hypothesis was tested in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).
The mesocortical dopaminergic pathway projecting from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) contributes to the processing of reward signals. This pathway is regulated by gonadal steroids including estradiol. To address the putative role of estradiol and isotype-selective estrogen receptor (ER) agonists in the regulation of the rodent mesocortical system, we combined fMRI, HPLC-MS and qRT-PCR techniques. In fMRI experiments adult, chronically ovariectomized rats, treated with either vehicle, estradiol, ER? agonist 16?-lactone-estradiol (LE2) or ER? agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN), received a single dose of d-amphetamine-sulphate (10mg/kg, i.p.) and BOLD responses were monitored in the VTA and the PFC. Ovariectomized rats showed no significant response to amphetamine. In contrast, the VTA of ER agonist-substituted ovariectomized rats showed robust amphetamine-evoked BOLD increases. The PFC of estradiol-replaced animals was also responsive to amphetamine. Mass spectroscopic analysis of dopamine and its metabolites revealed a two-fold increase in both dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid content of the PFC in estradiol-replaced animals compared to ovariectomized controls. qRT-PCR studies revealed upregulation of dopamine transporter and dopamine receptor in the VTA and PFC, respectively, of ER agonist-treated ovariectomized animals. Collectively, the results indicate that E2 and isotype-selective ER agonists can powerfully modulate the responsiveness of the mesocortical dopaminergic system, increase the expression of key genes related to dopaminergic neurotransmission and augment the dopamine content of the PFC. In a broader sense, the findings support the concept that the manifestation of reward signals in the PFC is dependent on the actual estrogen milieu of the brain.
Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a suitable model for studies of the complications of hypertension. It is known that activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme (PARP) plays an important role in the development of postinfarction as well as long-term hypertension induced heart failure. In this study, we examined whether PARP-inhibitor (L-2286) treatment could prevent the development of hypertensive cardiopathy in SHRs. 6-week-old SHR animals were treated with L-2286 (SHR-L group) or placebo (SHR-C group) for 24 weeks. Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as aged-matched, normotensive controls (WKY group). Echocardiography was performed, brain-derived natriuretic peptide (BNP) activity and blood pressure were determined at the end of the study. We detected the extent of fibrotic areas. The amount of heat-shock proteins (Hsps) and the phosphorylation state of Akt-1(Ser473), glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3?(Ser9), forkhead transcription factor (FKHR)(Ser256), mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes were monitored. The elevated blood pressure in SHRs was not influenced by PARP-inhibitor treatment. Systolic left ventricular function and BNP activity did not differ among the three groups. L-2286 treatment decreased the marked left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy which was developed in SHRs. Interstitial collagen deposition was also decreased by L-2286 treatment. The phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2(Thr183-Tyr185), Akt-1(Ser473), GSK-3?(Ser9), FKHR(Ser256), and PKC ?(Ser729) and the level of Hsp90 were increased, while the activity of PKC ?/?II(Thr638/641), ?/?(410/403) were mitigated by L-2286 administration. We could detect signs of LV hypertrophy without congestive heart failure in SHR groups. This alteration was prevented by PARP inhibition. Our results suggest that PARP-inhibitor treatment has protective effect already in the early stage of hypertensive myocardial remodeling.
According to the "membrane sensor" hypothesis, the membranes physical properties and microdomain organization play an initiating role in the heat shock response. Clinical conditions such as cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases are all coupled with specific changes in the physical state and lipid composition of cellular membranes and characterized by altered heat shock protein levels in cells suggesting that these "membrane defects" can cause suboptimal hsp-gene expression. Such observations provide a new rationale for the introduction of novel, heat shock protein modulating drug candidates. Intercalating compounds can be used to alter membrane properties and by doing so normalize dysregulated expression of heat shock proteins, resulting in a beneficial therapeutic effect for reversing the pathological impact of disease. The membrane (and lipid) interacting hydroximic acid (HA) derivatives discussed in this review physiologically restore the heat shock protein stress response, creating a new class of "membrane-lipid therapy" pharmaceuticals. The diseases that HA derivatives potentially target are diverse and include, among others, insulin resistance and diabetes, neuropathy, atrial fibrillation, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. At a molecular level HA derivatives are broad spectrum, multi-target compounds as they fluidize yet stabilize membranes and remodel their lipid rafts while otherwise acting as PARP inhibitors. The HA derivatives have the potential to ameliorate disparate conditions, whether of acute or chronic nature. Many of these diseases presently are either untreatable or inadequately treated with currently available pharmaceuticals. Ultimately, the HA derivatives promise to play a major role in future pharmacotherapy.
