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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Thermal diffusion desorption for the comprehensive analysis of organic compounds.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Comprehensive analysis of organic compounds is crucial yet challenging considering that information on elements, fragments, and molecules is unavailable simultaneously by current analytical techniques. Additionally, many compounds are insoluble or only dissolve in toxic solvents. A solvent- and matrix-free strategy has been developed which allows the organic compound analyzed in its original form. It utilizes thermal diffusion desorption with the solid analyte irradiated with high energy laser. It is capable of providing explicit elemental, fragmental, and molecular information simultaneously for a variety of organic compounds. Thermal diffusion desorption has many advantages compared to the electrospray and MALDI techniques. The protons that form the protonated molecular ions originate from the analyte itself. All the elements and fragments are also derived from the analyte itself, which provides abundant information and expedites the identification of organic compounds.
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Minimizing matrix effect by femtosecond laser ablation and ionization in elemental determination.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Matrix effect is unavoidable in direct solid analysis, which usually is a leading cause of the nonstoichiometric effect in quantitative analysis. In this research, experiments were carried out to study the overall characteristics of atomization and ionization in laser-solid interaction. Both nanosecond (ns) and femtosecond (fs) lasers were applied in a buffer-gas-assisted ionization source coupled with an orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Twenty-nine solid standards of ten different matrices, including six metals and four dielectrics, were analyzed. The results indicate that the fs-laser mode offers more stable relative sensitivity coefficients (RSCs) with irradiance higher than 7 × 10(13) W·cm(-2), which could be more reliable in the determination of element composition of solids. The matrix effect is reduced by half when the fs-laser is employed, owing to the fact that the fs-laser ablation and ionization (fs-LAI) incurs an almost heat-free ablation process and creates a dense plasma for the stable ionization.
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Single-cell elemental analysis via high irradiance femtosecond laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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In modern bioanalytics, elemental analysis of single cells is important yet challenging due to the complicated biological matrices and elemental contents. We have developed the high irradiance femtosecond laser ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry (fs-LI-O-TOFMS) to determine the elemental composition of individual cells. The sample preparation procedure is simple and fast through heating and drying the cells. Under typical operating conditions, elements above femtogram levels in a single cell can be clearly observed in the spectrum with reasonable isotope ratios. Some of the nonmetallic elements that are difficult to measure by ICPMS, such as P, S, and Cl, can be easily determined by fs-LI-O-TOFMS. Replicate analyses show that signal variations are 15-35% for metallic elements and 25-50% for nonmetallic elements. The results demonstrate that fs-LI-O-TOFMS is a simple, rapid, and practical tool for the elemental determination of single cells.
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Simultaneous acquisition of elemental, fragmental, and molecular information on organometallic compounds.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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A novel method for obtaining elemental, fragmental, and molecular information of organometallic compounds has been developed using high irradiance laser induced time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-TOFMS) with a buffer-gas-assisted ion source. This technique permits direct and matrix-free analysis of solid analyte with minimal sample preparation. In addition, it shows special advantages in integrated acquisition of elemental, fragmental, and molecular information from a single target, on the basis of which identification of organometallic complexes is simplified and expedited.
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Elemental imaging via laser ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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An elemental imaging method using a laser ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer system was developed for the simultaneous detection of all metal and nonmetal elements. The instrument control and data processing were realized by self-developed programs. This system is capable of simultaneous detection of metal and nonmetal elements, with a spatial resolution of 50 ?m, the lowest detection limits of 3 × 10(-7) g/g (Li), and a dynamic range of 7 orders of magnitude. Moreover, this technique does not require standards for quantitative analysis and can be a powerful and versatile tool for elemental imaging.
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High irradiance laser ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry: a versatile tool for solid analysis.
