JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement.
Xenotransplantation
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to <10 °C after 30 min. Using an intravascular flush (Method B) improved cooling during the entire duration of procurement, but incorporating an intraductal infusion (Method C) rapidly reduced core temperature 15-20 °C within the first 2 min of cooling. Combining all methods (Method D) was the most effective at rapidly reducing temperature and providing sustained cooling throughout the duration of procurement, although the recorded WIT was not different between Methods (P = 0.36). Histological scores were different between the cooling Methods (P = 0.02) and the worst with Method A. There were differences in histological scores between Methods A and C (P = 0.02) and Methods A and D (P = 0.02), but not between Methods C and D (P = 0.95), which may highlight the importance of early cooling using an intraductal infusion. In conclusion, surface cooling alone cannot rapidly cool large (porcine or human) pancreata. Additional cooling with an intravascular flush and intraductal infusion results in improved core porcine pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and histopathology scores. These data may also have implications on human pancreas procurement as use of an intraductal infusion is not common practice.
Related JoVE Video
Preemptive Tolerogenic Delivery of Donor Antigens for Permanent Allogeneic Islet Graft Protection.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have previously developed a robust regimen for tolerance induction in murine models of islet cell transplantation using pre- and post-transplant infusions of donor splenocytes (SPs) treated with a chemical cross-linker ethylcarbodiimide (ECDI). However, the requirement for large numbers of fresh donor SPs for ECDI coupling impairs its clinical feasibility, and additionally the compatibility of this tolerance regimen with commonly used immuosuppressive drugs is largely unknown. In the current study, we demonstrate that equivalent tolerance efficacy for islet cell transplantation can be successfully achieved not only with a significantly lower dose of ECDI-SPs than originally established, but also with culture-expanded donor B cells, or with soluble donor antigens in the form of donor cell lysate which is ECDI-coupled to recipient splenocytes. We further demonstrate that tolerance induced by donor ECDI-SPs is dependent on a favorable apoptotic to necrotic cell ratio post ECDI-coupling, and is not affected by a transient course of conventional immunosuppressive drugs including tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. While splenic antigen presenting cells of the recipient play an important role in mediating the tolerogenic effects of donor ECDI-SPs, splenectomized recipients can be readily tolerized and appear to employ liver Kupffer cells for uptaking and processing of the ECDI-SPs. We conclude that infusion of donor ECDI-SPs is a versatile tolerance strategy that has a high potential for adaptation to clinically feasible regimens for tolerance trials for human islet cell transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
Magnetic resonance imaging: a tool to monitor and optimize enzyme distribution during porcine pancreas distention for islet isolation.
Xenotransplantation
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Porcine islet xenotransplantation is emerging as a potential alternative for allogeneic clinical islet transplantation. Optimization of porcine islet isolation in terms of yield and quality is critical for the success and cost-effectiveness of this approach. Incomplete pancreas distention and inhomogeneous enzyme distribution have been identified as key factors for limiting viable islet yield per porcine pancreas. The aim of this study was to explore the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool to investigate the homogeneity of enzyme delivery in porcine pancreata. Traditional and novel methods for enzyme delivery aimed at optimizing enzyme distribution were examined. Pancreata were procured from Landrace pigs via en bloc viscerectomy. The main pancreatic duct was then cannulated with an 18-g winged catheter and MRI performed at 1.5-T. Images were collected before and after ductal infusion of chilled MRI contrast agent (gadolinium) in physiological saline. Regions of the distal aspect of the splenic lobe and portions of the connecting lobe and bridge exhibited reduced delivery of solution when traditional methods of distention were utilized. Use of alternative methods of delivery (such as selective re-cannulation and distention of identified problem regions) resolved these issues, and MRI was successfully utilized as a guide and assessment tool for improved delivery. Current methods of porcine pancreas distention do not consistently deliver enzyme uniformly or adequately to all regions of the pancreas. Novel methods of enzyme delivery should be investigated and implemented for improved enzyme distribution. MRI serves as a valuable tool to visualize and evaluate the efficacy of current and prospective methods of pancreas distention and enzyme delivery.
Related JoVE Video
Comparisons of phenotype and immunomodulatory capacity among rhesus bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, multipotent adult progenitor cells, and dermal fibroblasts.
J. Med. Primatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Potent immunomodulatory effects have been reported for mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs), and fibroblasts. However, side-by-side comparisons of these cells specifically regarding immunophenotype, gene expression, and suppression of proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocyte populations have not been reported.