The goal of the present study was to compare the efficacy of treatment with irradiation (IR), temozolomide, and quercetin, alone, or in combinations, on 2 glioblastoma cell lines, DBTRG-05 and U-251. Cell viability assay, flow cytometry analysis, colony formation assay, and Western blot analysis were used to compare the effects of treatment on the 2 cell lines. The greatest reduction in cell viability and colony formation was observed when cells were treated with a combination of the agents including quercetin. The treatment of cells with the combination of IR and quercetin was equal to the efficiency of the combination of IR and temozolomide in decreasing cell viability as well as colony formation. Quercetin alone, or in combination with IR, increased the cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP-1 showing an activated apoptosis and significantly reduced the level of phospho-Akt. Moreover, these treatments increased the levels of phospho-ERK, phospho-JNK, phospho-p38, and phospho-RAF1. Our data indicate that the supplementation of standard therapy with quercetin increases efficacy of treatment of experimental glioblastoma through synergism in the induction of apoptosis via the cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP-1 and by the suppression of the actitivation of Akt pathway.
Due to its antiapoptotic action, derivatives of the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) provide potential therapeutic utility in diseases associated with programmed cell death. Apoptosis is one of the major pathophysiological processes elicited by radiation injury to the organism. Consequently, therapeutic explorations applying compounds that mimic the antiapoptotic action of LPA have begun. Here we present a brief account of our decade-long drug discovery effort aimed at developing LPA mimics with a special focus on specific agonists of the LPA(2) receptor subtype, which was found to be highly effective in protecting cells from apoptosis. We describe new evidence that 2-((3-(1,3-dioxo-1H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2(3H)-yl)propyl)thio)benzoic acid (GRI977143), a prototypic nonlipid agonist specific to the LPA(2) receptor subtype, rescues apoptotically condemned cells in vitro and in vivo from injury caused by high-dose ?-irradiation. GRI977143 shows the features of a radiomitigator because it is effective in rescuing the lives of mice from deadly levels of radiation when administered 24h after radiation exposure. Our findings suggest that by specifically activating LPA(2) receptors GRI977143 activates the ERK1/2 prosurvival pathway, effectively reduces Bax translocation to the mitochondrion, attenuates the activation of initiator and effector caspases, reduces DNA fragmentation, and inhibits PARP-1 cleavage associated with ?-irradiation-induced apoptosis. GRI977143 also inhibits bystander apoptosis elicited by soluble proapoptotic mediators produced by irradiated cells. Thus, GRI977143 can serve as a prototype scaffold for lead optimization paving the way to more potent analogs amenable for therapeutic exploration. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in Lysophospholipid Research.
Novel immunosuppressive therapy facilitates long term allograft survival, but acute tubular necrosis and ischemia-reperfusion during transplantation can compromise allograft function. These processes are related to oxidative stress which activates poly- (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) contributing to the activation of cell death pathways. Here we raised the possibility that PARP inhibition curbs cell death pathways and shifts kinase signaling to improved graft survival.
Red wine polyphenols can prevent cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Resveratrol, the most extensively studied constituent, is unlikely to solely account for these beneficial effects because of its rather low abundance and bioavailability. Malvidin is far the most abundant polyphenol in red wine; however, very limited data are available about its effect on inflammatory processes and kinase signaling pathways. METHODS FINDINGS: The present study was carried out by using RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in the presence and absence of malvidin. From the cells, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B/Akt and poly ADP-ribose polymerase, reactive oxygen species production, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and mitochondrial depolarization were determined. We found that malvidin attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappaB, poly ADP-ribose polymerase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial depolarization, while upregulated the compensatory processes; mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and Akt activation.
New resveratrol analogues containing five- and six-membered nitroxides and isoindoline nitroxides were synthesized. These new compounds were compared to resveratrol based on their ABTS radical scavenging ability as well on their capacity to suppress inflammatory process in macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharides. The ABTS and ROS scavenging activities of new molecules were the same or weaker than that of resveratrol, but some of paramagnetic resveratrol derivatives suppressed nitrite and TNF? production more efficiently than resveratrol. Based on these results the new nitroxide and phenol containing hybrid molecules can be considered as new antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.
