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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Internal migration, mental health, and suicidal behaviors in young rural Chinese.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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There is a dearth of data on the association of internal migration with mental health in young rural Chinese. This study aims to explore the associations between migrant status, mental health, and suicidal behaviors in young rural Chinese.
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Combining Coronary with Carotid and Cerebrovascular Angiography Using Prospective ECG Gating and Iterative Reconstruction with 256-slice CT.
Echocardiography
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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To investigate the image quality and radiation dose of combined coronary and carotid/cerebrovascular angiography with ECG gating and iterative reconstruction using 256-slice CT compared with the findings with the two examinations performed separately.
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Lovastatin-Induced Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate 5-Kinase Diffusion from Microvilli Stimulates ROMK Channels.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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We recently showed that lovastatin attenuates cyclosporin A (CsA)-induced damage of cortical collecting duct (CCD) principal cells by reducing intracellular cholesterol. Previous studies showed that, in cell expression models or artificial membranes, exogenous cholesterol directly inhibits inward rectifier potassium channels, including Kir1.1 (Kcnj1; the gene locus for renal outer medullary K(+) [ROMK1] channels). Therefore, we hypothesized that lovastatin might stimulate ROMK1 by reducing cholesterol in CCD cells. Western blots showed that mpkCCDc14 cells express ROMK1 channels with molecular masses that approximate the molecular masses of ROMK1 in renal tubules detected before and after treatment with DTT. Confocal microscopy showed that ROMK1 channels were not in the microvilli, where cholesterol-rich lipid rafts are located, but rather, the planar regions of the apical membrane of mpkCCDc14 cells. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], an activator of ROMK channels, was detected mainly in the microvilli under resting conditions along with the kinase responsible for PI(4,5)P2 synthesis, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I ? [PI(4)P5K I ?], which may explain the low basal open probability and increased sensitivity to tetraethylammonium observed here for this channel. Notably, lovastatin induced PI(4)P5K I ? diffusion into planar regions and elevated PI(4,5)P2 and ROMK1 open probability in these regions through a cholesterol-associated mechanism. However, exogenous cholesterol alone did not induce these effects. These results suggest that lovastatin stimulates ROMK1 channels, at least in part, by inducing PI(4,5)P2 synthesis in planar regions of the renal CCD cell apical membrane, suggesting that lovastatin could reduce cyclosporin-induced nephropathy and associated hyperkalemia.
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A novel oxybis cresol verticilatin with highly varying degrees of biological activities from the insect pathogenic fungus Paecilomycesverticillatus.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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A novel oxybis cresol compound named verticilatin (1), together with two known compounds, 5-methylresorcinol (2) and 2,4-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethylbenzaldehyde (3), was isolated from cultures of the insect pathogenic fungi Paecilomyces verticillatus. The structures of compounds were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis of HR-ESI-MS and 1D and 2D NMR including HSQC, HMBC, COSY, and ROESY. Fortunately, compound 1 exhibited significant inhibitory activities against CDC25B, cathepsin B, MEG2, and SHP2 enzyme, with IC50 values of 11.5, 3.5, 7.8, and 15 ?g/ml, respectively.
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Electroconvulsive Therapy and Its Association With Demographic and Clinical Characteristics in Chinese Psychiatric Patients.
J ECT
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Little is known about the frequency of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) use in China. This study examined the frequency of ECT and its relationship with demographic and clinical characteristics in a large psychiatric institution in China.
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Extended normothermic extracorporeal perfusion of isolated human liver after warm ischaemia: a preliminary report.
Crit Care Resusc
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Donation after circulatory death (DCD) livers are at markedly increased risk of primary graft dysfunction and biliary tract ischaemia. Normothermic extracorporeal liver perfusion (NELP) may increase the ability to transplant DCD livers and may allow their use for artificial extracorporeal liver support of patients with fulminant liver failure.
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Alda-1 reduces cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat through clearance of reactive aldehydes.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Many studies demonstrate that accumulation of reactive aldehydes plays an important role in cellular oxidative injury and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2)-mediated detoxification of reactive aldehydes is thought as an endogenous protective mechanism against cell injury. This study was performed to explore whether Alda-1, a newly identified ALDH2 activator, was able to protect brain against ischemia/reperfusion injury through clearance of reactive aldehydes. In a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, neurological function, infarct volume, cellular apoptosis, mortality, ALDH2 activity and protein expression, contents of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined. The results showed that ischemia/reperfusion treatment led to increase in neurological deficit score, infarct volume, cellular apoptosis, and mortality accompanied by the elevated levels of reactive aldehydes (4-HNE and MDA). There was no significant change in ALDH2 activity and protein expression. Alda-1 treatment at both dosages (15 mg/kg?×?2 or 50 mg/kg?×?2, i.g.) was able to increase the activity of ALDH2 and decrease the accumulation of reactive aldehydes concomitantly with the improvement of brain injury (decrease in infarct volume, cellular apoptosis, and mortality) and neurological function (decrease in neurological deficit score). However, Alda-1 treatment did not affect ALDH2 protein expression. Our results suggest that the protective effect of Alda-1 on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is related to ALDH2 activation and clearance of reactive aldehydes.
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QDPR gene mutation and clinical follow-up in Chinese patients with dihydropteridine reductase deficiency.
World J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the mutation spectrum of the QDPR gene, to determine the effect of mutations on dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) structure/function, to discuss the potential genotypephenotype correlation, and to evaluate the clinical outcome of Chinese patients after treatment.
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Physical Activity is Associated with Elevated Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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A cross-sectional study in a general health examination.
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TAA1-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex transition zone mediates the aluminum-induced inhibition of root growth in Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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The transition zone (TZ) of the root apex is the perception site of Al toxicity. Here, we show that exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to Al induces a localized enhancement of auxin signaling in the root-apex TZ that is dependent on TAA1, which encodes a Trp aminotransferase and regulates auxin biosynthesis. TAA1 is specifically upregulated in the root-apex TZ in response to Al treatment, thus mediating local auxin biosynthesis and inhibition of root growth. The TAA1-regulated local auxin biosynthesis in the root-apex TZ in response to Al stress is dependent on ethylene, as revealed by manipulating ethylene homeostasis via the precursor of ethylene biosynthesis 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, the inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis aminoethoxyvinylglycine, or mutant analysis. In response to Al stress, ethylene signaling locally upregulates TAA1 expression and thus auxin responses in the TZ and results in auxin-regulated root growth inhibition through a number of auxin response factors (ARFs). In particular, ARF10 and ARF16 are important in the regulation of cell wall modification-related genes. Our study suggests a mechanism underlying how environmental cues affect root growth plasticity through influencing local auxin biosynthesis and signaling.
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Use of electroconvulsive therapy in older Chinese psychiatric patients.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Little is known about the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in older Chinese psychiatric patients. This study examined the frequency of ECT and the demographic and clinical correlates in older psychiatric patients hospitalized in a large psychiatric institution in Beijing, China.
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Association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and congenital heart disease : A family-based meta-analysis.
Herz
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of birth defect. It is suspected that polymorphisms in folate metabolism are associated with an increased risk of CHD, but the conclusion remains unclear. Studies have reported that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with the development of structural congenital heart malformations. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of available studies to identify common polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene in children with CHD and their mothers and to test for an association between genotype and disease. In all, 19 eligible studies comprising 4,219 cases and 20,123 controls were included in this meta-analysis. A significant association was found between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and CHD risk (OR: 1.26; 95?% CI =?1.06-1.51; p?=?0.009) with no strong evidence of heterogeneity (I(2)?=?39?%) in the fetal analysis. In the maternal analysis, the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with CHD risk (OR =?1.52; 95?% CI =? 1.09-2.11; p?=?0.01) with significant heterogeneity (I(2)?=?63?%).
