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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Catalytic carbene transfer allows the direct customization of cyclic purine dinucleotides.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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We describe a simple method for the direct modification of nucleobases in cyclic purine dinucleotides, important signalling molecules in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The method tolerates all members of the cyclic dinucleotide family and could be used to modulate their function or introduce useful side-chains such as fluorophores and photo-crosslinking groups.
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Residues essential for panton-valentine leukocidin s component binding to its cell receptor suggest both plasticity and adaptability in its interaction surface.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a bicomponent staphylococcal leukotoxin, is involved in the poor prognosis of necrotizing pneumonia. The present study aimed to elucidate the binding mechanism of PVL and in particular its cell-binding domain. The class S component of PVL, LukS-PV, is known to ensure cell targeting and exhibits the highest affinity for the neutrophil membrane (Kd?10(-10) M) compared to the class F component of PVL, LukF-PV (Kd?10(-9) M). Alanine scanning mutagenesis was used to identify the residues involved in LukS-PV binding to the neutrophil surface. Nineteen single alanine mutations were performed in the rim domain previously described as implicated in cell membrane interactions. Positions were chosen in order to replace polar or exposed charged residues and according to conservation between leukotoxin class S components. Characterization studies enabled to identify a cluster of residues essential for LukS-PV binding, localized on two loops of the rim domain. The mutations R73A, Y184A, T244A, H245A and Y250A led to dramatically reduced binding affinities for both human leukocytes and undifferentiated U937 cells expressing the C5a receptor. The three-dimensional structure of five of the mutants was determined using X-ray crystallography. Structure analysis identified residues Y184 and Y250 as crucial in providing structural flexibility in the receptor-binding domain of LukS-PV.
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Activation of neutrophils by the two-component leukotoxin LukE/D from Staphylococcus aureus: proteomic analysis of the secretions.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for severe bacterial infections in hospitals and healthcare facilities. It produces single and bicomponent toxins (leukotoxins and hemolysins) that hinder innate immune function. Leukotoxin subunits bind to leukocyte cell membrane thus inducing transmembrane pores and subsequently, cell lysis. Leukotoxin LukE/D is a member of the bicomponent toxin family, but to date, no study concerning its involvement in host-pathogen interactions has been reported. In the present study, we performed the proteomic analysis of the secretions recovered after activation of human neutrophils by leukotoxin LukE/D. The neutrophil secretions were purified by RP-HPLC and different fractions were analyzed by Edman sequencing, LC-MS/MS, immunoblotted for chromogranin-derived peptides and further analyzed for antimicrobial properties. Proteomic analysis revealed that neutrophil secretions constitute a large number of proteins related with immune boosting mechanisms, proteolytic degradation, inflammatory process and antioxidant reactions.
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p-Sulfonato-calix[n]arenes inhibit staphylococcal bicomponent leukotoxins by supramolecular interactions.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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PVL (Panton-Valentine leukocidin) and other Staphylococcus aureus ?-stranded pore-forming toxins are important virulence factors involved in various pathologies that are often necrotizing. The present study characterized leukotoxin inhibition by selected SCns (p-sulfonato-calix[n]arenes): SC4, SC6 and SC8. These chemicals have no toxic effects on human erythrocytes or neutrophils, and some are able to inhibit both the activity of and the cell lysis by leukotoxins in a dose-dependent manner. Depending on the type of leukotoxins and SCns, flow cytometry revealed IC50 values of 6-22 ?M for Ca2+ activation and of 2-50 ?M for cell lysis. SCns were observed to affect membrane binding of class S proteins responsible for cell specificity. Electrospray MS and surface plasmon resonance established supramolecular interactions (1:1 stoichiometry) between SCns and class S proteins in solution, but not class F proteins. The membrane-binding affinity of S proteins was Kd=0.07-6.2 nM. The binding ability was completely abolished by SCns at different concentrations according to the number of benzenes (30-300 ?M; SC8>SC6?SC4). The inhibitory properties of SCns were also observed in vivo in a rabbit model of PVL-induced endophthalmitis. These calixarenes may represent new therapeutic avenues aimed at minimizing inflammatory reactions and necrosis due to certain virulence factors.
