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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Safety Assessment of Animal- and Plant-Derived Amino Acids as Used in Cosmetics.
Int. J. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of animal- and plant-derived amino acid mixtures, which function as skin and hair conditioning agents. The safety of ?-amino acids as direct food additives has been well established, based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures and the Panel previously has reviewed the safety of individual ?-amino acids in cosmetics. The Panel focused its review on dermal irritation and sensitization data relevant to the use of these ingredients in topical cosmetics. The Panel concluded that these 21 ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as used in cosmetics.
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Safety assessment of 6-hydroxyindole as used in cosmetics.
Int. J. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 6-hydroxyindole, which functions as an oxidative hair dye ingredient. The Panel considered relevant animal and human data provided in this safety assessment and concluded that 6-hydroxyindole is safe for use in oxidative hair dye formulations.
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Safety Assessment of PEGylated Oils as Used in Cosmetics.
Int. J. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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PEGylated oil is a terminology used to describe cosmetic ingredients that are the etherification and esterification products of glycerides and fatty acids with ethylene oxide. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) considered the safety of PEGylated oils, which function primarily as surfactants in cosmetic products. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data provided in this safety assessment and concluded that the 130 chemically related PEGylated oils were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating.
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Safety Assessment of Citric Acid, Inorganic Citrate Salts, and Alkyl Citrate Esters as Used in Cosmetics.
Int. J. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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The CIR Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of citric acid, 12 inorganic citrate salts, and 20 alkyl citrate esters as used in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration. Citric acid is reported to function as a pH adjuster, chelating agent, or fragrance ingredient. Some of the salts are also reported to function as chelating agents, and a number of the citrates are reported to function as skin-conditioning agents but other functions are also reported. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, but because citric acid, calcium citrate, ferric citrate, manganese citrate, potassium citrate, sodium citrate, diammonium citrate, isopropyl citrate, stearyl citrate, and triethyl citrate are generally recognized as safe direct food additives, dermal exposure was the focus for these ingredients in this cosmetic ingredient safety assessment.
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Amended safety assessment of formaldehyde and methylene glycol as used in cosmetics.
Int. J. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Formaldehyde and methylene glycol may be used safely in cosmetics if established limits are not exceeded and are safe for use in nail hardeners in the present practices of use and concentration, which include instructions to avoid skin contact. In hair-smoothing products, however, in the present practices of use and concentration, formaldehyde and methylene glycol are unsafe. Methylene glycol is continuously converted to formaldehyde, and vice versa, even at equilibrium, which can be easily shifted by heating, drying, and other conditions to increase the amount of formaldehyde. This rapid, reversible formaldehyde/methylene glycol equilibrium is distinguished from the slow, irreversible release of formaldehyde resulting from the so-called formaldehyde releaser preservatives, which are not addressed in this safety assessment (formaldehyde releasers may continue to be safely used in cosmetics at the levels established in their individual Cosmetic Ingredient Review safety assessments).
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Safety Assessment of ?-Amino Acids as Used in Cosmetics.
Int. J. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of ?-amino acids, which function primarily as hair- and skin-conditioning agents in cosmetic products. The safety of ?-amino acids as direct food additives has been well established based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures. The Panel focused its review on dermal irritation and sensitization data relevant to the use of these ingredients in topical cosmetics. The Panel concluded that ?-amino acids were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration of this safety assessment.
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Safety assessment of decyl glucoside and other alkyl glucosides as used in cosmetics.
Int. J. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel assessed the safety of 19 alkyl glucosides as used in cosmetics and concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating. Most of these ingredients function as surfactants in cosmetics, but some have additional functions as skin-conditioning agents, hair-conditioning agents, or emulsion stabilizers. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data on these ingredients. Since glucoside hydrolases in human skin are likely to break down these ingredients to release their respective fatty acids and glucose, the Panel also reviewed CIR reports on the safety of fatty alcohols and were able to extrapolate data from those previous reports to support safety.
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Safety assessment of triethanolamine and triethanolamine-containing ingredients as used in cosmetics.