Cardiomyopathy is one of the most severe side effects of the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX). The formation of reactive oxygen species plays a critical role in the development of cardiomyopathies, and the pathophysiological cascade activates nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and kinase pathways. We characterized the effects of the PARP-inhibitor and kinase-modulator compound L-2286 in DOX-induced cardiac injury models. We studied the effect of the established superoxide dismutase-mimic Tempol and compared the effects of this agent with those of the PARP inhibitor. In the rat H9C2 cardiomyocytes, in which DOX-induced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, L-2286 protected them from the DOX-induced injury in a concentration-dependent manner. In the in vivo studies, mice were pretreated (for 1 week) with L-2286 or Tempol before the DOX treatment. Both the agents improved the activation of cytoprotective kinases, Akt, phospho-specific protein kinase C ϵ, ?/? and suppressed the activity of cell death promoting kinases glycogen synthase kinase-3?, JNK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but the effect of PARP inhibitor was more pronounced and improved the survival as well. L-2286 activated the phosphorylation of proapoptotic transcription factor FKHR1 and promoted the expression of Hsp72 and Hsp90. These data suggest that the mode of the cytoprotective action of the PARP inhibitor may include the modulation of kinase pathways and heat shock protein expression.
Although resveratrol has widely been studied for its potential health benefits, little is known about its metabolic effects in humans. Our aims were to determine whether the polyphenol resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients and to gain some insight into the mechanism of its action. After an initial general examination (including blood chemistry), nineteen patients enrolled in the 4-week-long double-blind study were randomly assigned into two groups: a resveratrol group receiving oral 2 × 5 mg resveratrol and a control group receiving placebo. Before and after the second and fourth weeks of the trial, insulin resistance/sensitivity, creatinine-normalised ortho-tyrosine level in urine samples (as a measure of oxidative stress), incretin levels and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAkt):protein kinase B (Akt) ratio in platelets were assessed and statistically analysed. After the fourth week, resveratrol significantly decreased insulin resistance (homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance) and urinary ortho-tyrosine excretion, while it increased the pAkt:Akt ratio in platelets. On the other hand, it had no effect on parameters that relate to ?-cell function (i.e. homeostasis model of assessment of ?-cell function). The present study shows for the first time that resveratrol improves insulin sensitivity in humans, which might be due to a resveratrol-induced decrease in oxidative stress that leads to a more efficient insulin signalling via the Akt pathway.
In this paper, we present evidence, for the first time, that increasing the lipophilicity of mitochondria targeting SOD mimetics reverses their cytoprotective properties, destabilizing the mitochondrial membrane system and promoting cell death. A new mitochondria-directed apolar SOD mimetic, HO-3814, was found to provoke mitochondrial swelling and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and these effects were not inhibited by cyclosporine A. HO-3814-induced cell death was predominantly necrotic, caspase-independent, and not affected by mitochondrial permeability transition inhibitors or cyclophilin D-suppression, inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases or Akt, or various antioxidants. In contrast, Bcl-2 overexpression diminished the effects of HO-3814.
Macrophages represent the first defense line against bacterial infection and therefore, play a crucial role in early inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the role of MAPKs and MKP-1 activation in regulation of an early inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. We induced the inflammatory response by treating the macrophages with LPS and inhibited an early inflammatory response by using ferulaldehyde, a water-soluble end-product of dietary polyphenol degradation that we found previously to exert its beneficial anti-inflammatory effects during the early phase of in vivo inflammation. We found that LPS-induced ROS and nitrogen species formations were reduced by ferulaldehyde in a concentration-dependent manner, and ferulaldehyde protected mitochondria against LPS-induced rapid and massive membrane depolarization. LPS induced early suppression of MKP-1, which was accompanied by activation of JNK, ERK, and p38 MAPK. By reversing LPS-induced early suppression of MKP-1, ferulaldehyde diminished MAPK activation, thereby inhibiting NF-?B activation, mitochondrial depolarization, and ROS production. Taken together, our data suggest that ferulaldehyde exerts its early anti-inflammatory effect by preserving the mitochondrial membrane integrity and shifting the expression of MKP-1 forward in time in macrophages.
Previously, it was suggested that the release of nuclearly formed ADP-ribose polymers or ADP-ribosylated proteins could be responsible for the cytosolic and mitochondrial effects of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 activation in oxidative stress. In this report, we provide a novel alternative mechanism. We found that reactive oxygen species-activated PARP-1 regulated the activation of JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) because inhibition of PARP-1 by pharmacons, small interfering RNA silencing of PARP-1 expression, or the transdominant expression of enzymatically inactive PARP-1 resulted in the inactivation of these MAPKs. This regulation was achieved by increased expression and enlarged cytoplasmic localization of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) upon PARP-1 inhibition in oxidative stress because changes in MKP-1 expression were reflected in the phosphorylation states of JNK and p38. Furthermore, we found that in MKP-1-silenced cells, PARP inhibition was unable to exert its protective effect, indicating the pivotal roles of JNK and p38 in mediating the oxidative-stress-induced cell death as well as that of increased MKP-1 expression in mediating the protective effect of PARP inhibition. We suggest that regulation of a protein that can directly influence cytoplasmic signaling cascades at the expression level represents a novel mechanism for the cytoplasmic action of PARP-1 inhibition.
