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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Bilirubin as a potential causal factor in type 2 diabetes risk: a Mendelian randomization study.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Circulating bilirubin, a natural antioxidant, is associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the nature of the relationship remains unknown. We performed Mendelian randomization in a prospective cohort of 3,381 participants free of diabetes at baseline (aged 28-75 years; women, 52.6%). We used rs6742078 located in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1) locus as instrumental variable (IV) to study a potential causal effect of serum total bilirubin on T2D risk. A total of 210 (6.2%) participants developed T2D during a median follow-up of 7.8 years. In adjusted analyses, rs6742078, which explained 19.5% of bilirubin variation, was strongly associated with total bilirubin (a 0.68-SD increase in bilirubin levels per T allele; P<1×10(-122)) and was also associated with T2D risk (OR 0.69 [95%CI, 0.54-0.90]; P=0.006). Per 1-SD increase in log-transformed bilirubin levels, we observed a 25% (OR 0.75 [95%CI, 0.62-0.92]; P=0.004) lower risk of T2D. In Mendelian randomization analysis, the causal risk reduction for T2D was estimated to be 42% (causal ORIVestimation per 1-SD increase in log-transformed bilirubin 0.58 [95%CI, 0.39-0.84]; P=0.005), which was comparable to the observational estimate (Durbin-Wu-Hausman chi-square test Pfor difference =0.19). These novel results provide evidence that elevated bilirubin is causally associated with risk of T2D and support its role as a protective determinant.
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Premorbid adjustment profiles in psychosis and the role of familial factors.
J Abnorm Psychol
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Disease heterogeneity in patients with psychotic disorder may be explained by distinct profiles of premorbid adjustment. The current study explored premorbid adjustment profiles in patients with psychotic disorders, associations with cognitive and clinical characteristics after disease onset, and the role of familial factors. A total of 666 patients with psychosis (predominantly schizophrenia), 673 siblings, 575 parents, and 585 controls were included in this study. Cluster analyses were performed on the patients' scores of the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS), using information on domains (social, academic) and age epochs (childhood, early adolescence, late adolescence). Resulting profiles were compared with characteristics in patients and their unaffected relatives. Six clusters, labeled normal, social intermediate, academic decline, overall decline, overall intermediate, and overall impaired adjustment, were identified in patients. Patients in different clusters differed from each other on cognitive, clinical, and functional characteristics after disease onset. Heterogeneity in the patient population may be explained in part by the adjustment profile prior to disease onset. This is in line with theories that propose different etiologies in the development of psychosis. Patient profiles were expressed in unaffected siblings, suggesting a role for familial factors.
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Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche.
John R B Perry, Felix Day, Cathy E Elks, Patrick Sulem, Deborah J Thompson, Teresa Ferreira, Chunyan He, Daniel I Chasman, Tonu Esko, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Eva Albrecht, Wei Q Ang, Tanguy Corre, Diana L Cousminer, Bjarke Feenstra, Nora Franceschini, Andrea Ganna, Andrew D Johnson, Sanela Kjellqvist, Kathryn L Lunetta, George McMahon, Ilja M Nolte, Lavinia Paternoster, Eleonora Porcu, Albert V Smith, Lisette Stolk, Alexander Teumer, Natalia Tšernikova, Emmi Tikkanen, Sheila Ulivi, Erin K Wagner, Najaf Amin, Laura J Bierut, Enda M Byrne, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Daniel L Koller, Massimo Mangino, Tune H Pers, Laura M Yerges-Armstrong, Jing Hua Zhao, Irene L Andrulis, Hoda Anton-Culver, Femke Atsma, Stefania Bandinelli, Matthias W Beckmann, Javier Benitez, Carl Blomqvist, Stig E Bojesen, Manjeet K Bolla, Bernardo Bonanni, Hiltrud Brauch, Hermann Brenner, Julie E Buring, Jenny Chang-Claude, Stephen Chanock, Jinhui Chen, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, J Margriet Collée, Fergus J Couch, David Couper, Andrea D Coviello, Angela Cox, Kamila Czene, Adamo Pio D'adamo, George Davey Smith, Immaculata De Vivo, Ellen W Demerath, Joe Dennis, Peter Devilee, Aida K Dieffenbach, Alison M Dunning, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Johan G Eriksson, Peter A Fasching, Luigi Ferrucci, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Henrik Flyger, Tatiana Foroud, Lude Franke, Melissa E Garcia, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Frank Geller, Eco E J de Geus, Graham G Giles, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Vilmundur Gudnason, Pascal Guénel, Suiqun Guo, Per Hall, Ute Hamann, Robin Haring, Catharina A Hartman, Andrew C Heath, Albert Hofman, Maartje J Hooning, John L Hopper, Frank B Hu, David J Hunter, David Karasik, Douglas P Kiel, Julia A Knight, Veli-Matti Kosma, Zoltan Kutalik, Sandra Lai, Diether Lambrechts, Annika Lindblom, Reedik Mägi, Patrik K Magnusson, Arto Mannermaa, Nicholas G Martin, Gisli Masson, Patrick F McArdle, Wendy L McArdle, Mads Melbye, Kyriaki Michailidou, Evelin Mihailov, Lili Milani, Roger L Milne, Heli Nevanlinna, Patrick Neven, Ellen A Nohr, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Ben A Oostra, Aarno Palotie, Munro Peacock, Nancy L Pedersen, Paolo Peterlongo, Julian Peto, Paul D P Pharoah, Dirkje S Postma, Anneli Pouta, Katri Pylkäs, Paolo Radice, Susan Ring, Fernando Rivadeneira, Antonietta Robino, Lynda M Rose, Anja Rudolph, Veikko Salomaa, Serena Sanna, David Schlessinger, Marjanka K Schmidt, Mellissa C Southey, Ulla Sovio, Meir J Stampfer, Doris Stöckl, Anna M Storniolo, Nicholas J Timpson, Jonathan Tyrer, Jenny A Visser, Peter Vollenweider, Henry Völzke, Gérard Waeber, Melanie Waldenberger, Henri Wallaschofski, Qin Wang, Gonneke Willemsen, Robert Winqvist, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Margaret J Wright, , Dorret I Boomsma, Michael J Econs, Kay-Tee Khaw, Ruth J F Loos, Mark I McCarthy, Grant W Montgomery, John P Rice, Elizabeth A Streeten, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Cornelia M van Duijn, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, Sven Bergmann, Eric Boerwinkle, Heather A Boyd, Laura Crisponi, Paolo Gasparini, Christian Gieger, Tamara B Harris, Erik Ingelsson, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Peter Kraft, Debbie Lawlor, Andres Metspalu, Craig E Pennell, Paul M Ridker, Harold Snieder, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Tim D Spector, David P Strachan, André G Uitterlinden, Nicholas J Wareham, Elisabeth Widén, Marek Zygmunt, Anna Murray, Douglas F Easton, Kari Stefansson, Joanne M Murabito, Ken K Ong.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P?