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Heavy chain-only antibodies and tetravalent bispecific antibody neutralizing Staphylococcus aureus leukotoxins.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming toxin associated with current outbreaks of community-associated methicillin-resistant strains and implicated directly in the pathophysiology of Staphylococcus aureus-related diseases. Humanized heavy chain-only antibodies (HCAb) were generated against S. aureus PVL from immunized transgenic mice to neutralize toxin activity. The active form of PVL consists of the two components, LukS-PV and LukF-PV, which induce osmotic lysis following pore formation in host defense cells. One anti-LukS-PV HCAb, three anti-LukF-PV HCAbs with affinities in the nanomolar range, and one engineered tetravalent bispecific HCAb were tested in vitro and in vivo, and all prevented toxin binding and pore formation. Anti-LukS-PV HCAb also binds to ?-hemolysin C (HlgC) and inhibits HlgC/HlgB pore formation. Experiments in vivo in a toxin-induced rabbit endophthalmitis model showed that these HCAbs inhibit inflammatory reactions and tissue destruction, with the tetravalent bispecific HCAb performing best. Our findings show the therapeutic potential of HCAbs, and in particular, bispecific antibodies.
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Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from animals causing human endocarditis.
Int. J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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We report a case of infection with coagulase-positive Staphylococcus pseudintermedius related to the implantation of a cardioverter-defribrillator device. This species is usually isolated from infected animals, and contact with a dog was the probable source of infection in this patient. This isolate produced a leukotoxin effective against human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
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Endogenous morphine levels are increased in sepsis: a partial implication of neutrophils.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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Mammalian cells synthesize morphine and the respective biosynthetic pathway has been elucidated. Human neutrophils release this alkaloid into the media after exposure to morphine precursors. However, the exact role of endogenous morphine in inflammatory processes remains unclear. We postulate that morphine is released during infection and can be determined in the serum of patients with severe infection such as sepsis.
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Two chromogranin a-derived peptides induce calcium entry in human neutrophils by calmodulin-regulated calcium independent phospholipase A2.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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Antimicrobial peptides derived from the natural processing of chromogranin A (CgA) are co-secreted with catecholamines upon stimulation of chromaffin cells. Since PMNs play a central role in innate immunity, we examine responses by PMNs following stimulation by two antimicrobial CgA-derived peptides.
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Staphylococcal leukotoxins trigger free intracellular Ca(2+) rise in neurones, signalling through acidic stores and activation of store-operated channels.
Cell. Microbiol.
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Headache, muscle aches and chest pain of mild to medium intensity are among the most common clinical symptoms in moderate Staphylococcus aureus infections, with severe infections usually associated with worsening pain symptoms. These nociceptive responses of the body raise the question of how bacterial infection impinges on the nervous system. Does S. aureus, or its released virulence factors, act directly on neurones? To address this issue, we evaluated the potential effects on neurones of certain bi-component leukotoxins, which are virulent factors released by the bacterium. The activity of four different leukotoxins was verified by measuring the release of glutamate from rat cerebellar granular neurones. The bi-component ?-haemolysin HlgC/HlgB was the most potent leukotoxin, initiating transient rises in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in cerebellar neurones and in primary sensory neurones from dorsal root ganglia, as probed with the Fura-2 Ca(2+) indicator dye. Using pharmacological antagonists of receptors and Ca(2+) channels, the variations in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were found independent of the activation of voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels or glutamate receptors. Drugs targeting Sarco-Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) or H(+)-ATPase and antagonists of the store-operated Ca(2+) entry complex blunted, or significantly reduced, the leukotoxin-induced elevation in intracellular Ca(2+). Moreover, activation of the ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38 was also required to initiate the release of Ca(2+) from acidic stores. These findings suggest that, prior to forming a pore at the plasma membrane, leukotoxin HlgC/HlgB triggers a multistep process which initiates the release of Ca(2+) from lysosomes, modifies the steady-state level of reticular Ca(2+) stores and finally activates the Store-Operated Calcium Entry complex.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.