Mass Spectrom Rev
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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This article reviews the development of and applications for high irradiance laser ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-O-TOFMS). LI-O-TOFMS has solved the bottleneck problems in traditional high irradiance laser ionization mass spectrometry, which allows the instrument to acquire explicit spectra with high resolution. A buffer-gas-assisted ion source effectively reduces the kinetic energy of the ions and suppresses the multiply charged ion interference. The pulse train data acquisition technique was applied to reduce the spectrum interference from multiply charged ions and polyatomic ions according to the temporal profiles of different ion packets in the repelling region. Relatively high laser irradiance (?10(10) W/cm(2)) is preferable for achieving uniform relative sensitivities for different elements in the samples of different matrices. LI-O-TOFMS has been used in the standardless, semiquantitative analysis of solids, which is proved to be a fast and convenient technique for solid sample analysis. By increasing the laser irradiance and reducing the buffer gas pressure, the determination of nonmetallic elements in solids can also be achieved without losing spectral explicity. Recent applications, such as elemental analysis of a single egg cell and acquiring elemental, fragmental, and molecular information of chemicals, were given to demonstrate the potential of the new technique. All of these results reveal that LI-O-TOFMS is an advanced tool in the elemental analysis of solids in terms of modern mass spectrometry.
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Direct infusion mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for human metabonomics? A serum metabonomic study of kidney cancer.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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Serum samples from kidney cancer patients and healthy controls were analyzed by both direct infusion mass spectrometry (DIMS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with a high resolution ESI-Q-TOFMS. The classification and biomarker discovery capacities of the two methods were compared, and MS/MS experiments were carried out to identify potential biomarkers. DIMS had comparable classification and prediction capabilities to LC-MS but consumed only ~5% of the analysis time. With regard to biomarker discovery, twenty-three variables were found as potential biomarkers by DIMS, and 48 variables were obtained by LC-MS. DIMS is recommended to be a fast diagnostic method for kidney cancer, while LC-MS is necessary when comprehensive screening of biomarkers is required.
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Two-dimensional separation in laser ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2010
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The capabilities of two-dimensional separation using a high irradiance laser ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LI-O-TOFMS) were demonstrated in this paper. Ions were separated via their initial kinetic energy in one dimension and their mass-to-charge ratios in the other dimension. Investigation of the transient ion profiles after laser pulses revealed that the separation of analyte ions from multiply charged ions and gas species ions was achieved. Comparison of mass spectra in the normal accumulation mode and in the two-dimensional separation mode indicated that the relative sensitivity coefficients are stable and close to their true values in the two-dimensional separation mode, especially for trace elements that are prone to interference.
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Laser ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of nonmetallic elements in solids.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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The simultaneous determination of nonmetallic elements in solid samples is difficult owing to their discrepant physical and chemical properties. We developed a high-irradiance laser ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LI-O-TOFMS) system and applied it for the determination of nonmetallic elements in solids. Helium was used as the buffer gas at 250 Pa in the source chamber; the laser irradiance was about 7 x 10(10) W/cm(2). A series of artificial standards containing B, C, N, O, F, Si, P, S, Cl, As, Br, Se, I, and Te were used. Explicit spectra were obtained with only a little interference from gas species and doubly charged matrix ions. Standardless semiquantitative analysis could be accomplished with a novel sampling methodology to obtain near-uniform sensitivity coefficients for different elements. Limits of detection (LOD) at microgram per gram level and a dynamic range of 6 orders of magnitude were achieved for most nonmetallic elements.
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High irradiance laser ionization mass spectrometry for direct speciation of iron oxides.
J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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A novel method has been developed that allows the direct speciation analysis of iron oxides based on a modified laser ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Time resolved mass spectra were acquired for the investigation of elemental ions and oxide ions generated by a laser ionization source. Speciation methodologies, including the identification of characteristic ions and the use of ion abundance ratios were evaluated for the differentiation of the oxides. The influence of operating parameters on the distribution of cluster ions was investigated, and their mechanism of formation discussed.
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Femtogram detection and quantitation of residues using laser ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2009
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A newly developed high irradiance laser ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LI-O-TOFMS) was employed for the elemental analysis of residues, which were prepared by evaporating mixed salt solutions. The residues were first characterized in terms of shape and elemental distribution. In TOFMS detection, all of the metal elements in the residue can be observed in the spectra. Relative sensitivity coefficients for different elements were within 1 order of magnitude, which meets semiquantitative analysis criteria. By calculating the individual masses from the ablated area due to a single laser shot, the absolute detection limit reached 7 x 10(-15) g for most metal elements. The results indicate that LI-O-TOFMS is capable of performing ultratrace elemental qualification and quantification, with an absolute limit of detection and an absolute limit of quantitation at the femtogram level.