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Pleiotropic genes for metabolic syndrome and inflammation.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a health and financial burden worldwide. The MetS definition captures clustering of risk factors that predict higher risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Our study hypothesis is that additional to genes influencing individual MetS risk factors, genetic variants exist that influence MetS and inflammatory markers forming a predisposing MetS genetic network. To test this hypothesis a staged approach was undertaken. (a) We analyzed 17 metabolic and inflammatory traits in more than 85,500 participants from 14 large epidemiological studies within the Cross Consortia Pleiotropy Group. Individuals classified with MetS (NCEP definition), versus those without, showed on average significantly different levels for most inflammatory markers studied. (b) Paired average correlations between 8 metabolic traits and 9 inflammatory markers from the same studies as above, estimated with two methods, and factor analyses on large simulated data, helped in identifying 8 combinations of traits for follow-up in meta-analyses, out of 130,305 possible combinations between metabolic traits and inflammatory markers studied. (c) We performed correlated meta-analyses for 8 metabolic traits and 6 inflammatory markers by using existing GWAS published genetic summary results, with about 2.5 million SNPs from twelve predominantly largest GWAS consortia. These analyses yielded 130 unique SNPs/genes with pleiotropic associations (a SNP/gene associating at least one metabolic trait and one inflammatory marker). Of them twenty-five variants (seven loci newly reported) are proposed as MetS candidates. They map to genes MACF1, KIAA0754, GCKR, GRB14, COBLL1, LOC646736-IRS1, SLC39A8, NELFE, SKIV2L, STK19, TFAP2B, BAZ1B, BCL7B, TBL2, MLXIPL, LPL, TRIB1, ATXN2, HECTD4, PTPN11, ZNF664, PDXDC1, FTO, MC4R and TOMM40. Based on large data evidence, we conclude that inflammation is a feature of MetS and several gene variants show pleiotropic genetic associations across phenotypes and might explain a part of MetS correlated genetic architecture. These findings warrant further functional investigation.
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QCGWAS: A flexible R package for automated quality control of genome-wide association results.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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QCGWAS is an R package that automates the quality control of genome-wide association result files. Its main purpose is to facilitate the quality control of a large number of such files before meta-analysis. Alternatively, it can be used by individual cohorts to check their own result files. QCGWAS is flexible and has a wide range of options, allowing rapid generation of high-quality input files for meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies.
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GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment.
Cornelius A Rietveld, Sarah E Medland, Jaime Derringer, Jian Yang, Tonu Esko, Nicolas W Martin, Harm-Jan Westra, Konstantin Shakhbazov, Abdel Abdellaoui, Arpana Agrawal, Eva Albrecht, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, Najaf Amin, John Barnard, Sebastian E Baumeister, Kelly S Benke, Lawrence F Bielak, Jeffrey A Boatman, Patricia A Boyle, Gail Davies, Christiaan de Leeuw, Niina Eklund, Daniel S Evans, Rudolf Ferhmann, Krista Fischer, Christian Gieger, Håkon K Gjessing, Sara Hägg, Jennifer R Harris, Caroline Hayward, Christina Holzapfel, Carla A Ibrahim-Verbaas, Erik Ingelsson, Bo Jacobsson, Peter K Joshi, Astanand Jugessur, Marika Kaakinen, Stavroula Kanoni, Juha Karjalainen, Ivana Kolčić, Kati Kristiansson, Zoltan Kutalik, Jari Lahti, Sang H Lee, Peng Lin, Penelope A Lind, Yongmei Liu, Kurt Lohman, Marisa Loitfelder, George McMahon, Pedro Marques Vidal, Osorio Meirelles, Lili Milani, Ronny Myhre, Marja-Liisa Nuotio, Christopher J Oldmeadow, Katja E Petrovic, Wouter J Peyrot, Ozren Polašek, Lydia Quaye, Eva Reinmaa, John P Rice, Thais S Rizzi, Helena Schmidt, Reinhold Schmidt, Albert V Smith, Jennifer A Smith, Toshiko Tanaka, Antonio Terracciano, Matthijs J H M van der Loos, Veronique Vitart, Henry Völzke, Jürgen Wellmann, Lei Yu, Wei Zhao, Jüri Allik, John R Attia, Stefania Bandinelli, François Bastardot, Jonathan Beauchamp, David A Bennett, Klaus Berger, Laura J Bierut, Dorret I Boomsma, Ute Bültmann, Harry Campbell, Christopher F Chabris, Lynn Cherkas, Mina K Chung, Francesco Cucca, Mariza de Andrade, Philip L De Jager, Jan-Emmanuel De Neve, Ian J Deary, George V Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Maria Dimitriou, Guðný Eiríksdóttir, Martin F Elderson, Johan G Eriksson, David M Evans, Jessica D Faul, Luigi Ferrucci, Melissa E Garcia, Henrik Grönberg, Vilmundur Guðnason, Per Hall, Juliette M Harris, Tamara B Harris, Nicholas D Hastie, Andrew C Heath, Dena G Hernandez, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Adriaan Hofman, Rolf Holle, Elizabeth G Holliday, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, William G Iacono, Thomas Illig, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Mika Kähönen, Jaakko Kaprio, Robert M Kirkpatrick, Matthew Kowgier, Antti Latvala, Lenore J Launer, Debbie A Lawlor, Terho Lehtimäki, Jingmei Li, Paul Lichtenstein, Peter Lichtner, David C Liewald, Pamela A Madden, Patrik K E Magnusson, Tomi E Mäkinen, Marco Masala, Matt McGue, Andres Metspalu, Andreas Mielck, Michael B Miller, Grant W Montgomery, Sutapa Mukherjee, Dale R Nyholt, Ben A Oostra, Lyle J Palmer, Aarno Palotie, Brenda W J H Penninx, Markus Perola, Patricia A Peyser, Martin Preisig, Katri Räikkönen, Olli T Raitakari, Anu Realo, Susan M Ring, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Igor Rudan, Aldo Rustichini, Veikko Salomaa, Antti-Pekka Sarin, David Schlessinger, Rodney J Scott, Harold Snieder, Beate St Pourcain, John M Starr, Jae Hoon Sul, Ida Surakka, Rauli Svento, Alexander Teumer, , Henning Tiemeier, Frank J A van Rooij, David R Van Wagoner, Erkki Vartiainen, Jorma Viikari, Peter Vollenweider, Judith M Vonk, Gérard Waeber, David R Weir, H-Erich Wichmann, Elisabeth Widén, Gonneke Willemsen, James F Wilson, Alan F Wright, Dalton Conley, George Davey-Smith, Lude Franke, Patrick J F Groenen, Albert Hofman, Magnus Johannesson, Sharon L R Kardia, Robert F Krueger, David Laibson, Nicholas G Martin, Michelle N Meyer, Danielle Posthuma, A Roy Thurik, Nicholas J Timpson, André G Uitterlinden, Cornelia M van Duijn, Peter M Visscher, Daniel J Benjamin, David Cesarini, Philipp D Koellinger.