Tail-interacting protein (TIP47, also named PP17) has been implicated in lipid droplet metabolism and in the development of late endosomes, to date however, no data about its possible role in regulating cell death processes has been available. Here, we provide evidence for the role of TIP47 in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane stability and cell death. Overexpression of TIP47 protected NIH3T3 cells from taxol-induced cell death, while suppression of TIP47 by siRNA facilitated cell death. TIP47, but not its truncated form, t-TIP47, decreased taxol-induced cell death as determined by propidium iodide and fluorescent Annexin V staining. Recombinant TIP47, but not t-TIP47, partially prevented taxol-induced depolarization of mitochondria in vitro. Overexpression of TIP47, but not its truncated form, prevented the taxol-induced nuclear and cytoplasmic translocation of AIF and Endonuclease G, as well as the taxol-induced depolarization of mitochondria in NIH3T3 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of TIP47 facilitated Bcl-2 expression and suppressed Bax expression in taxol-treated cells. These data show that besides its previously known functions, TIP47 is involved in the regulation of mitochondria-related cell death by directly stabilizing the mitochondrial membrane system and by favorably affecting the expression of Bcl-2 homologues. Since TIP47 is overexpressed in certain tumors, it is possible that TIP47 contributes to the development of cytostatic resistance.
We examined the neuro/axono-protective potential of a novel poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor L-2286 in a rat impact acceleration brain injury model. Male Wistar rats (n = 70) weighing 300-350 grams were used to determine the most effective intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) dose of L-2286 administered 30 min after injury, and to test the neuroprotective effect at two time points (immediately, and 30 min after injury). The neuroprotective effect of L-2286 was tested using immunohistochemical (amyloid precursor protein and mid-sized mouse anti-neurofilament clone RMO-14.9 antibody) and behavioral tests (beam-balance, open-field and elevated plus maze). At both time-points, a 100 microg/rat dose of i.c.v. L-2286 significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the density of damaged axons in the corticospinal tract and medial longitudinal fascicle compared to controls. In the behavioral tests, treatment 30 min post-injury improved motor function, while the level of anxiety was reduced in both treatment protocols.
Oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination are major pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis. In pattern III lesions, inflammation is minor in the early stages, and oligodendrocyte apoptosis prevails, which appears to be mediated at least in part through mitochondrial injury. Here, we demonstrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation and apoptosis inducing factor nuclear translocation within apoptotic oligodendrocytes in such multiple sclerosis lesions. The same morphological and molecular pathology was observed in an experimental model of primary demyelination, induced by the mitochondrial toxin cuprizone. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in this model attenuated oligodendrocyte depletion and decreased demyelination. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition suppressed c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, increased the activation of the cytoprotective phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-Akt pathway and prevented caspase-independent apoptosis inducing factor-mediated apoptosis. Our data indicate that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pattern III multiple sclerosis lesions. Since poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition was also effective in the inflammatory model of multiple sclerosis, it may target all subtypes of multiple sclerosis, either by preventing oligodendrocyte death or attenuating inflammation.
We studied cardioprotective as well as Akt and extracellular signal-activated kinase (ERK) activating effect of a Ca(2+) antagonist and a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker during ischemia-reperfusion, and compared these properties of the substances with that of a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor used as a positive control throughout the experiments. Langendorff-perfused isolated rat hearts were subjected to 25 min global ischemia followed by 45 min reperfusion, and recovery of energy metabolism as well as functional cardiac parameters were monitored. Although to varying extents, all substances improved recovery of creatine phosphate, ATP, intracellular pH, and reutilization of inorganic phosphate. These favorable changes were accompanied by improved recovery of heart function parameters and reduced infarct size. In addition and again to varying extents, all studied substances decreased oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation), and activated Akt, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta, and ERK1/2. Correlation between cardioprotective and kinase activating effectivity of the compounds proved to be statistically significant. Physiological significance of these kinase activations was established by demonstrating that inhibition of Akt by LY294002 and ERK1/2 by PD98059 compromised the cardioprotective effect of all the substances studied. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3K)-Akt and ERK2 pathways significantly contributed to cardioprotective effects of a Ca(2+) antagonist and a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between cardioprotective and kinase-activating potencies of the substances studied (Verapamil, Metoprolol and two PARP inhibitors), which indicated the potentiality of these kinases as drug-targets in the therapy of ischemic heart disease.