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Stereotactic body radiotherapy combined with transarterial chemoembolization for huge (?10 cm) hepatocellular carcinomas: A clinical study.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) combined with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for huge (?10 cm) hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Between May, 2006 and December, 2012, 72 patients with huge HCCs were treated by SBRT following incomplete TACE. The median total dose of 35.6 Gy was delivered over 12-14 days with a fractional dose of 2.6-3.0 Gy and 6 fractions per week. The patients were classified into those with tumor encapsulation (group A, n=33) and those without tumor encapsulation (group B, n=39). The clinical outcomes of tumor response, overall cumulative survival and toxicities/complications were retrospectively analyzed. Among the 72 patients, CR, PR, SD and PD were achieved in 6 (8.3%), 51 (70.8%), 9 (12.5%) and 6 patients (8.3%), respectively, within a median follow-up of 18 months. The objective response rate was 79.1%. The overall cumulative 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates and the median survival time were 38, 12 and 3% and 12.2 months, respectively. In group A, the overall cumulative 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 56, 21 and 6%, respectively, with a median survival of 19 months; in group B, the overall cumulative 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 23, 4 and 0%, respectively, with a median survival of 10.8 months (P=0.023). The treatment was well tolerated, with no severe radiation-induced liver disease and no reported > grade 3 toxicity. Tumor encapsulation was found to be a significant prognostic factor for survival. In conclusion, the combination of SBRT and TACE was shown to be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with unresectable huge HCC.
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Risk factors of early and late mortality after thoracic endovascular aortic repair for complicated stanford B acute aortic dissection.
J Card Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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The risk factors associated with death in complicated Stanford B acute aortic dissection (AAD) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early and late events and mortality of complicated Stanford B AAD associated with TEVAR.
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Protective Effect of Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Symptoms and Their Potential Mechanisms in Rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (PIO) on streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic symptoms and their potential mechanisms. The effect of PIO on body weight, blood glucose, damaged pancreatic ?-cells, oxidative stresses, proinflammatory cytokines, and glucose metabolizing enzymes in liver was studied. The results show that administration of PIO can restore abnormal oxidative indices near normal levels. The STZ-damaged pancreatic ?-cells of the rats were partly recovered gradually after the mice were administered with PIO 6 weeks later. Therefore, we may assume that PIO is effective in the protection of STZ-induced diabetic rats and PIO may be of use as antihyperglycemic agent.
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[Automatic classification method of star spectra data based on manifold-based discriminant anaysis and Support Vector Machine].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Although Support Vector Machine (SVM) is widely used in astronomy, it only takes the margin between classes into consideration while neglects the data distribution in each class, which seriously limits the classification efficiency. In view of this, a novel automatic classification method of star spectra data based on manifold-based discriminant analysis (MDA) and SVM is proposed in this paper. Two important concepts in MDA, manifold-based within-class scatter (MWCS) and manifold-based between-class scatter (MBCS), are introduced in the proposed method, the separating hyperplane found by which ensures MWCS is minimized and MBCS is maximized. Based on the above analysis, the corresponding optimal problem can be established, and then MDA transforms the original optimization problem to the QP dual form and we can obtain the support vectors and decision function. The classes of test samples are decided by the decision function. The advantage of the proposed method is that it not only focuses on the information between classes and distribution characteristics, but also preserves the manifold structure of each class. Experiments on SDSS star spectra datasets verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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Effect of phentolamine on myocardial extracellular matrix of cardiac remodeling in rats.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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To study the effects of phentolamine on myocardial extracellular matrix of cardiac remodeling induced by norepinephrine in rats.
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Cystatin C, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptides and outcomes in acute heart failure with acute kidney injury in a 12-month follow-up: Insights into the cardiorenal syndrome.
J Res Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Cystatin C (Cys C) has been implicated as a prognostic marker in cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of Cys C as a marker of acute kidney injury (AKI) in acute heart failure (AHF), the impact of Cys C and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptides (NT-proBNP) on in-hospital and 12 months mortality were also investigated.
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Recombinant bovine interferon-? enhances in vitro development of bovine embryos by upregulating expression of connexin 43 and E-cadherin.
J. Dairy Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Interferon-? (IFNT), produced in ruminants by embryonic trophoblastic cells before implantation, is involved in the maternal recognition of pregnancy. It is a pleiotropic molecule that alters the synthesis of endometrial proteins and inhibits the proliferation of some cells. The present study investigated the effects of recombinant bovine IFNT on the development of early-stage bovine embryos and the molecular mechanism underlying this effect. This study demonstrated that expression of mRNA encoding type I IFN receptor subunits was detectable from d 4 to 8 in in vitro fertilized (IVF) bovine embryos. A considerable number of IVF (n = 1,941) and parthenogenetic activated (n = 1,552) bovine embryos demonstrated that supplementing the culture medium with IFNT (100 ng/mL) produced a greater percentage of blastocysts, and the total cell number within the resulting blastocysts was higher. In addition, IFNT upregulated the expression levels of both mRNA and protein for connexin 43 (GJA1) and E-cadherin (CDH1) and expression levels for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA but not for their proteins in d 8 embryos. However, IFNT inhibited mRNA expression for leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), LIF receptor ?, and the sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit ?-1. We concluded that IFNT promoted the development of bovine embryos by upregulating the expression of GJA1 and CDH1. Thus, supplementing embryo cultures or transfer medium with IFNT may stimulate embryo development and improve embryo transfer efficiency.
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Universal influenza vaccines, a dream to be realized soon.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Due to frequent viral antigenic change, current influenza vaccines need to be re-formulated annually to match the circulating strains for battling seasonal influenza epidemics. These vaccines are also ineffective in preventing occasional outbreaks of new influenza pandemic viruses. All these challenges call for the development of universal influenza vaccines capable of conferring broad cross-protection against multiple subtypes of influenza A viruses. Facilitated by the advancement in modern molecular biology, delicate antigen design becomes one of the most effective factors for fulfilling such goals. Conserved epitopes residing in virus surface proteins including influenza matrix protein 2 and the stalk domain of the hemagglutinin draw general interest for improved antigen design. The present review summarizes the recent progress in such endeavors and also covers the encouraging progress in integrated antigen/adjuvant delivery and controlled release technology that facilitate the development of an affordable universal influenza vaccine.
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Karyotype stability of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells during in vitro culture.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate whether the chromosomes of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) change following in vitro culture for several generations. In the present study, umbilical cords from two healthy infants following cesarean delivery were collected aseptically and hUCMSCs were isolated by digestion with collagenase and trypsin, and then cultured in vitro. hUCMSCs with fibroblastic morphology were presented from the human umbilical cord tissue after 7 days of adherent culture. When cultured for 6 passages in vitro, the hUCMSCs maintained a stable spindle-shaped morphology. Cells reached the logarithmic growth phase after 3-4 days of culture. In addition, CD13, CD29, CD44, CD90 and CD105 were highly expressed in generations P3-P6. The expression of CD31, CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR was negative. Furthermore, karyotype analysis revealed a normal diploid karyotype with 46 chromosomes and no abnormal changes were found in chromosome structure. These findings suggest that when cultured for 6 passages in vitro, hUCMSCs maintain a stable immunophenotype and chromosome structure, which provides an experimental basis for the safety of hUCMSC cytotherapy.