Related JoVE Video
Islet size index as a predictor of outcomes in clinical islet autotransplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The islet size distribution in a preparation may contribute to islet transplant outcomes. At the same islet equivalent (IE) dose, larger islets may exhibit poorer therapeutic value and this may be because of oxygen diffusion limitations that worsen in proportion to islet size.
Related JoVE Video
Regulation of the JNK3 signaling pathway during islet isolation: JNK3 and c-fos as new markers of islet quality for transplantation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stress conditions generated throughout pancreatic islet processing initiate the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways and beta-cell destruction. Our goal is to identify relevant and preferably beta-specific markers to assess the activation of beta-cell stress and apoptotic mechanisms, and therefore the general quality of the islet preparation prior to transplantation. Protein expression and activation were analyzed by Western blotting and kinase assays. ATP measurements were performed by a luminescence-based assay. Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was measured based on standard protocols using fiber optic sensors. Total RNA was used for gene expression analyzes. Our results indicate that pancreas digestion initiates a potent stress response in the islets by activating two stress kinases, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) and p38. JNK1 protein levels remained unchanged between different islet preparations and following culture. In contrast, levels of JNK3 increased after islet culture, but varied markedly, with a subset of preparations bearing low JNK3 expression. The observed changes in JNK3 protein content strongly correlated with OCR measurements as determined by the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rho [Formula: see text] in the matching islet samples, while inversely correlating with c-fos mRNA expression [Formula: see text]. In conclusion, pancreas digestion recruits JNK and p38 kinases that are known to participate to beta-cell apoptosis. Concomitantly, the islet isolation alters JNK3 and c-fos expression, both strongly correlating with OCR. Thus, a comparative analysis of JNK3 and c-fos expression before and after culture may provide for novel markers to assess islet quality prior to transplantation. JNK3 has the advantage over all other proposed markers to be islet-specific, and thus to provide for a marker independent of non-beta cell contamination.
Related JoVE Video
Islet autotransplantation to preserve beta cell mass in selected patients with chronic pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus undergoing total pancreatectomy.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Islet autotransplantation (IAT) is performed in nondiabetic patients with chronic pancreatitis at the time of total pancreatectomy (TP) to minimize risk of postoperative diabetes. The role of TP-IAT in patients with chronic pancreatitis and C-peptide-positive diabetes is not established. We postulate that IAT can preserve beta cell mass and thereby benefit patients with preexisting diabetes undergoing TP.
Related JoVE Video
Transient B-cell depletion combined with apoptotic donor splenocytes induces xeno-specific T- and B-cell tolerance to islet xenografts.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Peritransplant infusion of apoptotic donor splenocytes cross-linked with ethylene carbodiimide (ECDI-SPs) has been demonstrated to effectively induce allogeneic donor-specific tolerance. The objective of the current study is to determine the effectiveness and additional requirements for tolerance induction for xenogeneic islet transplantation using donor ECDI-SPs. In a rat-to-mouse xenogeneic islet transplant model, we show that rat ECDI-SPs alone significantly prolonged islet xenograft survival but failed to induce tolerance. In contrast to allogeneic donor ECDI-SPs, xenogeneic donor ECDI-SPs induced production of xenodonor-specific antibodies partially responsible for the eventual islet xenograft rejection. Consequently, depletion of B cells prior to infusions of rat ECDI-SPs effectively prevented such antibody production and led to the indefinite survival of rat islet xenografts. In addition to controlling antibody responses, transient B-cell depletion combined with ECDI-SPs synergistically suppressed xenodonor-specific T-cell priming as well as memory T-cell generation. Reciprocally, after initial depletion, the recovered B cells in long-term tolerized mice exhibited xenodonor-specific hyporesponsiveness. We conclude that transient B-cell depletion combined with donor ECDI-SPs is a robust strategy for induction of xenodonor-specific T- and B-cell tolerance. This combinatorial therapy may be a promising strategy for tolerance induction for clinical xenogeneic islet transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
Factors affecting transplant outcomes in diabetic nude mice receiving human, porcine, and nonhuman primate islets: analysis of 335 transplantations.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the absence of a reliable islet potency assay, nude mice (NM) transplantation is the criterion standard to assess islet quality for clinical transplantation. There are factors other than islet quality that affect the transplant outcome.
Related JoVE Video
Dose effects and image quality: Is there any influence by bearing devices in whole-body computed tomography in trauma patients?
Injury
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stable bearing devices are often utilized by prehospital first responders in modern management of severely injured patients. It is not known whether these devices influence radiation exposure or image quality in whole-body computed tomography (WBCT). Additionally, manufacturers currently provide no specifications concerning these criteria. This investigation analyzed the influence of nine different bearing devices on these specified criteria.