Int. J. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of triethanolamine (TEA) and 31 related TEA-containing ingredients as used in cosmetics. The TEA is reported to function as a surfactant or pH adjuster; the related TEA-containing ingredients included in this safety assessment are reported to function as surfactants and hair- or skin-conditioning agents. The exception is TEA-sorbate, which is reported to function as a preservative. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data. Although data were not available for all the ingredients, the panel relied on the information available for TEA in conjunction with previous safety assessments of components of TEA-containing ingredients. These data could be extrapolated to support the safety of all included ingredients. The panel concluded that TEA and related TEA-containing ingredients named in this report are safe as used when formulated to be nonirritating. These ingredients should not be used in cosmetic products in which N-nitroso compounds can be formed.
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Safety assessment of diethanolamides as used in cosmetics.
Int. J. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Cocamide diethanolamine (DEA) and some of the other diethanolamides are mainly used as surfactant foam boosters or viscosity increasing agents in cosmetics, although a few are reported to be used as hair and skin conditioning agents, surfactant-cleansing or surfactant-emulsifying agents, or as an opacifying agent. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel considered new data and information from previous CIR reports to assess the concerns about the potential for amidases in human skin to convert these diethanolamides into DEA and the corresponding fatty acids. The Expert Panel concluded that these diethanolamides are safe as used when formulated to be nonirritating and when the levels of free DEA in the diethanolamides do not exceed those considered safe by the Panel. The Panel also recommended that these ingredients not be used in cosmetic products in which N-nitroso compounds can be formed.
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Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel on the safety assessment of pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid) and nonanoate esters.
Int. J. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Pelargonic acid and its esters function as skin-conditioning agents in cosmetics. Molecular weight (mw) and octanol-water partition coefficient data suggest that dermal penetration is possible. The biohandling of branched-chain fatty acids is not the same as for straight-chain fatty acids, but the differences are not significant to the conclusion that they all are readily metabolized to nontoxic moieties. Limited data suggested that the penetration of other ingredients may be enhanced if these ingredients are present in the same formulation. These ingredients are not significant oral or dermal toxicants in animal studies. They are not reproductive/developmental toxicants or genotoxic/carcinogenic in animal studies. The available data suggested that product formulations containing these ingredients would be nonirritating and nonsensitizing to human skin, but formulators were cautioned to consider the penetration enhancement potential. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration.
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Safety assessment of alkyl PEG ethers as used in cosmetics.
Int. J. Toxicol.
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The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of Alkyl PEG Ethers as used in cosmetics. These ingredients primarily function in cosmetics as surfactants, and some have additional functions as skin-conditioning agents, fragrance ingredients, and emulsion stabilizers. The Panel reviewed available relevant animal and clinical data, as well as information from previous CIR reports; when data were not available for individual ingredients, the Panel extrapolated from the existing data to support safety. The Panel concluded that the Alkyl PEG ethers are safe as used when formulated to be nonirritating, and the same applies to future alkyl PEG ether cosmetic ingredients that vary from those ingredients recited herein only by the number of ethylene glycol repeat units.
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Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel on the safety assessment of dicarboxylic acids, salts, and esters.
Int. J. Toxicol.
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The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of dicarboxylic acids and their salts and esters as used in cosmetics. Most dicarboxylic acids function in cosmetics as pH adjusters or fragrance ingredients, but the functions of most of the salts in cosmetics are not reported. Some of the esters function as skin conditioning or fragrance ingredients, plasticizers, solvents, or emollients. The Expert Panel noted gaps in the available safety data for some of the dicarboxylic acid and their salts and esters in this safety assessment. The available data on many of the ingredients are sufficient, however, and similar structural activity relationships, biologic functions, and cosmetic product usage suggest that the available data may be extrapolated to support the safety of the entire group. The Panel concluded that the ingredients named in this report are safe in the present practices of use and concentration.
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Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel on the safety assessment of methyl acetate.
Int. J. Toxicol.
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Alkyl acetates, as well as acetic acid and acetate salts, are widely used cosmetic ingredients, with a wide range of functions as fragrances, solvents, or skin-conditioning agents, depending on the specific ingredient. Available data on alkyl acetates, and acetic acid and the alcohol to which they could be metabolized, were considered adequate to support the safety of the entire group in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.