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Expression of angiogenesis regulatory proteins and epithelial-mesenchymal transition factors in platelets of the breast cancer patients.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Platelets play a role in tumor angiogenesis and growth and are the main transporters of several angiogenesis regulators. Here, we aimed to determine the levels of angiogenesis regulators and epithelial-mesenchymal transition factors sequestered by circulating platelets in breast cancer patients and age-matched healthy controls. Platelet pellets (PP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were collected by routine protocols. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), platelet factor 4 (PF4), and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Angiogenesis-associated expression of VEGF (2.1?pg/10(6) platelets versus 0.9?pg/10(6) platelets, P < 0.001), PF4 (21.2?ng/10(6) platelets versus 10.2?ng/10(6) platelets, P < 0.001), PDGF-BB (42.9?pg/10(6) platelets versus 19.1?pg/10(6) platelets, P < 0.001), and TGF-?1 (15.3?ng/10(6) platelets versus 4.3?ng/10(6) platelets, P < 0.001) differed in the PP samples of cancer and control subjects. In addition, protein concentrations were associated with clinical characteristics (P < 0.05). Circulating platelets in breast cancer sequester higher levels of PF4, VEGF, PDGF-BB, and TGF-?1, suggesting a possible target for early diagnosis. VEGF, PDGF, and TGF-?1 concentrations in platelets may be associated with prognosis.
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AtHAP5A modulates freezing stress resistance in Arabidopsis through binding to CCAAT motif of AtXTH21.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Several eukaryotic Heme-associated proteins (HAPs) have been reported to bind specifically to DNA fragments containing CCAAT-box; however, the physiological functions and direct targets of these HAP proteins in plants remain unclear. In this study, we showed that AtHAP5A as a transcription factor interacted with CCAAT motif in vivo, and AtXTH21, one direct target of AtHAP5A, was involved in freezing stress resistance. The AtHAP5A overexpressing plants were more tolerant, whereas the loss-of-function mutant of AtHAP5A was more sensitive to freezing stress than wild-type plants. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated that AtHAP5A could bind to five fragments that contained CCAAT motifs in the AtXTH21 promoter. Similarly, the AtXTH21 overexpressing plants exhibited improved freezing resistance, while xth21 knockdown mutants displayed decreased freezing resistance. Notably, the modulated freezing resistance of AtHAP5A overexpressing plants and knockout mutant could be reversed by the xth21 mutant and AtXTH21 overexpressing plants, respectively, indicating that AtHAP5A might act upstream of AtXTH21 in freezing stress. Additionally, modulation of AtHAP5A and AtXTH21 expression had the same effects on abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. Taken together, these results demonstrated that AtHAP5A modulates freezing stress resistance in Arabidopsis through binding to the CCAAT motif of AtXTH21.
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Inhibition of NOX/VPO1 pathway and inflammatory reaction by trimethoxystilbene in prevention of cardiovascular remodeling in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Recent studies show that resveratrol exerts beneficial effects on prevention of pulmonary hypertension. This study is performed to explore the effects of trimethoxystilbene, a novel resveratrol analog, on rat pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy in hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and the underlying mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were placed in a chamber and exposed to 10% O(2) continuously for 4 weeks to induce PAH. The effects of trimethoxystilbene (5 or 10 mg/kg per day, intragastric [i.g.]) and resveratrol (as a positive control, 25 mg/kg per day, i.g.) on hypoxia-induced PAH vascular remodeling and right ventricle hypertrophy were evaluated. At the end of experiments, the index for pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricle hypertrophy, inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue, the plasma levels and lung tissue contents of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), the mRNA and protein levels for NADPH oxidases (NOX2, NOX4) and vascular peroxidase 1 (VPO1) in pulmonary artery or right ventricle were measured. The results showed that trimethoxystilbene treatment significantly attenuated hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling (such as decrease in the ratio of wall thickness to vessel external diameter) and right ventricle hypertrophy (such as decrease in the ratio of right ventricle weight to the length of the tibia), accompanied by downregulation of NOX2, NOX4, and VPO1 expression in pulmonary artery or right ventricle, decrease in H(2)O(2) production and inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue. Trimethoxystilbene is able to prevent pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricle hypertrophy in hypoxia-induced rat model of PAH, which is related to inhibition of the NOX/VPO1 pathway-mediated oxidative stress and the inflammatory reaction.
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Correction method for the self-absorption effects in fluorescence extended X-ray absorption fine structure on multilayer samples.
J Synchrotron Radiat
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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A novel correction method for self-absorption effects is proposed for extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) detected in the fluorescence mode on multilayer samples. The effects of refraction and multiple reflection at the interfaces are fully considered in this correction method. The correction is performed in k-space before any further data analysis, and it can be applied to single-layer or multilayer samples with flat surfaces and without thickness limit when the model parameters for the samples are known. The validity of this method is verified by the fluorescence EXAFS data collected for a Cr/C multilayer sample measured at different experimental geometries.
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Interleukin-17A antagonist attenuates radiation-induced lung injuries in mice.
Exp. Lung Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To investigate the effect of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) antibodies on radiation-induced lung injuries in mice.
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Lovastatin inhibits human B lymphoma cell proliferation by reducing intracellular ROS and TRPC6 expression.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Clinical evidence suggests that statins reduce cancer incidence and mortality. However, there is lack of in vitro data to show the mechanism by which statins can reduce the malignancies of cancer cells. We used a human B lymphoma Daudi cells as a model and found that lovastatin inhibited, whereas exogenous cholesterol (Cho) stimulated, proliferation cell cycle progression in control Daudi cells, but not in the cells when transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) channel was knocked down. Lovastatin decreased, whereas Cho increased, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) respectively by decreasing or increasing the expression of p47-phox and gp91-phox (NOX2). Reducing intracellular ROS with either a mimetic superoxide dismutase (TEMPOL) or an NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin) inhibited cell proliferation, particularly in Cho-treated cells. The effects of TEMPOL or apocynin were mimicked by inhibition of TRPC6 with SKF-96365. Lovastatin decreased TRPC6 expression and activity via a Cho-dependent mechanism, whereas Cho increased TRPC6 expression and activity via an ROS-dependent mechanism. Consistent with the fact that TRPC6 is a Ca(2+)-permeable channel, lovastatin decreased, but Cho increased, intracellular Ca(2+) also via ROS. These data suggest that lovastatin inhibits malignant B cell proliferation by reducing membrane Cho, intracellular ROS, TRPC6 expression and activity, and intracellular Ca(2+).
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Efficacy and safety of linezolid in treating gram-positive bacterial infection in the elderly: a retrospective study.
Indian J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Linezolid is commonly used for the treatment of drug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infection. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of linezolid in treating Gram-positive bacterial infection in the elderly from January 2010 to December 2012. Total 40 elderly patients (>60 years old) with Gram-positive bacterial infection were treated with linezolid and their demographic and clinical data were collected and analyzed. Among the 40 patients, 31 patients (77.5 %) were cured. Linezolid caused little adverse effects on liver and renal function. The main adverse effect was thrombocytopenia and its incidence was significantly associated with baseline platelet count and the duration of treatment (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the baseline platelet count <200 × 10(6)/mL, but not the age, the sex, the length of hospital stay, baseline levels of hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase, or creatinine clearance rate was significantly associated with linezolid-induced thrombocytopenia. In conclusion, linezolid is effective to cure Gram-positive bacterial infection in the elderly and causes little adverse effects on liver and renal function. Timely monitoring of baseline platelet count may be helpful to guide the use of linezolid to avoid the occurrence of thrombocytopenia.