We identified a sequence homologous to the Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain of Bcl-2 proteins in SOUL. Tissues expressed the protein to different extents. It was predominantly located in the cytoplasm, although a fraction of SOUL was associated with the mitochondria that increased upon oxidative stress. Recombinant SOUL protein facilitated mitochondrial permeability transition and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and facilitated the release of proapoptotic mitochondrial intermembrane proteins (PMIP) at low calcium and phosphate concentrations in a cyclosporine A-dependent manner in vitro in isolated mitochondria. Suppression of endogenous SOUL by diced small interfering RNA in HeLa cells increased their viability in oxidative stress. Overexpression of SOUL in NIH3T3 cells promoted hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death and stimulated the release of PMIP but did not enhance caspase-3 activation. Despite the release of PMIP, SOUL facilitated predominantly necrotic cell death, as revealed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining. This necrotic death could be the result of SOUL-facilitated collapse of MMP demonstrated by JC-1 fluorescence. Deletion of the putative BH3 domain sequence prevented all of these effects of SOUL. Suppression of cyclophilin D prevented these effects too, indicating that SOUL facilitated mitochondrial permeability transition in vivo. Overexpression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L), which can counteract the mitochondria-permeabilizing effect of BH3 domain proteins, also prevented SOUL-facilitated collapse of MMP and cell death. These data indicate that SOUL can be a novel member of the BH3 domain-only proteins that cannot induce cell death alone but can facilitate both outer and inner mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and predominantly necrotic cell death in oxidative stress.
There is increasing evidence that moderate consumption of red wine containing high amount of polyphenols and anthocyanins is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we hypothesized that cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis as well as Akt (protein kinase B, PKB) and protein kinase C (PKC) cascades can be beneficially influenced by an alcohol-free red wine (AFRW) extract rich in 14 types of polyphenols and 4 types of anthocyanins during cardiac remodeling. To test this assumption, rats were treated with isoproterenol (ISO) to induce postinfarction remodeling and were given tap water or AFRW ad libitum for 8 weeks. Control rats received vehicle instead of ISO. Heart mass/body mass and ventricle mass/body mass ratios, diameter of cardiomyocytes, phosphorylation of PKC alpha/beta II and protein kinase B/Akt, and deposition of collagen type III were determined from the hearts of all four groups of rats. All measured gravimetric parameters, myocyte diameters and the amount of collagen type III decreased, and the phosphorylation of PKC alpha/beta II was reduced in the ISO+AFRW group compared to the ISO group. AFRW induced activation of Akt, one of the best characterized cytoprotective pathways even without ISO treatment, and this activation was further increased in the ISO+AFRW group. These data suggest that AFRW treatment has a protective effect on hearts undergoing postinfarction remodeling by repressing hypertrophy-associated increased phosphorylation of PKC alpha/beta II and by activating Akt, providing a molecular mechanism for the cardioprotective effect of red wine polyphenols.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic and multifunctional neuropeptide. Numerous studies prove that PACAP has neuroprotective effects in diverse neuronal systems in vitro and in vivo. The involvement of PACAP in visual and olfactory sensory processing has also been documented, but little is known about its effects in the auditory system. The presence of PACAP and its receptor, the specific PAC1 receptor, has been shown in the cochlea and in brain structures involved in auditory pathways. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PACAP is protective in cochlear oxidative stress-induced cell death, which is known to play a role in several ototoxic insults. Chicken cochlear cells were exposed to 1mM H(2)O(2), which resulted in a marked reduction of cell viability and a parallel increase of apoptotic and necrotic cells assessed by MTT test, annexin V/propidium iodide flow cytometry and JC-1 apoptosis assay. Co-incubation with 100nM PACAP increased cell viability and reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells. Furthermore, oxidative stress increased the activation of caspase-3, while simultaneous PACAP treatment reduced it. In summary, our present results demonstrate that PACAP effectively protects cochlear cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptotic cell death.