Related JoVE Video
Reversal of hyperglycemia by insulin-secreting rat bone marrow- and blastocyst-derived hypoblast stem cell-like cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
?-cell replacement may efficiently cure type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients whose insulin-secreting ?-cells have been selectively destroyed by autoantigen-reactive T cells. To generate insulin-secreting cells we used two cell sources: rat multipotent adult progenitor cells (rMAPC) and the highly similar rat extra-embryonic endoderm precursor (rXEN-P) cells isolated under rMAPC conditions from blastocysts (rHypoSC). rMAPC/rHypoSC were sequentially committed to definitive endoderm, pancreatic endoderm, and ?-cell like cells. On day 21, 20% of rMAPC/rHypoSC progeny expressed Pdx1 and C-peptide. rMAPCr/HypoSC progeny secreted C-peptide under the stimulus of insulin agonist carbachol, and was inhibited by the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker nifedipine. When rMAPC or rHypoSC differentiated d21 progeny were grafted under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nude mice, hyperglycemia reversed after 4 weeks in 6/10 rMAPC- and 5/10 rHypoSC-transplanted mice. Hyperglycemia recurred within 24 hours of graft removal and the histological analysis of the retrieved grafts revealed presence of Pdx1-, Nkx6.1- and C-peptide-positive cells. The ability of both rMAPC and HypoSC to differentiate to functional ?-cell like cells may serve to gain insight into signals that govern ?-cell differentiation and aid in developing culture systems to commit other (pluripotent) stem cells to clinically useful ?-cells for cell therapy of T1D.
Related JoVE Video
Species incompatibilities in the pig-to-macaque islet xenotransplant model affect transplant outcome: a comparison with allotransplantation.
Xenotransplantation
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Porcine islet transplantation into diabetic non-human primates is considered most relevant in translational research supporting a clinical application. Most studies have focused on immunosuppressive protocols, while metabolic aspects have mainly been utilized in graft monitoring. We evaluated data from our group regarding human and non-human primate (NHP) allotransplantation and pig-to-NHP xenotransplantation to identify incompatibilities in metabolic factors and their consequences for transplant outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Insulin degradation by acinar cell proteases creates a dysfunctional environment for human islets before/after transplantation: benefits of ?-1 antitrypsin treatment.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pancreatic acinar cells are commonly cotransplanted along with islets during auto- and allotransplantations. The aims of this study were to identify how acinar cell proteases cause human islet cell loss before and after transplantation of impure islet preparations and to prevent islet loss and improve function with supplementation of ?-1 antitrypsin (A1AT).
Related JoVE Video
Refining the high-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic non-human primate model: an evaluation of risk factors and outcomes.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In preparation for islet transplantation, diabetes was induced using streptozotocin (STZ) in non-human primates ranging from juveniles to adults with diverse body types: we studied the process with respect to the diabetic state and emergence of adverse events (AEs) and their severity, and identified risk factors for clinical and laboratory AEs. Pharmaceutical-grade STZ was given based on body surface area (BSA) (1050-1250 mg/m(2), equivalent to 80-108 mg/kg) or on body weight (BW) (100 mg/kg) to 54 cynomolgus and 24 rhesus macaques. AEs were related to risk factors, i.e. obesity parameters, BW and BSA, age and STZ dose in mg/m(2). Clinical AEs during the first days after infusion prompted euthanasia of three animals. Except for those three animals, diabetes was successfully induced as shown by circulating C-peptide levels, the intravenous glucose tolerance test and/or arginine stimulation test. C-peptide after infusion weakly correlated (P = 0.048) with STZ dose in mg/m(2). Grade ?3 nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity (serum markers >3× baseline or >5 × baseline, respectively) occurred in about 10% of cases and were generally mild and reversible. Grade ?2 clinical AEs occurred in seven of 78 animals, reversed in four cases and significantly correlated with obesity parameters. Taking girth-to-height ratio (GHtR) as an indicator of obesity, with threshold value 0.92-0.95, the positive predictive value of obesity for AEs was 92% and the specificity 94%. We conclude that diabetes is successfully induced in non-obese animals using a 100 mg/kg pharmaceutical grade STZ dose. Obesity is a significant risk factor, and animals with a higher than normal GHtR should preferably receive a lower dose. The incidence of relevant clinical or laboratory AEs is low. Careful monitoring and supportive medical intervention can result in recovery of AEs.