Science
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R(2) ? 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ?2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.
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Neglected role of hookah and opium in gastric carcinogenesis: a cohort study on risk factors and attributable fractions.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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A recent study showed an association between hookah/opium use and gastric cancer but no study has investigated the relationship with gastric precancerous lesions. We examined the association between hookah/opium and gastric precancerous lesions and subsequent gastric cancer. In a population-based cohort study, 928 randomly selected, healthy, Helicobacter pylori-infected subjects in Ardabil Province, Iran, were followed for 10 years. The association between baseline precancerous lesions and lifestyle risk factors (including hookah/opium) was analyzed using logistic regression and presented as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We also calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the associations of lifestyle risk factors and endoscopic and histological parameters with incident gastric cancers using Cox regression models. Additionally, the proportion of cancers attributable to modifiable risk factors was calculated. During 9,096 person-years of follow-up, 36 new cases of gastric cancer were observed (incidence rate: 3.96/1,000 persons-years). Opium consumption was strongly associated with baseline antral (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2-9.1) and body intestinal metaplasia (OR: 7.3; 95% CI: 2.5-21.5). Opium (HR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4-7.7), hookah (HR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-7.1) and cigarette use (HR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4-7.5), as well as high salt intake, family history of gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and histological atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia of body were associated with higher risk of gastric cancer. The fraction of cancers attributable jointly to high salt, low fruit intake, smoking (including hookah) and opium was 93% (95% CI: 83-98). Hookah and opium use are risk factors for gastric cancer as well as for precancerous lesions. Hookah, opium, cigarette and high salt intake are important modifiable risk factors in this high-incidence gastric cancer area.
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Serum ghrelin; a new surrogate marker of gastric mucosal alterations in upper gastrointestinal carcinogenesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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A few studies have indicated inverse relationships between serum ghrelin and gastric and esophageal cancers but those associations have been restricted to specific populations, including smokers and overweight individuals. We examined the association between ghrelin and gastroesophageal cancers and atrophic gastritis in a population-based setting.
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Evidence for PTPN22 R620W polymorphism as the sole common risk variant for rheumatoid arthritis in the 1p13.2 region.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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The PTPN22 rs2476601 genetic variant has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune diseases. Some reports suggest that this single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may not be the only causal variant in the region of PTPN22. Our aim was to identify new independent RA-associated common gene variants in the PTPN22 region.
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Genome-wide linkage analysis of hemodynamic parameters under mental and physical stress in extended Omani Arab pedigrees: the Oman Family Study.
Twin Res Hum Genet
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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We performed a genome-wide scan in a homogeneous Arab population to identify genomic regions linked to blood pressure (BP) and its intermediate phenotypes during mental and physical stress tests.
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Identification of novel genetic markers associated with clinical phenotypes of systemic sclerosis through a genome-wide association strategy.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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The aim of this study was to determine, through a genome-wide association study (GWAS), the genetic components contributing to different clinical sub-phenotypes of systemic sclerosis (SSc). We considered limited (lcSSc) and diffuse (dcSSc) cutaneous involvement, and the relationships with presence of the SSc-specific auto-antibodies, anti-centromere (ACA), and anti-topoisomerase I (ATA). Four GWAS cohorts, comprising 2,296 SSc patients and 5,171 healthy controls, were meta-analyzed looking for associations in the selected subgroups. Eighteen polymorphisms were further tested in nine independent cohorts comprising an additional 3,175 SSc patients and 4,971 controls. Conditional analysis for associated SNPs in the HLA region was performed to explore their independent association in antibody subgroups. Overall analysis showed that non-HLA polymorphism rs11642873 in IRF8 gene to be associated at GWAS level with lcSSc (P?=?2.32×10(-12), OR?=?0.75). Also, rs12540874 in GRB10 gene (P?=?1.27 × 10(-6), OR?=?1.15) and rs11047102 in SOX5 gene (P?=?1.39×10(-7), OR?=?1.36) showed a suggestive association with lcSSc and ACA subgroups respectively. In the HLA region, we observed highly associated allelic combinations in the HLA-DQB1 locus with ACA (P?=?1.79×10(-61), OR?=?2.48), in the HLA-DPA1/B1 loci with ATA (P?=?4.57×10(-76), OR?=?8.84), and in NOTCH4 with ACA P?=?8.84×10(-21), OR?=?0.55) and ATA (P?=?1.14×10(-8), OR?=?0.54). We have identified three new non-HLA genes (IRF8, GRB10, and SOX5) associated with SSc clinical and auto-antibody subgroups. Within the HLA region, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DPA1/B1, and NOTCH4 associations with SSc are likely confined to specific auto-antibodies. These data emphasize the differential genetic components of subphenotypes of SSc.
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Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma.