Galectin-13 transcripts have been identified in several normal and malignant tissues, but the physiological function of galectin-13 is still poorly understood. Here, we present evidence for its possible role in promoting cell death in the U-937 human macrophage cell line. Transfection of U-937 human macrophages by a galectin-13 cDNA-containing mammalian expression vector increased the galectin-13 level and sensitized the cells to stress stimuli. Galectin-13 overexpression facilitated paclitaxel-induced cell death and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease-G without inducing mitochondrial cytochrome-c release or caspase-3 activation. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence data showed that overexpression of galectin-13 induced long-term activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, as well as activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (Ask-1) kinase while it suppressed paclitaxel-induced long-term activation of the phosphatidilylositol-3-kinase (PI-3K)-Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) cytoprotective pathways. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of JNK and p38-MAPK pathways protected the cells from paclitaxel-induced cell death. All this data indicate that galectin-13 overexpression promoted apoptosis presumably by activating the Ask-1 kinase-JNK and p38-MAPK pro-apoptotic pathways and by suppressing the PI-3K-Akt and ERK1/2 cytoprotective pathways.
It has been recently shown that acute acetaminophen toxicity results in endoplasmic reticulum redox stress and an increase in cells with apoptotic phenotype in liver. Since activation of effector caspases was absent, the relevance of caspase-independent mechanisms in acetaminophen-induced programmed cell death was investigated. BGP-15, a drug with known protective actions in conditions involving redox imbalance, has been co-administered with a single sublethal dose of acetaminophen. Proapoptotic events and outcome of the injury were investigated. ER redox alterations and early ER-stress-related signaling events induced by acetaminophen, such as ER glutathione depletion, phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and JNK and induction of the transcription factor GADD153, were not counteracted by co-treatment with BGP-15. However, BGP-15 prevented AIF mitochondria-to-nucleus translocation and mitochondrial depolarization. BGP-15 co-treatment attenuated the rate of acetaminophen-induced cell death as assessed by apoptotic index and enzyme serum release. These results reaffirm that acute acetaminophen toxicity involves oxidative stress-induced caspase-independent cell death. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of AIF translocation may effectively protect against or at least delay acetaminophen-induced programmed cell death.
Oxidative stress followed by abnormal signalling can play a critical role in the development of long-term, high blood pressure-induced cardiac remodelling in heart failure (HF). Since oxidative stress-induced poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) activation and cell death have been observed in several experimental models, we investigated the possibility that inhibition of nuclear PARP improves cardiac performance and delays transition from hypertensive cardiopathy to HF in a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of HF.
The aim of this study was to find a possible clinical use of the tail-interacting protein of 47 kDa (TIP47) and further document its expression in smear cytology, different cervical dysplasias, invasive cervical cancer and metastasis.
4-Carboxamidobenzimidazoles were previously described as PARP inhibitor compounds. Here we report upon 4-carboxamido-1H-benzimidazoles substituted in the 2-position with nitroxides or their amine or hydroxylamine precursors. Among the new molecules, a highly active PARP inhibitor 4h (IC(50) = 14 nM) was identified with antioxidant/radical scavenger activity. We concluded that in most cases sterically hindered amines are better PARP inhibitors than their oxidized form and structural changes in the 2-substituted 4-carboxamido-1H-benzimidazoles (such as N-substitution or changing the position of the carboxamide group) were detrimental to PARP inhibition activity but not to antioxidant activity. These results indicate the advantages of combining an antioxidant nitroxide or nitroxide precursor with a PARP inhibitor molecule to decrease or eliminate the deleterious processes initiated by reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). The radical scavenging capability of 4h was demonstrated by EPR study of urine collected after drug administration.
Antiinflammatory properties of polyphenols in natural products, traditional medicines, and healthy foods were recently attributed to highly soluble metabolites produced by the microflora of the intestines rather than the polyphenols themselves. To provide experimental basis for this hypothesis, we measured antiinflammatory properties of ferulaldehyde (FA), a natural intermediate of polyphenol metabolism of intestinal microflora, in a murine lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock model. We found that intraperitoneally administered FA (6 mg/kg) prolonged the lifespan of LPS-treated (40 mg/kg) mice, decreased the inflammatory response detected by T(2)-weighted in vivo MRI, decreased early proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1beta, and increased the antiinflammatory IL-10 in the sera of the mice. Additionally, FA inhibited LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB transcription factor in the liver of the mice. According to our data, these effects were probably due to attenuating LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and Akt. Furthermore, FA decreased free radical and nitrite production in LPS plus interferon-gamma-treated primary mouse hepatocytes, whose effects are expected to contribute to its antiinflammatory property. These data provide direct in vivo evidence, that a water-soluble degradation product of polyphenols could be responsible for, or at least could significantly contribute to, the beneficial antiinflammatory effects of polyphenol-containing healthy foods, natural products, and traditional medicines.