Related JoVE Video
Extrahepatic islet transplantation with microporous polymer scaffolds in syngeneic mouse and allogeneic porcine models.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intraportal transplantation of islets has successfully treated select patients with type 1 diabetes. However, intravascular infusion and the intrahepatic site contribute to significant early and late islet loss, yet a clinical alternative has remained elusive. We investigated non-encapsulating, porous, biodegradable polymer scaffolds as a vehicle for islet transplantation into extrahepatic sites, using syngeneic mouse and allogeneic porcine models. Scaffold architecture was modified to enhance cell infiltration leading to revascularization of the islets with minimal inflammatory response. In the diabetic mouse model, 125 islets seeded on scaffolds implanted into the epididymal fat pad restored normoglycemia within an average of 1.95 days and transplantation of only 75 islets required 12.1 days. Increasing the pore size to increase islet-islet interactions did not significantly impact islet function. The porcine model was used to investigate early islet engraftment. Increasing the islet seeding density led to a greater mass of engrafted islets, though the efficiency of islet survival decreased. Transplantation into the porcine omentum provided greater islet engraftment than the gastric submucosa. These results demonstrate scaffolds support murine islet transplantation with high efficiency, and feasibility studies in large animals support continued pre-clinical studies with scaffolds as a platform to control the transplant microenvironment.
Related JoVE Video
Microbiological safety of porcine islets: comparison with source pig.
Xenotransplantation
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pig islet donors intended for clinical xenotransplantation for the treatment of diabetes must meet stringent conditions. Among others, viruses with the potential to cross the species barrier should be excluded from the herd: this list includes encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) and porcine ?-lymphotropic herpesvirus (PLHV). As an islet product is isolated from the pancreas and then subjected to culture before implantation, the question is raised whether islets could be negative even if the animal itself is positive for a distinct pathogen.
Related JoVE Video
Prediction of pancreatic tissue densities by an analytical test gradient system before purification maximizes human islet recovery for islet autotransplantation/allotransplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Using standard density gradient (SDG) ranges for human islet purification frequently results in islet loss and transplantation of lower islet mass. Measuring the densities of islet and acinar tissue beforehand to customize the gradient range for the actual COBE 2991 cell processor (COBE) purification is likely to maximize the recovery of islets. We developed an analytical test gradient system (ATGS) for predicting pancreatic tissue densities before COBE purification to minimize islet loss during purification.
Related JoVE Video
Quality of life improves for pediatric patients after total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplant for chronic pancreatitis.
Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Total pancreatectomy (TP) and islet autotransplant (IAT) have been used to treat patients with painful chronic pancreatitis. Initial studies indicated that most patients experienced significant pain relief, but there were few validated measures of quality of life. We investigated whether health-related quality of life improved among pediatric patients undergoing TP/IAT.
Related JoVE Video
The streptozotocin-induced diabetic nude mouse model: differences between animals from different sources.
Comp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetes is induced in mice by using streptozotocin (STZ), a compound that has a preferential toxicity toward pancreatic ? cells. We evaluated nude male mice from various sources for their sensitivity to a single high dose (160 to 240 mg/kg) of STZ. Diabetes was induced in male mice (age: median, 12 wk; interquartile range, 11 to 14 wk; body weight, about 30 g) from Taconic Farms (TAC), Jackson Laboratories (JAX), and Charles River Laboratories (CRL). Mice were monitored for 30 d for adverse side effects, blood glucose, and insulin requirements. In CRL mice given 240 mg/kg STZ, more than 95% developed diabetes within 4 to 5 d, and loss of body weight was relatively low (mean, 0.4 g). In comparison, both TAC and JAX mice were more sensitive to STZ, as evidenced by faster development of diabetes (even at a lower STZ dose), greater need for insulin after STZ, greater body weight loss (mean: TAC, 3.5 g; JAX, 3.7 g), and greater mortality. We recommend conducting exploratory safety assessments when selecting a nude mouse source, with the aim of limiting morbidity and mortality to less than 10%.
Related JoVE Video
Correlation of histopathology, islet yield, and islet graft function after islet autotransplantation in chronic pancreatitis.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The number of islets available (yield) is an important predictor of insulin independence after islet autotransplantation (IAT) done at the time of total pancreatectomy to treat painful chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to correlate histopathologic findings with islet yield and graft function.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term hepatic vascular access in the nonhuman primate for recurrent portal vein infusion.