John C Chambers, Weihua Zhang, Joban Sehmi, Xinzhong Li, Mark N Wass, Pim van der Harst, Hilma Holm, Serena Sanna, Maryam Kavousi, Sebastian E Baumeister, Lachlan J Coin, Guohong Deng, Christian Gieger, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Brigitte Kühnel, Vinod Kumar, Vasiliki Lagou, Liming Liang, Jian'an Luan, Pedro Marques Vidal, Irene Mateo Leach, Paul F O'Reilly, John F Peden, Nilufer Rahmioglu, Pasi Soininen, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Xin Yuan, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, Larry D Atwood, Ingrid B Borecki, Morris J Brown, Pimphen Charoen, Francesco Cucca, Debashish Das, Eco J C de Geus, Anna L Dixon, Angela Döring, Georg Ehret, Gudmundur I Eyjolfsson, Martin Farrall, Nita G Forouhi, Nele Friedrich, Wolfram Goessling, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Tamara B Harris, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Simon Heath, Gideon M Hirschfield, Albert Hofman, Georg Homuth, Elina Hyppönen, Harry L A Janssen, Toby Johnson, Antti J Kangas, Ido P Kema, Jens P Kühn, Sandra Lai, Mark Lathrop, Markus M Lerch, Yun Li, T Jake Liang, Jing-Ping Lin, Ruth J F Loos, Nicholas G Martin, Miriam F Moffatt, Grant W Montgomery, Patricia B Munroe, Kiran Musunuru, Yusuke Nakamura, Christopher J O'Donnell, Isleifur Olafsson, Brenda W Penninx, Anneli Pouta, Bram P Prins, Inga Prokopenko, Ralf Puls, Aimo Ruokonen, Markku J Savolainen, David Schlessinger, Jeoffrey N L Schouten, Udo Seedorf, Srijita Sen-Chowdhry, Katherine A Siminovitch, Johannes H Smit, Timothy D Spector, Wenting Tan, Tanya M Teslovich, Taru Tukiainen, André G Uitterlinden, Melanie M van der Klauw, Ramachandran S Vasan, Chris Wallace, Henri Wallaschofski, H-Erich Wichmann, Gonneke Willemsen, Peter Würtz, Chun Xu, Laura M Yerges-Armstrong, , Gonçalo R Abecasis, Kourosh R Ahmadi, Dorret I Boomsma, Mark Caulfield, William O Cookson, Cornelia M van Duijn, Philippe Froguel, Koichi Matsuda, Mark I McCarthy, Christa Meisinger, Vincent Mooser, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Gunter Schumann, Harold Snieder, Michael J E Sternberg, Ronald P Stolk, Howard C Thomas, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Manuela Uda, Gérard Waeber, Nicholas J Wareham, Dawn M Waterworth, Hugh Watkins, John B Whitfield, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Caroline S Fox, Mika Ala-Korpela, Kari Stefansson, Peter Vollenweider, Henry Völzke, Eric E Schadt, James Scott, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Paul Elliott, Jaspal S Kooner.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P = 10(-190)). We used functional genomic approaches including metabonomic profiling and gene expression analyses to identify probable candidate genes at these regions. We identified 69 candidate genes, including genes involved in biliary transport (ATP8B1 and ABCB11), glucose, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (FADS1, FADS2, GCKR, JMJD1C, HNF1A, MLXIPL, PNPLA3, PPP1R3B, SLC2A2 and TRIB1), glycoprotein biosynthesis and cell surface glycobiology (ABO, ASGR1, FUT2, GPLD1 and ST3GAL4), inflammation and immunity (CD276, CDH6, GCKR, HNF1A, HPR, ITGA1, RORA and STAT4) and glutathione metabolism (GSTT1, GSTT2 and GGT), as well as several genes of uncertain or unknown function (including ABHD12, EFHD1, EFNA1, EPHA2, MICAL3 and ZNF827). Our results provide new insight into genetic mechanisms and pathways influencing markers of liver function.
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Association of two DRD2 gene polymorphisms with acute and tardive antipsychotic-induced movement disorders in young Caucasian patients.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Pharmacogenetic studies on antipsychotic-induced movement disorders (MD) in schizophrenia so far have focused mainly on tardive dyskinesia. Only a few examined the more acute antipsychotic-induced MD such as parkinsonism and akathisia. Notably, all MD relate to deregulation of the dopamine system.
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Genome-wide association study identifies six new loci influencing pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure.
Louise V Wain, Germaine C Verwoert, Paul F O'Reilly, Gang Shi, Toby Johnson, Andrew D Johnson, Murielle Bochud, Kenneth M Rice, Peter Henneman, Albert V Smith, Georg B Ehret, Najaf Amin, Martin G Larson, Vincent Mooser, David Hadley, Marcus Dörr, Joshua C Bis, Thor Aspelund, Tonu Esko, A Cecile J W Janssens, Jing Hua Zhao, Simon Heath, Maris Laan, Jingyuan Fu, Giorgio Pistis, Jian'an Luan, Pankaj Arora, Gavin Lucas, Nicola Pirastu, Irene Pichler, Anne U Jackson, Rebecca J Webster, Feng Zhang, John F Peden, Helena Schmidt, Toshiko Tanaka, Harry Campbell, Wilmar Igl, Yuri Milaneschi, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Veronique Vitart, Daniel I Chasman, Stella Trompet, Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, John C Chambers, Xiuqing Guo, Terho Lehtimäki, Brigitte Kühnel, Lorna M Lopez, Ozren Polašek, Mladen Boban, Christopher P Nelson, Alanna C Morrison, Vasyl Pihur, Santhi K Ganesh, Albert Hofman, Suman Kundu, Francesco U S Mattace-Raso, Fernando Rivadeneira, Eric J G Sijbrands, André G Uitterlinden, Shih-Jen Hwang, Ramachandran S Vasan, Thomas J Wang, Sven Bergmann, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Jaana Laitinen, Anneli Pouta, Paavo Zitting, Wendy L McArdle, Heyo K Kroemer, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Nicole L Glazer, Kent D Taylor, Tamara B Harris, Helene Alavere, Toomas Haller, Aime Keis, Mari-Liis Tammesoo, Yurii Aulchenko, Inês Barroso, Kay-Tee Khaw, Pilar Galán, Serge Hercberg, Mark Lathrop, Susana Eyheramendy, Elin Org, Siim Sõber, Xiaowen Lu, Ilja M Nolte, Brenda W Penninx, Tanguy Corre, Corrado Masciullo, Cinzia Sala, Leif Groop, Benjamin F Voight, Olle Melander, Christopher J O'Donnell, Veikko Salomaa, Adamo Pio D'adamo, Antonella Fabretto, Flavio Faletra, Sheila Ulivi, Fabiola M Del Greco, Maurizio Facheris, Francis S Collins, Richard N Bergman, John P Beilby, Joseph Hung, A William Musk, Massimo Mangino, So-Youn Shin, Nicole Soranzo, Hugh Watkins, Anuj Goel, Anders Hamsten, Pierre Gider, Marisa Loitfelder, Marion Zeginigg, Dena Hernandez, Samer S Najjar, Pau Navarro, Sarah H Wild, Anna Maria Corsi, Andrew Singleton, Eco J C de Geus, Gonneke Willemsen, Alex N Parker, Lynda M Rose, Brendan Buckley, David Stott, Marco Orrù, Manuela