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Laser-assisted hatching improves clinical outcomes of vitrified-warmed blastocysts developed from low-grade cleavage-stage embryos: a prospective randomized study.
Reprod. Biomed. Online
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of quarter zona-pellucida (ZP) opening by laser-assisted hatching (QLAH) on the clinical outcomes following transfer of vitrified-warmed blastocysts developed from low-grade cleavage-stage embryos in patients with all high-grade and fair-grade cleavage-stage embryos transferred without achieving pregnancy. Patients were randomized into two groups: QLAH (n=101) and control (n=102). The implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were significantly higher in the QLAH group compared with the control group (P=0.021 and P=0.034, respectively). The live birth rate of the QLAH group was also higher, although not significantly. When the clinical outcomes according to the day of blastocyst vitrification were compared between the groups, the implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates of the QLAH group were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the control group for day 6 blastocysts, but not for day 5 or day 5/day 6 blastocysts. These results suggest that QLAH improves the clinical outcomes of vitrified-warmed blastocysts, especially of day 6 vitrified blastocysts, developed from low-grade cleavage-stage embryos.
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Comparative proteomic and metabolomic analyses reveal mechanisms of improved cold stress tolerance in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) by exogenous calcium.
J Integr Plant Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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As an important second messenger, calcium is involved in plant cold stress response, including chilling (<20?°C) and freezing (<0?°C). In this study, exogenous application of calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) improved both chilling and freezing stress tolerances, while ethylene glycol-bis-(?-aminoethyl) ether-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) reversed CaCl2 effects in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.). Physiological analyses showed that CaCl2 treatment alleviated the reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and cell damage triggered by chilling stress, via activating antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic glutathione antioxidant pool, while EGTA treatment had the opposite effects. Additionally, comparative proteomic analysis identified 51 differentially expressed proteins that were enriched in redox, tricarboxylicacid cycle, glycolysis, photosynthesis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and amino acid metabolisms. Consistently, 42 metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols were regulated by CaCl2 treatment under control and cold stress conditions, further confirming the common modulation of CaCl2 treatment in carbon metabolites and amino acid metabolism. Taken together, this study reported first evidence of the essential and protective roles of endogenous and exogenous calcium in bermudagrass response to cold stress, partially via activation of the antioxidants and modulation of several differentially expressed proteins and metabolic homeostasis in the process of cold acclimation.
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Protective effect of vitexin compound B-1 against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injury in differentiated PC12 cells via NADPH oxidase inhibition.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Vitexin compound B-1 (VB-1) is a novel member of the vitexins family isolated from the seeds of the Chinese herb Vitex negundo. This study aims to investigate whether VB-1 is able to protect nerve cells against oxidative injury and whether the antioxidative effects of VB-1 occur through a mechanism involving the inhibition of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in a manner of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?)-dependent. To establish a neuronal in vitro model of oxidative stress, the differentiated PC12 cells were subjected to 5 h of hypoxia followed by 20 h of reoxygenation (H/R). Three dosages of VB-1 (10(-8), 10(-7), and 10(-6) M) were chosen to evaluate the effect of VB-1 on H/R-induced injury and the underlying mechanisms. At the end of the experiments, culture mediums and cells were collected for analysis of cellular apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and caspase 3/7-like activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and malondialdehye (MDA) contents, and HIF-1? and NOX expression, respectively. Our results showed that cell injury (indicated by apoptosis ratio, caspase 3/7-like activity, and LDH release), oxidative stress (indicated by ROS production, 4-HNE, and MDA contents), NOX activity, and NOX expression (NOX2 and NOX4 isoforms) were dramatically increased in PC12 cells following H/R, which were attenuated in the presence of VB-1 at dosage of 10(-7) or 10(-6) M. There was no significant change in HIF-1? expression in all experimental groups. These results provide evidence that VB-1 is able to protect the PC12 cells against H/R-induced injury through a mechanism involving the suppression of NOX expression and subsequent reduction of ROS production. The effect of VB-1 on H/R-induced NOX expression is independent on HIF-1? inhibition.
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Microneedle delivery of an M2e-TLR5 ligand fusion protein to skin confers broadly cross-protective influenza immunity.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Influenza vaccines with broad cross-protection are urgently needed to prevent an emerging influenza pandemic. A fusion protein of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 5-agonist domains from flagellin and multiple repeats of the conserved extracellular domain of the influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) was constructed, purified and evaluated as such a vaccine. A painless vaccination method suitable for possible self-administration using coated microneedle arrays was investigated for skin-targeted delivery of the fusion protein in a mouse model. The results demonstrate that microneedle immunization induced strong humoral as well as mucosal antibody responses and conferred complete protection against homo- and heterosubtypic lethal virus challenges. Protective efficacy with microneedles was found to be significantly better than that seen with conventional intramuscular injection, and comparable to that observed with intranasal immunization. Because of its advantages for administration, safety and storage, microneedle delivery of M2e-flagellin fusion protein is a promising approach for an easy-to-administer universal influenza vaccine.
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Expression of interleukin-17A in lung tissues of irradiated mice and the influence of dexamethasone.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the expressions of IL-17A in different phases of radiation-induced lung injury and the effect of dexamethasone.
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Trail communication regulated by two trail pheromone components in the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The eusocial termites are well accomplished in chemical communication, but how they achieve the communication using trace amount of no more than two pheromone components is mostly unknown. In this study, the foraging process and trail pheromones of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) were systematically studied and monitored in real-time using a combination of techniques, including video analysis, solid-phase microextraction, gas chromatography coupled with either mass spectrometry or an electroantennographic detector, and bioassays. The trail pheromone components in foraging workers were (3Z)-dodec-3-en-1-ol and (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol secreted by their sternal glands. Interestingly, ratio of the two components changed according to the behaviors that the termites were displaying. This situation only occurs in termites whereas ratios of pheromone components are fixed and species-specific for other insect cuticular glands. Moreover, in bioassays, the active thresholds of the two components ranged from 1 fg/cm to 10 pg/cm according to the behavioral contexts or the pheromonal exposure of tested workers. The two components did not act in synergy. (3Z)-Dodec-3-en-1-ol induced orientation behavior of termites that explore their environment, whereas (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol had both an orientation effect and a recruitment effect when food was discovered. The trail pheromone of O. formosanus was regulated both quantitatively by the increasing number of workers involved in the early phases of foraging process, and qualitatively by the change in ratio of the two pheromone components on sternal glandular cuticle in the food-collecting workers. In bioassays, the responses of workers to the pheromone were also affected by the variation in pheromone concentration and component ratio in the microenvironment. Thus, this termite could exchange more information with nestmates using the traces of the two trail pheromone components that can be easily regulated within a limited microenvironment formed by the tunnels or chambers.
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Early and Long-Term Effect of Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair for Stanford B Aortic Dissection.
Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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Background Uncomplicated Stanford B acute aortic dissection (AAD) is generally treated with medical management; whereas complicated dissections require surgery or thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). Studies have demonstrated that long-term outcomes with medical management are suboptimal. Therefore, we sought to investigate the early and long-term clinical efficacy of TEVAR for Stanford B AAD.Materials and Methods From March 2004 to January 2008, 63 consecutive patients were treated and retrospectively placed into either one of the two groups, the TEVAR group (n = 42) and the medicine group (n = 21). All TEVAR procedures were performed in the acute phase. The changes of true and false lumen diameter were monitored with computed tomography angiography examinations in the thoracic aorta at the level of the stented segment at long-term follow-up.Results As compared with the medicine group, the age at intervention in the TEVAR group was higher (p < 0.05), and they also had more patent false lumen in this group. Patients in the TEVAR group had significantly longer hospital stays than those in the medicine group (p < 0.01). The incidence of the early events was not significantly different between the two groups. The incidence of aortic-related late events and late death were significantly higher in the medicine group than those in the TEVAR group. Log-rank tests demonstrated that patients treated with medical management had significantly more late adverse events than did those treated with TEVAR (p < 0.01). At 1-year follow-up, the true lumen diameter in the thoracic aorta at the level of the stented segment increased significantly after TEVAR, and the mean reduction of false lumen diameter was highly significant. The remodeling was stable at 3 and 5 years after TEVAR.Conclusion Patients with Stanford B AAD treated with TEVAR experienced fewer late adverse events than those treated with medical management, TEVAR could be an effective treatment for Stanford B AAD.
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Proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of polyethylene glycol-induced osmotic stress in root tips of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Previous studies have shown that polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced osmotic stress (OS) reduces cell-wall (CW) porosity and limits aluminium (Al) uptake by root tips of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). A subsequent transcriptomic study suggested that genes related to CW processes are involved in adjustment to OS. In this study, a proteomic and phosphoproteomic approach was applied to identify OS-induced protein regulation to further improve our understanding of how OS affects Al accumulation. Analysis of total soluble proteins in root tips indicated that, in total, 22 proteins were differentially regulated by OS; these proteins were functionally categorized. Seventy-seven per- cent of the total expressed proteins were involved in metabolic pathways, particularly of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. An analysis of the apoplastic proteome revealed that OS reduced the level of five proteins and increased that of seven proteins. Investigation of the total soluble phosphoproteome suggested that dehydrin responded to OS with an enhanced phosphorylation state without a change in abundance. A cellular immunolocalization analysis indicated that dehydrin was localized mainly in the CW. This suggests that dehydrin may play a major protective role in the OS-induced physical breakdown of the CW structure and thus maintenance of the reversibility of CW extensibility during recovery from OS. The proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses provided novel insights into the complex mechanisms of OS-induced reduction of Al accumulation in the root tips of common bean and highlight a key role for modification of CW structure.
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Relationship between epicardial adipose tissue volume measured using coronary computed tomography angiography and atherosclerotic plaque characteristics in patients with severe coronary artery stenosis.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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To investigate the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and coronary plaque composition.
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Frequency of Hyperprolactinemia and Its Associations With Demographic and Clinical Characteristics and Antipsychotic Medications in Psychiatric Inpatients in China.
Perspect Psychiatr Care
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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No study has investigated hyperprolactinemia and its risk factors in Chinese psychiatric patients. This study examined the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia and its relationship with demographic and clinical characteristics in inpatients in a large psychiatric institution in Beijing, China.
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Lovastatin attenuates effects of cyclosporine A on tight junctions and apoptosis in cultured cortical collecting duct principal cells.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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We used mouse cortical collecting duct principal cells (mpkCCDc14 cell line) as a model to determine whether statins reduce the harmful effects of cyclosporine A (CsA) on the distal nephron. The data showed that treatment of cells with CsA increased transepithelial resistance and that the effect of CsA was abolished by lovastatin. Scanning ion conductance microscopy showed that CsA significantly increased the height of cellular protrusions near tight junctions. In contrast, lovastatin eliminated the protrusions and even caused a modest depression between cells. Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy showed that lovastatin also abolished CsA-induced elevation of both zonula occludens-1 and cholesterol in tight junctions. In contrast, a high concentration of CsA induced apoptosis, which was also attenuated by lovastatin, elevated intracellular ROS via activation of NADPH oxidase, and increased the expression of p47phox. Sustained treatment of cells with lovastatin also induced significant apoptosis, which was attenuated by CsA, but did not elevate intracellular ROS. These results indicate that both CsA and lovastatin are harmful to principal cells of the distal tubule, but via ROS-dependent and ROS-independent apoptotic pathways, respectively, and that they counteract probably via mobilization of cellular cholesterol levels.
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Multiple heterologous M2 extracellular domains presented on virus-like particles confer broader and stronger M2 immunity than live influenza A virus infection.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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The influenza M2 ectodomain (M2e) is poorly immunogenic and has some amino acid changes among isolates from different host species. We expressed a tandem repeat construct of heterologous M2e sequences (M2e5x) derived from human, swine, and avian origin influenza A viruses on virus-like particles (M2e5x VLPs) in a membrane-anchored form. Immunization of mice with M2e5x VLPs induced protective antibodies cross-reactive to antigenically different influenza A viruses and conferred cross protection. Anti-M2e antibodies induced by heterologous M2e5x VLPs showed a wider range of cross reactivity to influenza A viruses at higher levels than those by live virus infection, homologous M2e VLPs, or M2e monoclonal antibody 14C2. Fc receptors were found to be important for mediating protection by immune sera from M2e5x VLP vaccination. The present study provides evidence that heterologous recombinant M2e5x VLPs can be more effective in inducing protective M2e immunity than natural virus infection and further supports an approach for developing an effective universal influenza vaccine.
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Nanoclusters self-assembled from conformation-stabilized influenza M2e as broadly cross-protective influenza vaccines.
Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Influenza vaccines with broad cross-protection are urgently needed. The highly conserved ectodomain of the influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) can be a promising candidate if its low immunogenicity was overcome. In this study, we generated protein nanoclusters self-assembled from conformation-stabilized M2e tetramers (tM2e) to improve its immunogenicity. The resulting nanoclusters showed an average hydrodynamic diameter of 268nm. Vaccination with the nanoclusters by an intranasal route elicited high levels of serum antigen-specific IgG in mice (approximately 100-fold higher than that obtained with soluble tM2e), as well as antigen-specific T cell and mucosal antibody responses. The immunity conferred complete protection against lethal challenge with homo- as well as heterosubtypic viruses. These results demonstrate that nanoclusters assembled from conformation-stabilized M2e are promising as a potential universal influenza A vaccine. Self-assembly into nanoclusters represents a novel approach for increasing the immunogenicity of vaccine antigens.
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Guidance on the conversion of the Chinese versions of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (C-QIDS-SR) and the Montgomery-Asberg Scale (C-MADRS) in Chinese patients with major depression.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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The 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR) is a newly introduced screening tool, while the Montgomery-Asberg Scale (MADRS) is commonly used in research and clinical practice in China. Converting the total scores between the two instruments could facilitate the comparison of different studies.