J Invest Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Islet cell transplantation in nonhuman primates is generally performed in the liver, by infusion of the transplant into the portal vein. We introduced a vascular access port with the catheter tip located in the splenic vein to avoid multiple major survival surgeries. This procedure was conducted in 16 cynomolgus and 9 rhesus macaques. A subset underwent islet cell transplantation. A historic control group (n = 17) received the transplant via open midline laparotomy. The groups did not differ in operation time (median about 60 min): however, animals undergoing midline laparotomy required significantly more opioid pain relief postoperatively than animals implanted with a hepatic vascular access port. Animals after port placement and transplantation had significantly higher blood hemoglobin values than those in the control group, but these values were still in the normal range. In addition to transplantation, the port could be used for administration of biologics and for blood sampling. In all cases, the port remained patent for infusion purposes (median follow-up 336 days, range 62-485 days). Patency for blood sampling was maintained in about half of the animals: the 50% survival of patency for sampling was 255 days. This difference between infusion and sampling patency is most likely due to the location of the catheter tip in the splenic vein, with occlusion caused by the small vessel-to-catheter ratio. We conclude that hepatic vascular access enables long-term frequent administration of cells, medication, or other products and also serves to sample blood: hence, this procedure contributes to a higher level of animals well-being.
Related JoVE Video
Similar islet function in islet allotransplant and autotransplant recipients, despite lower islet mass in autotransplants.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite high initial rates of insulin independence after islet allotransplant for type 1 diabetes, long-term islet function is suboptimal. Possible contributing factors include autoimmune recurrence, alloimmune rejection, or immunosuppressant medication toxicity. In contrast, islet autografts, infused at the time of pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis, are not subject to these variables. Islet function was compared in autograft and allograft recipients.
Related JoVE Video
Refinement of vascular access port placement in nonhuman primates: complication rates and outcomes.
Comp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic vascular access is often needed in experimental animal studies, and vascular access ports (VAP) have been proposed as an alternative to conventional venipuncture. We previously reported on VAP implantation by using femoral venous cutdown (FVC) and tunneling. In an attempt to decrease the moderate complications associated with the FVC method, we developed the single-incision, peripheral-insertion (SIPI) method. In a retrospective evaluation, 92 FVC procedures were compared with 113 SIPI procedures in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques and baboons with as much as 2.5 y of follow-up. The rate of complications was significantly lower for the SIPI method than for the FVC method (19.4% versus 33.7%), particularly in regard to infectious complications (8.0% versus 27.3%, respectively). In addition, VAP patency for blood sampling and fluid infusion was significantly better for the SIPI method than for the FVC method, with 1-y patency rate of 83% and 46%, respectively, and 2-y patency rate of 74% and 36%, respectively. Additional advantages of the SIPI method include the simplified implantation of the VAP and access in the homecage without any sedation or restraint after appropriate training of animals to cooperate. We conclude that the SIPI method presents an opportunity for refinement and is superior to the FVC method for chronic vascular access.
Related JoVE Video
Binding of the fibronectin-mimetic peptide, PR_b, to alpha5beta1 on pig islet cells increases fibronectin production and facilitates internalization of PR_b functionalized liposomes.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes. Recent studies have demonstrated that human islet allografts can restore insulin independence to patients with this disease. As islet isolation and immunotherapeutic techniques improve, the demand for this cell-based therapy will dictate the need for other sources of islets. Pig islets could provide an unlimited supply for xenotransplantation and have shown promise as an alternative to human islet allografts. However, stresses imposed during islet isolation and transplantation decrease islet viability, leading to loss of graft function. In this study, we investigated the ability of a fibronectin-mimetic peptide, PR_b, which specifically binds to the alpha(5)beta(1) integrin, to re-establish lost extracellular matrix (ECM) around isolated pig islets and increase internalization of liposomes. Confocal microscopy and Western blotting were used to show the presence of the integrin alpha(5)beta(1) on the pig islets on day 0 (day of isolation) as well as on different days of islet culture. Islets cultured in medium supplemented with free PR_b for 48 h were found to have increased levels of ECM fibronectin secretion compared to islets in normal culture conditions. Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, we found that PR_b peptide-amphiphile functionalized liposomes delivered to the pig islets internalized into the cells in a PR_b concentration dependent manner and nonfunctionalized liposomes showed minimal internalization. These studies proved that the fibronectin-mimetic peptide, PR_b, is an appropriate peptide bullet for applications involving alpha(5)beta(1) expressing pig islet cells. Fibronectin production stimulated through alpha(5)beta(1) PR_b binding may decrease apoptosis and therefore increase islet viability in culture. In addition, PR_b peptide-amphiphile functionalized liposomes may be used for targeted delivery of different agents to pig islet cells.