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation is considered as a major regulator of cell death in various pathophysiological conditions, however, no direct information is available about its role in chronic hypoperfusion-induced neuronal death. Here, we provide evidence for the protective effect of PARP inhibition on degenerative retinal damage induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), an adequate chronic hypoperfusion murine model. We found that BCCAO in adult male Wistar rats led to severe degeneration of all retinal layers that was attenuated by a carboxaminobenzimidazol-derivative PARP inhibitor (HO3089) administered unilaterally into the vitreous body immediately following carotid occlusion and then 4 times in a 2-week-period. Normal morphological structure of the retina was preserved and the thickness of the retinal layers was increased in HO3089-treated eyes compared to the BCCAO eyes. For Western blot studies, HO3089 was administered immediately after BCCAO and retinas were removed 4 h later. According to Western blot analysis utilizing phosphorylation-specific primary antibodies, besides activating poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) synthesis, BCCAO induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). HO3089 inhibited PAR synthesis, and decreased the phosphorylation of these proapoptotic MAPKs. In addition, HO3089 treatment induced phosphorylation, that is activation, of the protective Akt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. These data indicate that PARP activation has a major role in mediating chronic hypoperfusion-induced neuronal death, and inhibition of the enzyme prevents the pathological changes both in the morphology and the kinase signaling cascades involved. These results identify PARP inhibition as a possible molecular target in the clinical management of chronic hypoperfusion-induced neurodegenerative diseases including ocular ischemic syndrome.
PARP inhibitors combined with DNA-damage inducing cytostatic agents can lead to effective tumor therapy. However, inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1; EC 18.104.22.168) induces the activation of PI-3-kinase-Akt pathway, which can counteract the effectiveness of this therapy. To understand the role of Akt activation in the combined use of cytostatic agent and PARP inhibition, we used taxol (paclitaxel) as an antineoplastic agent, which targets microtubules and up-regulates mitochondrial ROS production, together with (i) pharmacological inhibition (PJ-34), (ii) siRNA knock-down and (iii) transdominant expression of the DNA binding domain of PARP-1. In all cases, PARP-1 inhibition leads to suppressed poly-ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins, prevention of NAD(+) depletion and significant resistance against taxol induced caspase-3 activation and apoptotic cell death. Paclitaxel induced a moderate increase in Akt activation, which was significantly augmented by PARP inhibition, suggesting that PARP inhibition-induced Akt activation could be responsible for the cytostatic resistance. When activation of the PI-3-kinase-Akt pathway was prevented by LY-294002 or Akt Inhibitor IV, the cytoprotective effect of PARP inhibition was significantly diminished showing that the activation of PI-3-kinase-Akt cascade had significantly contributed to the cytostatic resistance. Our study demonstrates that drug-induced drug resistance can be responsible for the reduced efficacy of antitumor treatment. Although inhibition of PARP-1 can promote cell death in tumor cells by the inhibition of DNA repair, PARP-inhibition promoted activation of the PI-3-kinase-Akt pathway can counteract this facilitating effect, and can cause cytostatic resistance. We suggest augmenting PARP inhibition by the inhibition of the PI-3-kinase-Akt pathway for antitumor therapy.
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a highly potent endogenous lipid mediator that protects and rescues cells from programmed cell death. Earlier work identified the LPA? G protein-coupled receptor subtype as an important molecular target of LPA mediating antiapoptotic signaling. Here we describe the results of a virtual screen using single-reference similarity searching that yielded compounds 2-((9-oxo-9H-fluoren-2-yl)carbamoyl)benzoic acid (NSC12404), 2-((3-(1,3-dioxo-1H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2(3H)-yl)propyl)thio)benzoic acid (GRI977143), 4,5-dichloro-2-((9-oxo-9H-fluoren-2-yl)carbamoyl)benzoic acid (H2L5547924), and 2-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-2-yl)carbamoyl) benzoic acid (H2L5828102), novel nonlipid and drug-like compounds that are specific for the LPA? receptor subtype. We characterized the antiapoptotic action of one of these compounds, GRI977143, which was effective in reducing activation of caspases 3, 7, 8, and 9 and inhibited poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 cleavage and DNA fragmentation in different extrinsic and intrinsic models of apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, GRI977143 promoted carcinoma cell invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers and fibroblast proliferation. The antiapoptotic cellular signaling responses were present selectively in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells derived from LPA(1&2) double-knockout mice reconstituted with the LPA? receptor and were absent in vector-transduced control cells. GRI977143 was an effective stimulator of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation and promoted the assembly of a macromolecular signaling complex consisting of LPA?, Na? - H? exchange regulatory factor 2, and thyroid receptor interacting protein 6, which has been shown previously to be a required step in LPA-induced antiapoptotic signaling. The present findings indicate that nonlipid LPA?-specific agonists represent an excellent starting point for development of lead compounds with potential therapeutic utility for preventing the programmed cell death involved in many types of degenerative and inflammatory diseases.