Uda, , Melanie M van der Klauw, Weihua Zhang, Xinzhong Li, James Scott, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Gregory L Burke, Mika Kähönen, Jorma Viikari, Angela Döring, Thomas Meitinger, Gail Davies, John M Starr, Valur Emilsson, Andrew Plump, Jan H Lindeman, Peter A C 't Hoen, Inke R König, Janine F Felix, Robert Clarke, Jemma C Hopewell, Halit Ongen, Monique Breteler, Stéphanie Debette, Anita L Destefano, Myriam Fornage, Gary F Mitchell, Nicholas L Smith, Hilma Holm, Kari Stefansson, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Nilesh J Samani, Michael Preuss, Igor Rudan, Caroline Hayward, Ian J Deary, H-Erich Wichmann, Olli T Raitakari, Walter Palmas, Jaspal S Kooner, Ronald P Stolk, J Wouter Jukema, Alan F Wright, Dorret I Boomsma, Stefania Bandinelli, Ulf B Gyllensten, James F Wilson, Luigi Ferrucci, Reinhold Schmidt, Martin Farrall, Tim D Spector, Lyle J Palmer, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Arne Pfeufer, Paolo Gasparini, David Siscovick, David Altshuler, Ruth J F Loos, Daniela Toniolo, Harold Snieder, Christian Gieger, Pierre Meneton, Nicholas J Wareham, Ben A Oostra, Andres Metspalu, Lenore Launer, Rainer Rettig, David P Strachan, Jacques S Beckmann, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Jeanette Erdmann, Ko Willems van Dijk, Eric Boerwinkle, Michael Boehnke, Paul M Ridker, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Aravinda Chakravarti, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Vilmundur Gudnason, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Daniel Levy, Patricia B Munroe, Bruce M Psaty, Mark J Caulfield, Dabeeru C Rao, Martin D Tobin, Paul Elliott, Cornelia M van Duijn.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Numerous genetic loci have been associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Europeans. We now report genome-wide association studies of pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In discovery (N = 74,064) and follow-up studies (N = 48,607), we identified at genome-wide significance (P = 2.7 × 10(-8) to P = 2.3 × 10(-13)) four new PP loci (at 4q12 near CHIC2, 7q22.3 near PIK3CG, 8q24.12 in NOV and 11q24.3 near ADAMTS8), two new MAP loci (3p21.31 in MAP4 and 10q25.3 near ADRB1) and one locus associated with both of these traits (2q24.3 near FIGN) that has also recently been associated with SBP in east Asians. For three of the new PP loci, the estimated effect for SBP was opposite of that for DBP, in contrast to the majority of common SBP- and DBP-associated variants, which show concordant effects on both traits. These findings suggest new genetic pathways underlying blood pressure variation, some of which may differentially influence SBP and DBP.
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Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in >80 000 subjects identifies multiple loci for C-reactive protein levels.
Abbas Dehghan, Josée Dupuis, Maja Barbalic, Joshua C Bis, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Chen Lu, Niina Pellikka, Henri Wallaschofski, Johannes Kettunen, Peter Henneman, Jens Baumert, David P Strachan, Christian Fuchsberger, Veronique Vitart, James F Wilson, Guillaume Paré, Silvia Naitza, Megan E Rudock, Ida Surakka, Eco J C de Geus, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, Jack Guralnik, Alan Shuldiner, Toshiko Tanaka, Robert Y L Zee, Renate B Schnabel, Vijay Nambi, Maryam Kavousi, Samuli Ripatti, Matthias Nauck, Nicholas L Smith, Albert V Smith, Jouko Sundvall, Paul Scheet, Yongmei Liu, Aimo Ruokonen, Lynda M Rose, Martin G Larson, Ron C Hoogeveen, Nelson B Freimer, Alexander Teumer, Russell P Tracy, Lenore J Launer, Julie E Buring, Jennifer F Yamamoto, Aaron R Folsom, Eric J G Sijbrands, James Pankow, Paul Elliott, John F Keaney, Wei Sun, Antti-Pekka Sarin, João D Fontes, Sunita Badola, Brad C Astor, Albert Hofman, Anneli Pouta, Karl Werdan, Karin H Greiser, Oliver Kuss, Henriette E Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Joachim Thiery, Yalda Jamshidi, Ilja M Nolte, Nicole Soranzo, Timothy D Spector, Henry Völzke, Alexander N Parker, Thor Aspelund, David Bates, Lauren Young, Kim Tsui, David S Siscovick, Xiuqing Guo, Jerome I Rotter, Manuela Uda, David Schlessinger, Igor Rudan, Andrew A Hicks, Brenda W Penninx, Barbara Thorand, Christian Gieger, Joe Coresh, Gonneke Willemsen, Tamara B Harris, André G Uitterlinden, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Kenneth Rice, Dörte Radke, Veikko Salomaa, Ko Willems van Dijk, Eric Boerwinkle, Ramachandran S Vasan, Luigi Ferrucci, Quince D Gibson, Stefania Bandinelli, Harold Snieder, Dorret I Boomsma, Xiangjun Xiao, Harry Campbell, Caroline Hayward, Peter P Pramstaller, Cornelia M van Duijn, Leena Peltonen, Bruce M Psaty, Vilmundur Gudnason, Paul M Ridker, Georg Homuth, Wolfgang Koenig, Christie M Ballantyne, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Emelia J Benjamin, Markus Perola, Daniel I Chasman.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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C-reactive protein (CRP) is a heritable marker of chronic inflammation that is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. We sought to identify genetic variants that are associated with CRP levels.
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Differential association of two PTPN22 coding variants with Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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The PTPN22 gene is an important risk factor for human autoimmunity. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the role of the R263Q PTPN22 polymorphism in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohns disease (CD), and to reevaluate the association of the R620W PTPN22 polymorphism with both diseases.
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Trends in the utilization of invasive prenatal diagnosis in The Netherlands during 2000-2009.
Prenat. Diagn.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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To analyze trends in the number and type of invasive procedure, reasons for referral, maternal age and chromosomal abnormalities over a 10-year period and correlate the trends to changes in the national prenatal screening policy.
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IGF1 promoter polymorphism and cranial growth in individuals born very preterm.