Related JoVE Video
Relative reductions in soluble CD30 levels post-transplant predict acute graft function in islet allograft recipients receiving three different immunosuppression protocols.
Transpl. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite advances in islet transplantation, challenges remain in monitoring for anti-islet immune responses. Soluble CD30 (sCD30) has been investigated as a predictor of acute rejection in kidney, lung, and heart transplantation as well as in a single study in human islet cell recipients. In this study, sCD30 levels were retrospectively assessed in 19 allograft recipients treated with three different immunosuppression induction therapies. Soluble CD30 levels were assessed at pre-transplant; early post-transplant (day 4-day 7); one-month post-transplant; and late post-transplant (day 90-day 120) and then correlated with eventual graft outcomes at 1-year follow-up. Results showed no correlation between mean serum sCD30 levels at any point in time pre- or post-transplant and graft function at 1-year follow-up. However, analysis demonstrated that mean sCD30 levels at day 28 or day 90-day 120 decreased from pre-transplant levels in recipients with long-term islet allograft function compared to recipients with partial or non-graft function (a decrease of 43.6+/-25.6% compared to 16.7+/-35.2%, p<0.05). In another finding, immunosuppression with the ATG protocol led to a greater reduction in sCD30 levels post-transplant overall. A larger reduction post-transplant correlated with full graft function. The results demonstrate that a relative reduction in sCD30 levels post-transplant may be applicable as a biomarker to monitor graft function in islet allograft recipients. Additionally, knowledge of the impact of various immunosuppression protocols on the timing and extent of changes in post-transplant sCD30 levels could aid in patient-specific tailoring of immunosuppression.
Related JoVE Video
Successful human islet isolation and transplantation indicating the importance of class 1 collagenase and collagen degradation activity assay.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Purified tissue dissociation enzymes (TDEs) are critical to successful human islet isolation required for clinical transplantation, but little is known about the characteristics of the key enzymes-class I (C1) and class II (C2) collagenase from Clostridium histolyticum-used in these procedures. Here, we show the differences between the C1 collagenase found in purified collagenase products manufactured by three suppliers and the impact of differences in C1 between two suppliers on human islet yield.
Related JoVE Video
Prediction of marginal mass required for successful islet transplantation.
J Invest Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Islet quality assessment methods for predicting diabetes reversal (DR) following transplantation are needed. We investigated two islet parameters, oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and OCR per DNA content, to predict transplantation outcome and explored the impact of islet quality on marginal islet mass for DR. Outcomes in immunosuppressed diabetic mice were evaluated by transplanting mixtures of healthy and purposely damaged rat islets for systematic variation of OCR/DNA over a wide range. The probability of DR increased with increasing transplanted OCR and OCR/DNA. On coordinates of OCR versus OCR/DNA, data fell into regions in which DR occurred in all, some, or none of the animals with a sharp threshold of around 150-nmol/min mg DNA. A model incorporating both parameters predicted transplantation outcome with sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 94%, respectively. Marginal mass was not constant, depended on OCR/DNA, and increased from 2,800 to over 100,000 islet equivalents/kg body weight as OCR/DNA decreased. We conclude that measurements of OCR and OCR/DNA are useful for predicting transplantation outcome in this model system, and OCR/DNA can be used to estimate the marginal mass required for reversing diabetes. Because human clinical islet preparations in a previous study had OCR/DNA.
Related JoVE Video
Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) and rapamycin synergize to effectively suppress human T cell responses via upregulation of FoxP3+ Tregs.
Transpl. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The major obstacle faced by patients with type 1 diabetes who undergo islet transplantation is a gradual decline in insulin independence. This decline may reflect alloimmune rejection, autoimmune recurrence and toxicity of drugs such as rapamycin to islet beta cells. Thus, there is a pressing need to refine immunosuppressive protocols in order to reduce toxicity to islet grafts and yet prevent rejection. Recent studies demonstrated that TGF-beta1 is a critical cytokine for the regulation of immune responses. In naive T cells, TGF-beta1 induces FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells and thus could promote transplant tolerance. In this study, in vitro experiments were performed to determine whether TGF-beta1 could synergize with low-dose rapamycin and inhibit T cell activation and production of inflammatory cytokines, as well as enhance FoxP3 expression for potential application in islet transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
The International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes-- executive summary.