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Virus-like particles containing the tetrameric ectodomain of influenza matrix protein 2 and flagellin induce heterosubtypic protection in mice.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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The ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved among influenza A viruses and can be a promising candidate antigen for a broadly cross-protective vaccine. In this study, a tetrameric M2e (tM2e) and a truncated form of flagellin (tFliC) were coincorporated into virus-like particles (VLPs) to enhance its immunogenicity. Our data showed that the majority of M2e in VLPs was presented as tetramers by introducing a foreign tetramerization motif GCN4. Intranasal immunization with tM2e VLPs significantly enhanced the levels of serum IgG and IgG subclasses compared to soluble M2e (sM2e) in mice. tM2e VLPs also induced higher M2e-specific T-cell and mucosal antibody responses, conferring complete protection against homologous influenza virus infection. The immunogenicity of tM2e VLPs was further enhanced by coincorporation of the membrane-anchored tFliC (tM2e chimeric VLPs) or coadministration with tFliC VLPs as a mixture, but not the soluble flagellin, inducing strong humoral and cellular immune responses conferring cross-protection against lethal challenge with heterotypic influenza viruses. These results support the development of tM2e chimeric VLPs as universal vaccines and warrant further investigation.
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Overexpression of Cdc25C predicts response to radiotherapy and survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy followed by surgery.
Chin J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Biomarker identification is crucial for the selection of patients who might benefit from radiotherapy. To explore potential markers for response and prognosis in patients with locally advanced esophageal carcinoma treated with radiotherapy followed by surgery, we evaluated the expression of cell cycle checkpoint-related proteins Chk2, Cdc25C, and Cyclin D1. A total of 56 patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were treated with radiotherapy followed by surgery. Pretreatment tumor biopsy specimens were analyzed for Chk2, Cdc25C, and Cyclin D1 expression by immunohistochemistry. High expression of Chk2, Cyclin D1, and Cdc25C was observed in 44 (78.6%), 15 (26.8%), and 27 (48.2%) patients, respectively. The median survival was 16 months (range, 3-154 months), with a 5-year overall survival rate of 19.6%. Overexpression of Chk2 was associated with smoking (P = 0.021), overexpression of Cdc25C was associated with patient age (P = 0.033) and tumor length (P = 0.001), and overexpression of Cdc25C was associated with pathologic complete response (P = 0.038). Univariate analysis demonstrated that overexpression of Cdc25C and pathologic complete response was associated with better survival. In multivariate analysis, Cdc25C was the most significant independent predictor of better survival (P = 0.014) for patients treated with radiotherapy followed by surgery. Overexpression of Cdc25C was significantly associated with pathologic complete response and better survival of patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer treated with radiotherapy followed by surgery. These results suggest that Cdc25C may be a biomarker of treatment response and good prognosis for esophageal carcinoma patients. Thus, immunohistochemical staining of Cdc25C in a pretreatment specimen may be a useful method of identifying optimal treatment for patients with esophageal carcinoma.
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Depressive disorders among children in the transforming China: an epidemiological survey of prevalence, correlates, and service use.
Depress Anxiety
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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To date, no one-phase survey of childhood depression has been performed in China that involves both urban and rural community children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, correlates, and mental health service utilization of depressive disorders (DDs) in a community-based sample of 6-14-year-old children in south-central China.
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High glucose induces podocyte apoptosis by stimulating TRPC6 via elevation of reactive oxygen species.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Podocyte number is significantly reduced in diabetic patients and animal models, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we found that high glucose induced apoptosis in control podocytes which express transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) channels, but not in TRPC6 knockdown podocytes in which TRPC6 was knocked down by TRPC6 silencing short hairpin RNA (shRNA). This effect was reproduced by treatment of podocytes with the reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Single-channel data from cell-attached, patch-clamp experiments showed that both high glucose and H2O2 activated the TRPC6 channel in control podocytes, but not in TRPC6 knockdown podocytes. Confocal microscopy showed that high glucose elevated ROS in podocytes and that H2O2 reduced the membrane potential of podocytes and elevated intracellular Ca(2+) via activation of TRPC6. Since intracellular Ca(2+) overload induces apoptosis, H2O2-induced apoptosis may result from TRPC6-mediated elevation of intracellular Ca(2+). These data together suggest that high glucose induces apoptosis in podocytes by stimulating TRPC6 via elevation of ROS.
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Prevalence of psychological symptoms in contemporary Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers: an exploratory meta-analysis of observational studies using the SCL-90-R.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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(1) To estimate the pooled prevalence of psychological symptoms in Chinese migrant workers (CMWs), as measured using the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) in observational studies conducted in China, and (2) to explore the potential variables associated with the SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (GSI), the overall mental health indicator of CMWs.
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Prevalence, risk factors and recognition rates of depressive disorders among inpatients of tertiary general hospitals in Shanghai, China.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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To investigate the prevalence, risk factors and recognition rates of depressive disorders among inpatients of tertiary general hospitals in Shanghai, China.
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Dense layers of vertically oriented WO3 crystals as anodes for photoelectrochemical water oxidation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
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Films of crystalline WO(3) nanosheets oriented perpendicular to tungsten substrates were grown by a surfactant-free hydrothermal method, followed by sintering. The films exhibit photoelectrochemical oxygen evolution at low overpotential.
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Honatisine, a novel diterpenoid alkaloid, and six known alkaloids from Delphinium honanense and their cytotoxic activity.
Chem. Biodivers.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2011
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A novel diterpene alkaloid named honatisine (1) has been isolated from the whole plants of Delphinium honanense, along with six known alkaloids, siwanine E (2), isoatisine (3), atisine (4), delcorinine (5), uraphine (6), and nordhagenine A (7). Their structures were deduced on the basis of their spectral data. All of them were evaluated by a SRB assay for their cytotoxicity, and compound 1 showed a significant cytotoxic activity (IC(50) =3.16 ?M) against the MCF-7 cell line.
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[Effect of the chelator BPCBG on the decorporation of uranium in vivo and uranium-induced damage of human renal tubular epithelial cells in vitro].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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This study is to assess the efficacy of BPCBG on the decorporation of uranium (VI) and protecting human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) against uranium-induced damage. BPCBG at different doses was injected intramuscularly to male SD rats immediately after a single intraperitoneal injection of UO2(CH3COO)2. Twenty-four hours later uranium contents in urine, kidneys and femurs were measured by ICP-MS. After HK-2 cells were exposed to UO2(CH3COO)2 immediately or for 24 h followed by BPCBG treatment at different doses for another 24 or 48 h, the uranium contents in HK-2 cells were measured by ICP-MS, the cell survival was assayed by cell counting kit-8 assay, formation of micronuclei was determined by the cytokinesis-block (CB) micronucleus assay and the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) oxidation. DTPA-CaNa3 was used as control. It was found that BPCBG at dosages of 60, 120, and 600 micromol kg(-1) resulted in 37%-61% increase in 24 h-urinary uranium excretion, and significantly decreased the amount of uranium retention in kidney and bone to 41%-31% and 86%-42% of uranium-treated group, respectively. After HK-2 cells that had been pre-treated with UO2(CH3COO)2 for 24 h were treated with the chelators for another 24 h, 55%-60% of the intracellular uranium was removed by 10-250 micromol L(-1) of BPCBG. Treatment of uranium-treated HK-2 cells with BPCBG significantly enhanced the cell survival, decreased the formation of micronuclei and inhibited the production of intracellular ROS. Although DTPA-CaNa3 markedly reduced the uranium retention in kidney of rats and HK-2 cells, its efficacy of uranium removal from body was significantly lower than that of BPCBG and it could not protect uranium-induced cell damage. It can be concluded that BPCBG effectively decorporated the uranium from UO2(CH3COO)2-treated rats and HK-2 cells, which was better than DTPA-CaNa3. It could also scavenge the uranium-induced intracellular ROS and protect against the uranium-induced cell damage. BPCBG is worth further investigation.