Horm Res Paediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Background: Major defects in the IGF1 gene are associated with severely reduced cranial and linear growth. The association between IGF1 promoter polymorphisms and growth is uncertain. Aims: To test the effect of the IGF1 192-bp allele on cranial and linear growth and body mass index (BMI) from birth until age 5 years, and on IQ and serum IGF-1 at age 19 years. Methods: In a birth cohort, including 285 individuals born at a gestational age <32 weeks from the Project On Preterm and Small-for-gestational age infants (POPS), cohort anthropometric measurements were analyzed. At age 19 years IGF1 genotype, serum IGF-1 level and IQ were determined. Regression analyses were performed with mixed models. Results: Homozygotes for the 192-bp allele had a slower cranial growth from birth until age 5 years, and a tendency towards less brain sparing and a slower linear growth compared to the other 2 genotype groups. IGF1 genotype was not associated with IQ or BMI development. Head circumference SDS at age 5 years was positively associated with IQ at age 19 years. Conclusion: Homozygosity for the IGF1 192-bp allele is associated with a slower cranial growth from birth until age 5 years in individuals born very preterm.
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Association of FcgR2a, but not FcgR3a, with inflammatory bowel diseases across three Caucasian populations.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2010
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The Fc receptors II and III (FcgR2a, and FcgR3a) play a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response. The FcgR2a*519GG and FcgR3a*559CC genotypes have been associated with several autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, nephritis, and possibly to type I diabetes, and celiac disease. In a large multicenter, two-stage study of 6570 people, we tested whether the FcgR2a and FcgR3a genes were also involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC).
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Identification of the oxidative stress-related gene MSRA as a rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility locus by genome-wide pathway analysis.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2010
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Genome-wide association studies carried out in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have led to the discovery of several genetic associations with this disease. Still, the current associated genetic variations can explain only part of the genetic risk involved in RA, and it is well recognized that these genome-wide association studies are likely underpowered to detect all common disease variants. This study was undertaken to explore the genomic regions showing low-significance associations in previous genome-wide association studies of RA.
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COMT Val158Met polymorphism, verbalizing of emotion and activation of affective brain systems.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2010
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Genetic variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism has been shown to influence performance on cognitive and emotional tasks. Specifically, it has been suggested that the Met allele might be less advantageous than the Val allele with respect to emotional processing. This study addresses the question whether the presence of the Met allele is directly related to both lower emotional verbalizing proficiency and differences in brain activation during emotional processing. Specifically, we investigated whether COMT genotype would be associated with differences in activation in cortical midline structures during valence evaluation of words. Forty participants ranging from low to high on the verbalizing subscale of the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ) were genotyped for the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. During fMRI, they evaluated the valence of emotional words. Met homozygotes reported more difficulties in verbalizing their feelings. In addition, the Met allele was associated with attenuated brain activation in posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus during valence evaluation. We conclude that the Met allele modulates neural activation in regions associated with emotional awareness. Our findings may contribute to understanding the neural correlates of susceptibility for affective disorders.
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HFE gene mutations increase the risk of coronary heart disease in women.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2010
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The purpose of the present study is to examine HFE gene mutations in relation to newly diagnosed (incident) coronary heart disease (CHD). In a population-based follow-up study of 7,983 individuals aged 55 years and older, we compared the risk of incident CHD between HFE carriers and non-carriers, overall and stratified by sex and smoking status. HFE mutations were significantly associated with an increased risk of incident CHD in women but not in men (hazard ratio [HR] for women = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.4 versus HR for men = 0.9, 95% CI 0.7-1.2). This increased CHD risk associated with HFE mutations in women was statistically significant in never smokers (HR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.8) and current smokers (HR = 3.1, 95% CI 1.4-7.1), but not in former smokers (HR = 1.3, 95% CI 0.7-2.4). HFE mutations are associated with increased risk of incident CHD in women.
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Association of variation in Fcgamma receptor 3B gene copy number with rheumatoid arthritis in Caucasian samples.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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There is increasing evidence that variation in gene copy number (CN) influences clinical phenotype. The low-affinity Fcgamma receptor 3B (FCGR3B) located in the FCGR gene cluster is a CN polymorphic gene involved in the recruitment to sites of inflammation and activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Given recent evidence that low FCGR3B CN is a risk factor for systemic but not organ-specific autoimmune disease and the potential importance of PMN in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the authors hypothesised that FCGR3B gene dosage influences susceptibility to RA.
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Association analysis of myosin IXB and type 1 diabetes.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2010
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To date, seven studies have provided evidence for an association between the gene encoding for myosin IXB (MYO9B) and celiac disease (CD), and inflammatory bowel diseases, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2305767, rs1457092, and rs2305764. We investigated whether MYO9B is associated with T1D. The three SNPs were genotyped in Dutch samples from 288 T1D patients and 1615 controls. The A allele of SNP rs2305767A>G showed some evidence of association with T1D (nominal p for genotype = 0.06; OR carrier = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.04-2.19), but not in British samples from 4301 case patients and 4706 controls (p = 0.53), or when the Dutch and UK data were pooled (N patients = 4582, N controls= 6224; Mantel-Hansel p = 0.83). Furthermore, the nonsynonymous rs1545620 C>A SNP that has been associated with the inflammatory bowel disease, showed no association with T1D in British case-control set (p = 0.57). We conclude that MYO9B might not be a strong determinant of T1D, although there was some association in our initial Dutch study. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of MYO9B in T1D.
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Intestinal barrier gene variants may not explain the increased levels of antigliadin antibodies, suggesting other mechanisms than altered permeability.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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Various genes may influence intestinal barrier function, including MAGI2, MYO9B, and PARD3, which are associated with celiac disease. Because direct measurement of intestinal permeability is difficult, antibodies against gliadin (AGA) and Bakers yeast (anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies [ASCA]) can be used as an indirect test. The objective of this study was to investigate whether intestinal permeability, represented by AGA, was correlated with MAGI2, MYO9B, and PARD3. Analyses were performed in patients with Down syndrome, a population with suspected increased intestinal permeability. Correlations between AGA and ASCA were investigated. Patients with Down syndrome (n = 126) were genotyped for six single-nucleotide polymorphisms in MAGI2 (rs1496770, rs6962966, rs9640699), MYO9B (rs1457092, rs2305764), and PARD3 (rs10763976). An allele dosage association of these risk genes and AGA levels was performed. The correlation between AGA and ASCA was studied. A strong correlation was found between AGA and ASCA (p < 0.01). The patient group with one or more risk genotypes had lower mean AGA levels (trend test p = 0.007) and consisted of a larger number of patients with normal AGA levels (p = 9.3 x 10(-5)). Celiac-associated risk genotypes are associated with lower AGA values instead of elevated ones. Thus, other immunologic phenomena play a role in the increased prevalence of elevated AGA in patients with Down syndrome, possibly involving altered induction and/or maintenance of tolerance.