Xenotransplantation
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The International Xenotransplantation Association islet xenotransplantation consensus statement describes the conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes. Chapter 1 reviews the key ethical requirements and progress toward the definition of an international regulatory framework for clinical trials of xenotransplantation. Chapters 2 to 7 provide in depth and agreed-upon recommendations on source pigs, pig islet product manufacturing and release testing, preclinical efficacy and complication data required to justify a clinical trial, strategies to prevent transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus, patient selection for clinical trials, and informed consent. It is planned to update this initial consensus statement in a years time in light of progress in research, changes in the regulatory framework, and comments submitted after publication.
Related JoVE Video
Current status of xenotransplantation and prospects for clinical application.
Xenotransplantation
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Xenotransplantation is one promising approach to bridge the gap between available human cells, tissues, and organs and the needs of patients with diabetes or end-stage organ failure. Based on recent progress using genetically modified source pigs, improving results with conventional and experimental immunosuppression, and expanded understanding of residual physiologic hurdles, xenotransplantation appears likely to be evaluated in clinical trials in the near future for some select applications. This review offers a comprehensive overview of known mechanisms of xenograft injury, a contemporary assessment of preclinical progress and residual barriers, and our opinions regarding where breakthroughs are likely to occur.
Related JoVE Video
Quadrupole magnetic sorting of porcine islets of Langerhans.
Tissue Eng Part C Methods
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Islet transplantation is emerging as a treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes. Inconsistent isolation, purification, and recovery of large numbers of high-quality islets remain substantial impediments to progress in the field. Removing islets as soon as they are liberated from the pancreas during digestion and circumventing the need for density gradient purification is likely to result in substantially increased viable islet yields by minimizing exposure to proteolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen intermediates, and mechanical stress associated with centrifugation. This study capitalized on the hypervascularity of islets compared with acinar tissue to explore their preferential enrichment with magnetic beads to enable immediate separation in a magnetic field utilizing a quadrupole magnetic sorting. The results demonstrate that (1) preferential enrichment of porcine islets is achievable, but homogeneous bead distribution within the pancreas is difficult to achieve with current protocols; (2) greater than 70% of islets in the dissociated pancreatic tissue were recovered by quadrupole magnetic sorting, but their purity was low; and (3) infused islets purified by density gradients and subsequently passed through quadrupole magnetic sorting had similar potency as uninfused islets. These results demonstrate proof of concept and define the steps for implementation of this technology in pig and human islet isolation.
Related JoVE Video
Embryonic pig pancreatic tissue for the treatment of diabetes in a nonhuman primate model.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Xenotransplantation of pig tissues has great potential to overcome the shortage of organ donors. One approach to address the vigorous immune rejection associated with xenotransplants is the use of embryonic precursor tissue, which induces and utilizes host vasculature upon its growth and development. Recently, we showed in mice that embryonic pig pancreatic tissue from embryonic day 42 (E42) exhibits optimal properties as a beta cell replacement therapy. We now demonstrate the proof of concept in 2 diabetic Cynomolgus monkeys, followed for 393 and 280 days, respectively. A marked reduction of exogenous insulin requirement was noted by the fourth month after transplantation, reaching complete independence from exogenous insulin during the fifth month after transplantation, with full physiological control of blood glucose levels. The porcine origin of insulin was documented by a radioimmunoassay specific for porcine C-peptide. Furthermore, the growing tissue was found to be predominantly vascularized with host blood vessels, thereby evading hyperacute or acute rejection, which could potentially be mediated by preexisting anti-pig antibodies. Durable graft protection was achieved, and most of the late complications could be attributed to the immunosuppressive protocol. While fine tuning of immune suppression, tissue dose, and implantation techniques are still required, our results demonstrate that porcine E-42 embryonic pancreatic tissue can normalize blood glucose levels in primates. Its long-term proliferative capacity, its revascularization by host endothelium, and its reduced immunogenicity, strongly suggest that this approach could offer an attractive replacement therapy for diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of short-term culture on functional and stress-related parameters in isolated human islets.