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Somatic mtDNA mutations in lung tissues of pesticide-exposed fruit growers.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2011
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Some pesticides have been considered potential chemical mutagens and their widespread use involves the assessment of their potentially hazardous effects. The mitochondrial genome is especially prone to DNA damage and thus can serve as a biomarker to monitor the genotoxicity of pesticides to human DNA. We performed a screening for somatic mutations in lung tissues from pesticide-exposed fruit growers, by direct comparing the entire mtDNA sequences of the lung tissue and the matched peripheral blood from the same individual. A phylogenetic approach and a high standard procedure were utilized to avoid potential errors in data generation and analysis. We observed a significantly increased frequency of mtDNA somatic mutations in lung tissues which had been exposed to pesticides multiple times by inhalation, and the potential biological significance of these mutations was further discussed. The samples represented in this observational study, which has multiple exposures to pesticides, experience a significant greater incidence of mtDNA mutations, suggesting that multiple exposures to pesticides could damage human mtDNA and cause somatic mutations.
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Effects of raspberry phytochemical extract on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and serum proteomics in a rat model.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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The red raspberry extract possesses potent antioxidant capacity and anticancerous activity in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study was to determine whether red raspberry extract affected the cell cycle, angiogenesis, and apoptosis in hepatic lesion tissues from a rat model induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as well as changes of serum proteomics. Rats were treated with red raspberry extract (0.75, 1.5, or 3.0 g/kg of body weight) by gavage starting 2 h after DEN administration and continued for 20 wk. Red raspberry extract inhibited cell proliferation, vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF expression, and induced apoptosis in the hepatic lesion tissues. In addition, 2 protein peaks (2597.93 and 4513.88 m/z) were identified to differentially express in the 3.0 g/kg body weight and positive control groups by serum proteomics. These results suggest that a dietary supplement with red raspberry effectively protects against chemically induced hepatic lesions in rats.
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Physiological and molecular analysis of polyethylene glycol-induced reduction of aluminium accumulation in the root tips of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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• Aluminium (Al) toxicity and drought are two major stress factors limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production on tropical acid soils. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatment reduces Al uptake and Al toxicity. • The effect of PEG 6000-induced osmotic stress on the expression of genes was studied using SuperSAGE combined with next-generation sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for selected genes. • Less Al stress in PEG-treated roots was confirmed by decreased Al-induced up-regulation of MATE and ACCO genes. The withdrawal of PEG from the Al treatment solution restored the Al accumulation and reversed the expression of MATE and ACCO genes to the level of the treatment with Al alone. Using SuperSAGE, we identified 611 up- and 728 down-regulated genes in PEG-treated root tips, and the results were confirmed by qRT-PCR using 46 differentially expressed genes. Among the 12 genes studied in more detail, XTHa and BEG (down-regulated by PEG) and HRGP, bZIP, MYB and P5CS (up-regulated by PEG) recovered completely within 2 h after removal of PEG stress. • The results suggest that genes related to cell wall assembly and modification, such as XTHs, BEG and HRGP, play important roles in the PEG-induced decrease in cell wall porosity, leading to reduced Al accumulation in root tips.
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BIM EL-mediated apoptosis in cumulus cells contributes to degenerative changes in aged porcine oocytes via a paracrine action.
Theriogenology
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2011
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Whether cumulus cells (CCs) contribute to oocyte aging remains controversial; in that regard, little is known about biochemical processes of gene expression in CCs surrounding aged oocytes. The objective was to elucidate contributions of CCs to porcine oocyte aging and degeneration, apoptosis and BIM expression in CCs during oocyte aging in vitro. When culture of cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) was prolonged (68 h, which resulted in 24 h of aging), the rate of blastocyst formation following electro-activation was lower than that of oocytes aged without CCs (2.6 ± 0.1 vs 13.5 ± 1.3%, mean ± SEM; P < 0.05). In addition, the presence of CCs significantly accelerated spontaneous fragmentation of oocytes following prolonged (92 h) culture. Apoptotic CCs were present in COCs cultured for 68 h, and the abundance of Bim mRNA in CCs progressively increased after 56 h of culture (P < 0.05). Based on immunofluorescence, BIM protein expression was up-regulated in CCs surrounding aged oocytes; furthermore, quantification (Western blot) of BIM(EL) protein progressively increased after 56 h of culture. Lastly, in a series of experiments to elucidate the signal pathway, blocking gap junctions (with 1-octanol) during aging did not eliminate the effect of CCs on accelerating oocyte aging, but prolonged co-culture of denuded oocytes with COCs after in vitro maturation reduced blastocyst rate relative to culture of denuded oocytes aged alone (4.15 ± 0.1 vs 11.0 ± 0.7%, P < 0.05). We concluded that apoptotic CCs, in which BIM(EL) up-regulation was involved, accelerated oocyte aging and degeneration in vitro via a paracrine action.
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Anti-proliferative effect of an extract of the root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and the possible mechanisms.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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The root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PM) is utilized to treat many diseases associated with aging. Research also indicates that PM inhibits the proliferation of certain types of cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of PM extract (PME) on the proliferation of MCF-7 cells and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Inhibition of the proliferation of MCF-7 cells was determined by the MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptotic rates were evaluated by flow cytometry, and cell cycle and apoptosis-related protein expression was assessed by Western blotting. Apoptotic characteristics of MCF-7 cells were detected by transmission electron microscopy. The present study showed that PME at doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 µg/ml signi?cantly inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry showed that the cell apoptotic rates were 9.1 ± 1.67 and 17.7 ± 2.93% after treatment with 100 and 200 µg/ml PME for 48 h, respectively. The proportions of cells in the G2/M phase were 37.9 ± 1.47 and 42.0 ± 1.71% after treatment with 100 and 200 µg/ml PME for 24 h, respectively. Western blot analysis showed that PME down-regulated the protein expression of Cdc25B and Cdc25C phosphatases accompanied by an increase in phospho-Cdk1, and PME promoted cytochrome c release from mitochondria into the cytosol to activate caspase-9. The present study demonstrated that PME inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and promoting cell apoptosis. The effects of PME on MCF-7 cells were associated with the modulation of the expression levels of proteins involved in the cell cycle and apoptosis. These data suggest that PME has promise as a treatment against breast cancer by inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells.
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Regional dynamics of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Pearl River Delta, China: implications and perspectives.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2011
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The mass transport budgets of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p-DDT) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in the Pearl River Delta, South China were calculated based on previously collected data. Residual p,p-DDT, mostly related to historical use, has largely settled into soil (780,000 kg), while the soil BDE-209 inventory (44,000 kg) is considerably smaller. Conversely, large amounts of BDE-209 currently used in numerous commercial products have resulted in a much higher atmospheric depositional flux of BDE-209 (28,100 kg/yr) relative to p,p-DDT (310 kg/yr). The soil inventory of p,p-DDT is predicted to decrease to half of its current value after 22 years, and the percent area containing soil p,p-DDT at levels exceeding the effects range-medium (27 ng/g) will decrease from 40% to 20%. Finally, soil BDE-209 inventory will reach an equilibrium value of 940 tons in ~60 years, when BDE-209 levels in 50% of soil will be above an equivalent risk guideline value (125 ng/g).