Resveratrol was suggested to inhibit Toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-? (TRIF)-(TANK)-binding kinase 1, but the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88-tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) pathway is not involved in this effect. However, involvement of TRAF6 in this process is still elusive since cross talk between TRIF and TRAF6 has been reported in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signaling. Using RAW 264.7 macrophages, we determined the effect of resveratrol on LPS-induced TRAF6 expression, ubiquitination as well as activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and Akt in order to elucidate its involvement in TLR4 signaling. LPS-induced transient elevation in TRAF6 mRNA and protein expressions is suppressed by resveratrol. LPS induces the ubiquitination of TRAF6, which has been reported to be essential for Akt activation and for transforming growth factor-? activated kinase-1-NAP kinase kinase 6 (MKK6)-mediated p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. We found that resveratrol diminishes the effect of LPS on TRAF6 ubiquitination and activation of JNK and p38 MAP kinases, while it has no effect on the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. The effect of resveratrol on MAP kinase inhibition is significant since TRAF6 activation was reported to induce activation of JNK and p38 MAP kinase while not affecting ERK1/2. Moreover, Akt was identified previously as a direct target of TRAF6, and we found that, similarly to MAPKs, phosphorylation pattern of Akt followed the activation of TRAF6, and it was inhibited by resveratrol at all time points. Here, we provide the first evidence that resveratrol, by suppressing LPS-induced TRAF6 expression and ubiquitination, attenuates the LPS-induced TLR4-TRAF6, MAP kinase and Akt pathways that can be significant in its anti-inflammatory effects.
2,4-Dimethoxyphenyl-E-4-arylidene-3-isochromanone (IK11) was previously described to induce apoptotic death of A431 tumor cells. In this report, we investigated the molecular action of IK11 in the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line to increase our knowledge of the role of poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP), protein kinase B/Akt and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in the survival and death of tumor cells and to highlight the possible role of PARP-inhibitors in co-treatments with different cytotoxic agents in cancer therapy.
In this study, we investigate the cardiotoxic effects of the well-known cytostatic agent imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), and presented evidence for the cardioprotective effect of BGP-15 which is a novel insulin sensitizer. The cardiotoxic effect of imatinib mesylate was assessed in Langendorff rat heart perfusion system. The cardiac high-energy phosphate levels (creatine phosphate (PCr) and ATP) were monitored in situ by (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and the activation of signaling pathways were determined from the freeze-clamped hearts. Prolonged treatment of the heart with imatinib mesylate (20 mg/kg) resulted in cardiotoxicity, which were characterized by the depletion of high-energy phosphates (PCr and ATP), and significantly increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Imatinib mesylate treatment-induced activation of MAP kinases (including ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta. BGP-15 (200 ?M) prevented the imatinib mesylate-induced oxidative damages, attenuated the depletion of high-energy phosphates, altered the signaling effect of imatinib mesylate by preventing p38 MAP kinase and JNK activation, and induced the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta. The suppressive effect of BGP-15 on p38 and JNK activation could be significant because these kinases contribute to the cell death and inflammation in the isolated perfused heart.
Weight gain and dysfunction of glucose and lipid metabolism are well-known side effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPD). Here, we address the question whether a heat-shock protein (HSP) co-inducer, insulin sensitizer drug candidate, BGP-15, can prevent AAPD-induced glucose, lipid, and weight changes. We also examined how an AAPD alters HSP expression and whether BGP-15 alters that expression. Four different experiments are reported on the AAPD BGP-15 interventions in a human trial of healthy men, a rodent animal model, and an in vitro adipocyte cell culture system. Olanzapine caused rapid insulin resistance in healthy volunteers and was associated with decreased level of HSP72 in peripheral mononuclear blood cells. Both changes were restored by the administration of BGP-15. In Wistar rats, weight gain and insulin resistance induced by clozapine were abolished by BGP-15. In 3T3L1 adipocytes, clozapine increased intracellular fat accumulation, and BGP-15 inhibited this process. Taken together, our results indicate that BGP-15 inhibits multiple metabolic side effects of atypical antipsychotics, and this effect is likely to be related to its HSP co-inducing ability.
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