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Genome-wide association study of systemic sclerosis identifies CD247 as a new susceptibility locus.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs that leads to profound disability and premature death. To identify new SSc susceptibility loci, we conducted the first genome-wide association study in a population of European ancestry including a total of 2,296 individuals with SSc and 5,171 controls. Analysis of 279,621 autosomal SNPs followed by replication testing in an independent case-control set of European ancestry (2,753 individuals with SSc (cases) and 4,569 controls) identified a new susceptibility locus for systemic sclerosis at CD247 (1q22-23, rs2056626, P = 2.09 x 10(-7) in the discovery samples, P = 3.39 x 10(-9) in the combined analysis). Additionally, we confirm and firmly establish the role of the MHC (P = 2.31 x 10(-18)), IRF5 (P = 1.86 x 10(-13)) and STAT4 (P = 3.37 x 10(-9)) gene regions as SSc genetic risk factors.
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Genetic overlap among intelligence and other candidate endophenotypes for schizophrenia.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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A strategy to improve genetic studies of schizophrenia involves the use of endophenotypes. Information on overlapping genetic contributions among endophenotypes may provide additional power, reveal biological pathways, and have practical implications for genetic research. Several cognitive endophenotypes, including intelligence, are likely to be modulated by overlapping genetic influences.
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The TRAF1-C5 region on chromosome 9q33 is associated with multiple autoimmune diseases.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2009
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The TRAF1-C5 locus has recently been identified as a genetic risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Since genetic risk factors tend to overlap with several autoimmune diseases, a study was undertaken to investigate whether this region is associated with type 1 diabetes (TID), celiac disease (CD), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
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Evidence for natural killer cell-mediated protection from metastasis formation in uveal melanoma patients.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
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In uveal melanoma, low human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression on primary tumors is associated with a decreased risk of metastasis. Consequently, it has been suggested that natural killer (NK) cells, which detect decreased expression of HLA class I, are involved in the immune control of metastases. In this study, three novel lines of evidence were identified that support a role for NK cells.
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Discovery and fine mapping of serum protein loci through transethnic meta-analysis.
Nora Franceschini, Frank J A van Rooij, Bram P Prins, Mary F Feitosa, Mahir Karakas, John H Eckfeldt, Aaron R Folsom, Jeffrey Kopp, Ahmad Vaez, Jeanette S Andrews, Jens Baumert, Vesna Boraska, Linda Broer, Caroline Hayward, Julius S Ngwa, Yukinori Okada, Ozren Polašek, Harm-Jan Westra, Ying A Wang, Fabiola Del Greco M, Nicole L Glazer, Karen Kapur, Ido P Kema, Lorna M Lopez, Arne Schillert, Albert V Smith, Cheryl A Winkler, Lina Zgaga, , Stefania Bandinelli, Sven Bergmann, Mladen Boban, Murielle Bochud, Y D Chen, Gail Davies, Abbas Dehghan, Jingzhong Ding, Angela Doering, J Peter Durda, Luigi Ferrucci, Oscar H Franco, Lude Franke, Grog Gunjaca, Albert Hofman, Fang-Chi Hsu, Ivana Kolčić, Aldi Kraja, Michiaki Kubo, Karl J Lackner, Lenore Launer, Laura R Loehr, Guo Li, Christa Meisinger, Yusuke Nakamura, Christine Schwienbacher, John M Starr, Atsushi Takahashi, Vesela Torlak, André G Uitterlinden, Veronique Vitart, Melanie Waldenberger, Philipp S Wild, Mirna Kirin, Tanja Zeller, Tatijana Zemunik, Qunyuan Zhang, Andreas Ziegler, Stefan Blankenberg, Eric Boerwinkle, Ingrid B Borecki, Harry Campbell, Ian J Deary, Timothy M Frayling, Christian Gieger, Tamara B Harris, Andrew A Hicks, Wolfgang Koenig, Christopher J O' Donnell, Caroline S Fox, Peter P Pramstaller, Bruce M Psaty, Alex P Reiner, Jerome I Rotter, Igor Rudan, Harold Snieder, Toshihiro Tanaka, Cornelia M van Duijn, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, James F Wilson, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Alan F Wright, Qingyu Wu, Yongmei Liu, Nancy S Jenny, Kari E North, Janine F Felix, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, L Adrienne Cupples, John R B Perry, Andrew P Morris.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
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Many disorders are associated with altered serum protein concentrations, including malnutrition, cancer, and cardiovascular, kidney, and inflammatory diseases. Although these protein concentrations are highly heritable, relatively little is known about their underlying genetic determinants. Through transethnic meta-analysis of European-ancestry and Japanese genome-wide association studies, we identified six loci at genome-wide significance (p < 5 × 10(-8)) for serum albumin (HPN-SCN1B, GCKR-FNDC4, SERPINF2-WDR81, TNFRSF11A-ZCCHC2, FRMD5-WDR76, and RPS11-FCGRT, in up to 53,190 European-ancestry and 9,380 Japanese individuals) and three loci for total protein (TNFRS13B, 6q21.3, and ELL2, in up to 25,539 European-ancestry and 10,168 Japanese individuals). We observed little evidence of heterogeneity in allelic effects at these loci between groups of European and Japanese ancestry but obtained substantial improvements in the resolution of fine mapping of potential causal variants by leveraging transethnic differences in the distribution of linkage disequilibrium. We demonstrated a functional role for the most strongly associated serum albumin locus, HPN, for which Hpn knockout mice manifest low plasma albumin concentrations. Other loci associated with serum albumin harbor genes related to ribosome function, protein translation, and proteasomal degradation, whereas those associated with serum total protein include genes related to immune function. Our results highlight the advantages of transethnic meta-analysis for the discovery and fine mapping of complex trait loci and have provided initial insights into the underlying genetic architecture of serum protein concentrations and their association with human disease.
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The age-dependency of genetic and environmental influences on serum cytokine levels: a twin study.
Cytokine
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Previous epidemiologic studies have evaluated the use of immunological markers as possible tools for measuring ageing and predicting age-related pathology. The importance of both genetic and environmental influences in regulation of these markers has been emphasized. In order to further evaluate this relationship, the present study aims to investigate the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on four key cytokines involved in the human immune response (Interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-?). In addition, the role of age as a possible moderator on these influences was evaluated.