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miR-29c induces cell cycle arrest in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by modulating cyclin E expression.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Cyclin E is reported to be an important cell cycle regulator, and its dysregulation is implicated in tumorigenesis including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and play important roles in tumor initiation and progression. However, the regulation of cyclin E by miRNAs is still unclear in ESCC. In the present study, we found that overexpression of miR-29c inhibited cyclin E expression by targeting 3 untranslated region of cyclin E messenger RNA in ESCC cells. Moreover, overexpression of miR-29c induced cell cycle G(1)/G(0) arrest through suppression of cyclin E expression, without affecting other G(1) phase-related proteins level, such as cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 2 and CDK6. Furthermore, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR-29c inhibited proliferation of ESCC cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we detected miR-29c expression in 26 pairs of esophageal tumor-in-site-tissues and 60 pairs of ESCC tissues. The result showed that miR-29c level significantly decreased in ESCC tumor tissues and cell lines compared with normal esophageal epithelia. Taken together, our findings indicated that miR-29c was frequently downregulated in ESCC tissues and cells and suppressed tumor growth by inducing cell cycle G(1)/G(0) arrest mainly through modulating cyclin E expression.
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Expression of VEGF and MMP-9 and MRI imaging changes in cerebral glioma.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2011
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression with the histopathological grading of tumors in cerebral glioma. A total of 45 patients with pathologically confirmed cerebral glioma were divided into two groups: a low-grade group (grades I and II, 21 cases) and a high-grade group (grades III and IV, 24 cases). Immunohistochemical staining of tumor samples showed the percentages of tumors expressing VEGF and MMP-9 in the high-grade group to be 95.83 and 75%, respectively, significantly higher than those of the low-grade group (66.67 and 23.81%, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results indicated that the peripheral edema index (EI), enhancement percentage (EP), and the maximum diameter of the tumor in the high-grade group were significantly higher than those in the low-grade group (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.05). Moreover, the expression of VEGF and MMP-9 was positively correlated with EI, EP and the maximum diameter of the tumor (P<0.05). Therefore, VEGF and MMP-9 expression were correlated to the invasion of glioma. The association of their expression levels with EI, EP and the maximum tumor diameter indicates that these markers may be used to estimate tumor malignancy for future clinical diagnosis and treatment.
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[Research on prediction chemical composition of beef by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2011
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This study established a near infrared reflectance spectroscopy models for exactly predicting the fat, protein and moisture of the ground and mince beef on line. Using our country SupNIR-1000 near infrared spectrometer, the models were set up by artificial neural network (ANN). Related coefficient of calibration (r(c)) of fat model of mince was 0.971 and related coefficient of prediction (r(p)) was 0.972. The protein r(c) and RP were 0.952 and 0.949, respectively. The moisture r(c) and r(p) were 0.938 and 0.927, respectively. Using ground beef established models, the fat r(c) and r(p) were 0.935 and 0.810; the protein r(c) and r(p) were 0.954 and 0.868; the moisture r(c) and r(p) were 0.930 and 0.913, respectively. So near infrared reflectance spectroscopy can better detect the fat, protein and moisture of mince than ground beef. But basically the ground beef model also can be used to quickly predict the chemical composition on line.
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Direct preparation of carbon nanotubes and nanobelts from polymer.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Carbon nanotubes and carbon nanobelts were obtained via single-needle electrospinning on a basis of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion technique, respectively. The morphology of electrospun products can be controlled by controlling the temperature of the collector during the electrospinning process. The mechanism of fabricating PAN nanotubes and nanobelts by emulsion electrospinning is discussed in detail. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscope results show that the carbon nanotubes (the inner diameter of 25-50 nm and the outer diameter of 50-100 nm) have a wall thickness of 10-50 nm, and the width and thickness of the nanobelts range from 100 to 300 nm, and 1 to 5 nm, respectively. A slight difference of bonding configuration of the carbon nanofibers, carbon nanotubes and carbon nanobelts is attributed partly to their different topological structures. The novel method is versatile and could be extended to the fabrication of various types of nanotubes and nanobelts.
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[A follow-up study on cognitive changes of mild cognitive impairment in the elderly].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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To observe and assess the cognitive changes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the elderly.
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[Correlation study of the overexpression of activated Cdc42-associated kinase 1 and the stage and prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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To investigate the expression and relationship of activated Cdc42-associated kinase 1 (ACK1) and the clinical characteristics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
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[Acupuncture for post-stroke depression: a randomized controlled trial].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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To explore the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for post-stroke depression (PSD).
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Application of CT perfusion imaging to the histological differentiation of adrenal gland tumors.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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CT perfusion imaging has been used in diagnosis and classification of tumors widely and in assess tumor angiogenesis in some organs. However, there are few reports describing CT perfusion imaging of adrenal gland tumors.
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Influenza virus-like particles containing M2 induce broadly cross protective immunity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Current influenza vaccines based on the hemagglutinin protein are strain specific and do not provide good protection against drifted viruses or emergence of new pandemic strains. An influenza vaccine that can confer cross-protection against antigenically different influenza A strains is highly desirable for improving public health.
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Persistent halogenated compounds in aquaculture environments of South China: implications for global consumers health risk via fish consumption.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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This study examined the potential sources of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs), including organochlorine pesticides, mainly DDXs (sum of o,p- and p,p-DDT, -DDD, and -DDE and p,p-DDMU) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, to typical aquaculture environments of South China, determined the relative importance of gill diffusion and fish feeding for exposure of fish to these contaminants and assessed potential health risk for global consumers via consumption of fish from South China. Fish feed is generally a direct and important source of PHCs in both freshwater and seawater aquaculture. In addition, gill diffusion is the predominant uptake route for PHCs (except p,p-DDMU, o,p-DDD and -DDT) in farmed freshwater fish, whereas accumulation from the diet is the major route for farmed marine fish. Risks to health of global consumers via consumption of fish from South China are minimal. However, increased risk can be foreseen due to continuous use of brominated fire retardants and electronic waste importation to China.
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Input pathways of organochlorine pesticides to typical freshwater cultured fish ponds of South China: hints for pollution control.
Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2011
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Air, rain, pond water, bank soil, pond sediment, fish feed, and fish were sampled from four freshwater cultured fish ponds (FWCFPs) in rural areas within the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of South China. Compositional analyses indicated that historical residues were the main sources of DDXs (defined as the sum of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and 1-chloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p-DDMU)), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in the FWCFPs. The input fluxes to the FWCFPs were estimated at 4.0, 1.6, 15, and -0.92?µg/m(2) ·year for DDXs and 3.8, 0.92, 2.9, and -1.4 µg/m(2) ·year for HCHs for dry deposition, wet deposition, feeding, and net air-water exchange in Dongguan, and 3.8, 1.2, 137, and -1.2?µg/m(2) ·year for DDXs and 3.6, 0.66, 5.0, and -1.0?µg/m(2) ·year for HCHs in Shunde, respectively. These results indicated that fish feed was the dominant input source of DDXs to the FWCFPs. As for HCHs, fluxes via dry deposition and feeding were similar and slightly higher than those via wet deposition. Biological effects due to the occurrence of DDXs in the FWCFPs were minimal, and consumption of freshwater fish from the PRD appeared to pose insignificant risk to human health based on some existing regulations and guidelines.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.