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Applicability of standardless semiquantitative analysis of solids by high-irradiance laser ionization orthogonal time-of-fight mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2009
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A compact high-irradiance laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry system has been developed for the multielemental analysis of solids. Helium was introduced into the ion source as a buffer gas to cool high kinetic energy ions and suppress the interference of multicharged ions. A special pulse train repelling mode was used to achieve explicit spectra. Two quantitative methods are described for the laser ionization mass spectrometry in this paper. The first of these is the routine calibration curve quantitation, in which various matrix-matched standards are required; the second method, which is based on the uniform correlation between the signal and elemental concentration of different samples, is more convenient and covers a typical dynamic range of 6 orders. All the investigations and results indicate satisfactory performance of the newly developed instrument and its applicability for simultaneous multielemental analysis of solid samples.
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Semiquantitative multielemental analysis of biological samples by a laser ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer.
J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
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Semiquantitative multielemental analyses of biological samples (tea leaf standard, Laminaria japonica, and pig skin) were demonstrated with a newly developed laser ionization orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LI-O-TOFMS). The sample was directly ablated and ionized with high irradiance after simple sample preparation. Relative sensitivity coefficients (RSC) were calculated and evaluated for sensitivity differences. Due to the employment of a collisional cooling device and the orthogonal geometry of the TOF system, high resolving power can be obtained, such that elemental peaks and interferential peaks with the same nominal mass can be distinguished. The detection limit of microg g(-1) levels can be commonly achieved for elemental determination.
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Metabonomics research of diabetic nephropathy and type 2 diabetes mellitus based on UPLC-oaTOF-MS system.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight (oaTOF) mass spectrometry has showed great potential in diabetes research. In this paper, a UPLC-oaTOF-MS system was employed to distinguish the global serum profiles of 8 diabetic nephropathy (DN) patients, 33 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and 25 healthy volunteers, and tried to find potential biomarkers. The UPLC system produced information-rich chromatograms with typical measured peak widths of 4 s, generating peak capacities of 225 in 15 min. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was used for group differentiation and marker selection. As shown in the scores plot, the distinct clustering between the patients and controls was observed, and DN and T2DM patients were also separated into two individual groups. Several compounds were tentatively identified based on accurate mass, isotopic pattern and MS/MS information. In addition, significant changes in the serum level of leucine, dihydrosphingosine and phytosphingosine were noted, indicating the perturbations of amino acid metabolism and phospholipid metabolism in diabetic diseases, which having implications in clinical diagnosis and treatment.
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A novel stir bar sorptive extraction coating based on monolithic material for apolar, polar organic compounds and heavy metal ions.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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In this study, a novel stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) based on monolithic material (SBSEM) was prepared. The monolithic material was obtained by in situ copolymerization of vinylpyrrolidone and divinylbenzene in the presence of a porogen solvent containing cyclohexanol and 1-dodecanol with azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator. The influences of polymerization conditions on the extraction efficiencies were investigated, using phenol and p-nitrophenol as detected solutes. The monolithic material was characterized by various techniques, such as elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry, infrared spectroscopy. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were used to investigate the extraction efficiencies of SBSEM for apolar analytes. Hormones, aromatic amines and phenols were selected as test analytes to investigate the extraction efficiencies of SBSEM for weakly and strongly polar compounds. The results showed that the new SBSEM could enrich the above-mentioned organic compounds effectively. It is worthy to mention that the SBSEM can enrich some heavy metal ions, such as Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Cr(3+) and Cd(2+), through coordination adsorption. To our best knowledge, that is the first to use SBSE to enrich heavy metal ions.
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A small high-irradiance laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer.
J Mass Spectrom
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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A small high-irradiance laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LI-TOFMS) with orthogonal sample introduction was described. High irradiance of 6 x 10(10) W/cm(2) at 532 nm from a Nd:YAG laser was applied in the experiment to get a high ionization degree in plasma and to dissociate the interferential polyatomic ions. Meanwhile, the interferential multiply charged ions resulted by high-irradiance were nearly eliminated in the spectrum by utilizing helium as the buffer gas in the ion source due to three-body recombination, which resulted in a relatively clean background. Improved signal stability was obtained by automated step moving of the sample stage in short time intervals. By using two sets of Einzel lens in transport system, nearly uniform relative sensitivity coefficients (RSCs) were achieved for most of metal elements including light ions which were detected in extremely low sensitivity in previous hexapole transportation instrument. The resolving power reaches 2200, and the detection limits (DLs) are 10(-6) g/g for metal elements in the steel standard.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.