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Clinical response to antipsychotic drug treatment: association study of polymorphisms in six candidate genes.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
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Pharmacogenetic studies have demonstrated significant associations between several candidate genes (DRD2, DRD3, 5HTR2A and 5HTR2C, COMT and MTHFR) and antipsychotic drug response. The present study investigates the effect of nine polymorphisms in these genes for an association with antipsychotic treatment response. 329 Caucasian patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder using antipsychotics were included. All patients participated in the longitudinal GROUP-study in The Netherlands. We genotyped 9 SNPs in 6 candidate genes (DRD2: TaqI_A, -141C; DRD3: Ser9Gly; HTR2A: 102-T/C, His452Tyr; HTR2C: Cys23Ser; COMT: Val158Met; MTHFR: 677-C/T) using standard protocols. Polymorphisms were based on previous studies showing associations with positive symptoms treatment response. The Clinical Global Impression - Improvement (CGI-I) scale was used to assess improvement in positive psychotic symptoms since the start of current antipsychotic treatment. Ordinal regression was used for association analyses. Ninety percent of the patients used second generation antipsychotics, with olanzapine (28%) and risperidone (29%) being the most prescribed drugs. Ser9Gly of the dopamine D3 receptor gene (P value 0.034) and 677-C/T of MTHFR (P value 0.019) were tested statistically significant. Gly-carriers and T-carriers, respectively, showed more clinical improvement on the CGI-I. The other polymorphisms did not show a statistically significant association (P values>0.10). In conclusion, we replicated two out of nine of the previously reported associations between polymorphisms and treatment response. The direction and magnitude of the associations presented here in DRD3 (Ser9Gly) and MTHFR (677-C/T) are in line with previous association studies in Caucasian patients. These polymorphisms may be of value for predicting clinical response.
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Meta-analyses identify 13 loci associated with age at menopause and highlight DNA repair and immune pathways.
Lisette Stolk, John R B Perry, Daniel I Chasman, Chunyan He, Massimo Mangino, Patrick Sulem, Maja Barbalic, Linda Broer, Enda M Byrne, Florian Ernst, Tonu Esko, Nora Franceschini, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Peter Kraft, Patrick F McArdle, Eleonora Porcu, So-Youn Shin, Albert V Smith, Sophie van Wingerden, Guangju Zhai, Wei V Zhuang, Eva Albrecht, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, Thor Aspelund, Stefania Bandinelli, Lovorka Barać Lauc, Jacques S Beckmann, Mladen Boban, Eric Boerwinkle, Frank J Broekmans, Andrea Burri, Harry Campbell, Stephen J Chanock, Constance Chen, Marilyn C Cornelis, Tanguy Corre, Andrea D Coviello, Pio D'Adamo, Gail Davies, Ulf de Faire, Eco J C de Geus, Ian J Deary, George V Z Dedoussis, Panagiotis Deloukas, Shah Ebrahim, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Valur Emilsson, Johan G Eriksson, Bart C J M Fauser, Liana Ferreli, Luigi Ferrucci, Krista Fischer, Aaron R Folsom, Melissa E Garcia, Paolo Gasparini, Christian Gieger, Nicole Glazer, Diederick E Grobbee, Per Hall, Toomas Haller, Susan E Hankinson, Merli Hass, Caroline Hayward, Andrew C Heath, Albert Hofman, Erik Ingelsson, A Cecile J W Janssens, Andrew D Johnson, David Karasik, Sharon L R Kardia, Jules Keyzer, Douglas P Kiel, Ivana Kolčić, Zoltan Kutalik, Jari Lahti, Sandra Lai, Triin Laisk, Joop S E Laven, Debbie A Lawlor, Jianjun Liu, Lorna M Lopez, Yvonne V Louwers, Patrik K E Magnusson, Mara Marongiu, Nicholas G Martin, Irena Martinović Klarić, Corrado Masciullo, Barbara McKnight, Sarah E Medland, David Melzer, Vincent Mooser, Pau Navarro, Anne B Newman, Dale R Nyholt, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Aarno Palotie, Guillaume Paré, Alex N Parker, Nancy L Pedersen, Petra H M Peeters, Giorgio Pistis, Andrew S Plump, Ozren Polašek, Victor J M Pop, Bruce M Psaty, Katri Räikkönen, Emil Rehnberg, Jerome I Rotter, Igor Rudan, Cinzia Sala, Andres Salumets, Angelo Scuteri, Andrew Singleton, Jennifer A Smith, Harold Snieder, Nicole Soranzo, Simon N Stacey, John M Starr, Maria G Stathopoulou, Kathleen Stirrups, Ronald P Stolk, Unnur Styrkarsdottir, Yan V Sun, Albert Tenesa, Barbara Thorand, Daniela Toniolo, Laufey Tryggvadóttir, Kim Tsui, Sheila Ulivi, Rob M Van Dam, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Carla H van Gils, Peter van Nierop, Jacqueline M Vink, Peter M Visscher, Marlies Voorhuis, Gérard Waeber, Henri Wallaschofski, H Erich Wichmann, Elisabeth Widén, Colette J M Wijnands-van Gent, Gonneke Willemsen, James F Wilson, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Alan F Wright, Laura M Yerges-Armstrong, Tatijana Zemunik, Lina Zgaga, M Carola Zillikens, Marek Zygmunt, The Lifelines Cohort Study, Alice M Arnold, Dorret I Boomsma, Julie E Buring, Laura Crisponi, Ellen W Demerath, Vilmundur Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Frank B Hu, David J Hunter, Lenore J Launer, Andres Metspalu, Grant W Montgomery, Ben A Oostra, Paul M Ridker, Serena Sanna, David Schlessinger, Tim D Spector, Kari Stefansson, Elizabeth A Streeten, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Manuela Uda, André G Uitterlinden, Cornelia M van Duijn, Henry Völzke, Anna Murray, Joanne M Murabito, Jenny A Visser, Kathryn L Lunetta.
Nat. Genet.
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To newly identify loci for age at natural menopause, we carried out a meta-analysis of 22 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 38,968 women of European descent, with replication in up to 14,435 women. In addition to four known loci, we identified 13 loci newly associated with age at natural menopause (at P < 5 × 10(-8)). Candidate genes located at these newly associated loci include genes implicated in DNA repair (EXO1, HELQ, UIMC1, FAM175A, FANCI, TLK1, POLG and PRIM1) and immune function (IL11, NLRP11 and PRRC2A (also known as BAT2)). Gene-set enrichment pathway analyses using the full GWAS data set identified exoDNase, NF-?B signaling and mitochondrial dysfunction as biological processes related to timing of menopause.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.