Unusual amounts of retinoic acid (RA) isomers play an important role in abnormal morphological development of mammals; such as rat embryos. Each isomer of RA has a unique function in first steps of embryonic life. In the current study, a new method for preconcentration and simultaneous determination of all-trans retinoic acid, 13-cis retinoic acid, 9-cis retinoic acid and 9,13-di-cis retinoic acid in rat whole rudimentary embryo culture (RWEC) has been developed. RA isomers were extracted from samples by conjugation to appropriate amount of surface modified CdSe quantum dots (QDs) prior to HPLC/UV determination. In order to quickly release of the analytes with unchanged form, separated RA-QD conjugation were irradiated by intensive near infrared wavelength (NIR). Low energy NIR irradiation results in maintaining the primary forms of RA isomers during the release. The conjugation and release mechanisms were described and experimental parameters were investigated in detail. Under optimized conditions, the method was linear in the range of 0.040-34.600 pmol g(-1) for all-trans RA (R(2)=0.9996), 0.070-34.200 pmol g(-1) for 13-cis RA (R(2)=0.9992), 0.050-35.300 pmol g(-1) for 9,13-di-cis RA (R(2)=0.9998) and 0.050-32.900 pmol g(-1) for 9-cis RA (R(2)=0.9990). The present method can be useful for retinoic acid monitoring in clinical studies.
Thermal plasmas and lasers have been widely used in medicine to cut, ablate and cauterize tissues through heating; in contrast, non-thermal plasma produces no heat, so its effects can be selective. In order to exploit the potential for clinical applications, including wound healing, sterilization, blood coagulation, and cancer treatment, a mechanistic understanding of the interaction of non-thermal plasma with living tissues is required. Using mammalian cells in culture, it is shown here that non-thermal plasma created by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has dose-dependent effects that range from increasing cell proliferation to inducing apoptosis. It is also shown that these effects are primarily due to formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We have utilized ?-H2AX to detect DNA damage induced by non-thermal plasma and found that it is initiated by production of active neutral species that most likely induce formation of organic peroxides in cell medium. Phosphorylation of H2AX following non-thermal plasma treatment is ATR dependent and ATM independent, suggesting that plasma treatment may lead to replication arrest or formation of single-stranded DNA breaks; however, plasma does not lead to formation of bulky adducts/thymine dimers.
Non-thermal atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma may provide a novel approach to treat malignancies via induction of apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of DBD plasma to induce apoptosis in melanoma cells. Melanoma cells were exposed to plasma at doses that did not induce necrosis, and cell viability and apoptotic activity were evaluated by Trypan blue exclusion test, Annexin-V/PI staining, caspase-3 cleavage, and TUNEL® analysis. Trypan blue staining revealed that non-thermal plasma treatment significantly decreased the viability of cells in a dose-dependent manner 3 and 24 h after plasma treatment. Annexin-V/PI staining revealed a significant increase in apoptosis in plasma-treated cells at 24, 48, and 72 h post-treatment (p < 0.001). Caspase-3 cleavage was observed 48 h post-plasma treatment at a dose of 15 J/cm(2). TUNEL® analysis of plasma-treated cells demonstrated an increase in apoptosis at 48 and 72 h post-treatment (p < 0.001) at a dose of 15 J/cm(2). Pre-treatment with N-acetyl-L: -cysteine (NAC), an intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, significantly decreased apoptosis in plasma-treated cells at 5 and 15 J/cm(2). Plasma treatment induces apoptosis in melanoma cells through a pathway that appears to be dependent on production of intracellular ROS. DBD plasma production of intracellular ROS leads to dose-dependent DNA damage in melanoma cells, detected by ?-H2AX, which was completely abrogated by pre-treating cells with ROS scavenger, NAC. Plasma-induced DNA damage in turn may lead to the observed plasma-induced apoptosis. Since plasma is non-thermal, it may be used to selectively treat malignancies.
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