Transpl. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Edmonton protocol for islet transplantation utilizes fresh islet grafts but other protocols increasingly transplant short-term cultured grafts mainly for practical reasons. To improve our understanding of the impact of culture pretreatment of human islets, we assessed post-transplant function by nude mouse bioassay, islet ATP, activity of stress-activated MAP kinases, and expression of stress-related genes by focused cDNA array in freshly isolated and cultured islets. Mean blood glucose levels over 4 weeks after transplantation (2000 IE) of (i) freshly isolated, (ii) cultured and preculture counted (recovery rate; 78 +/- 6%), and (iii) cultured and postculture counted islets in diabetic mice were 330 +/- 40, 277 +/- 65, and 256 +/- 52 mg/dl (i versus ii, P = 0.004; i versus iii, P = 0.002). During culture, islet ATP/DNA and ATP/ADP increased; JNK and p38 MAPK activities decreased. Among 96 genes studied, mRNA expression of heat shock protein 70 genes decreased >twofold during culture in all four pairs; expression of cyclooxygenase-2, superoxide dismutase-2, interleukin-6 and cytochromes P450 1A1 genes increased. Our results show that culturing human islets before transplantation is not disadvantageous in regard of functional recovery from changes induced by nonphysiologic stimuli during islet isolation. The increase in expression of several stress-related genes during culture also shows that improving culture conditions may further enhance post-transplant islet function.
Related JoVE Video
Pig-to-nonhuman primate islet xenotransplantation.
Transpl. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Type 1 diabetes continues to present a therapeutic challenge. The restoration of normoglycemia and insulin independence in immunosuppressed type 1 diabetic recipients of human islet allografts has highlighted the potential of cell-based diabetes therapy. The unlimited and on-demand availability of pig islets from healthy, young, living, designated pathogen-free, and potentially genetically modified donors presents unique opportunities for improving the availability and outcomes of islet replacement therapies in diabetes. One of the fundamental prerequisites for initiating clinical research is a favorable benefit-over-harm determination in the stringent preclinical transplant model in nonhuman primates. To date, xenotransplants of pig islet cell therapy products have been reported by 15 institutions in 181 NHPs, including xenotransplants in 72 non-diabetic and 109 diabetic recipients. These studies have demonstrated the feasibility of successful preclinical islet xenotransplantation and have provided insights into the critical events operative in the immune recognition and destruction of islet xenografts in nonhuman primates. Particularly promising is the recent achievement of prolonged insulin independence in this model by means of several distinct islet xenotransplantation products, implantation sites, and immunotherapeutic strategies. Further progress appears likely and the development of suitable source pigs will position the scientific community to translate these findings safely to the clinic.
Related JoVE Video
A novel alternative placement site and technique for totally implantable vascular access ports in non-human primates.
J. Med. Primatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two novel approaches to implanting a central venous catheter port in non-human primates (NHPs) using peripheral insertion are presented and compared.
Related JoVE Video
Upregulating CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in pancreatic lymph nodes in diabetic NOD mice by adjuvant immunotherapy.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Immunotherapy with Complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA) is effective in ameliorating autoimmunity in diabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. We investigated whether CFA treatment up-regulates CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and increases transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 production in diabetic NOD mice.
Related JoVE Video
Supplements in human islet culture: human serum albumin is inferior to fetal bovine serum.
Cell Transplant
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Culture of human islets before clinical transplantation or distribution for research purposes is standard practice. At the time the Edmonton protocol was introduced, clinical islet manufacturing did not include culture, and human serum albumin (HSA), instead of fetal bovine serum (FBS), was used during other steps of the process to avoid the introduction of xenogeneic material. When culture was subsequently introduced, HSA was also used for medium supplementation instead of FBS, which was typically used for research islet culture. The use of HSA as culture supplement was not evaluated before this implementation. We performed a retrospective analysis of 103 high-purity islet preparations (76 research preparations, all with FBS culture supplementation, and 27 clinical preparations, all with HSA supplementation) for oxygen consumption rate per DNA content (OCR/DNA; a measure of viability) and diabetes reversal rate in diabetic nude mice (a measure of potency). After 2-day culture, research preparations exhibited an average OCR/DNA 51% higher (p < 0.001) and an average diabetes reversal rate 54% higher (p < 0.05) than clinical preparations, despite 87% of the research islet preparations having been derived from research-grade pancreata that are considered of lower quality. In a prospective paired study on islets from eight research preparations, OCR/DNA was, on average, 27% higher with FBS supplementation than that with HSA supplementation (p < 0.05). We conclude that the quality of clinical islet preparations can be improved when culture is performed in media supplemented with serum instead of albumin.
Related JoVE Video
FoxP3+, and not CD25+, T cells increase post-transplant in islet allotransplant recipients following anti-CD25+ rATG immunotherapy.
Cell. Immunol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Anti-CD25 antibodies are used as an induction therapy in islet allotransplantation for type 1 diabetes. Although previous reports suggested that anti-CD25 treatment may lead to depletion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and questioned its use in tolerance-promoting protocols for transplantation, the effect of anti-CD25 antibodies on the frequency and function of Tregs remains unclear. We examined the effect of anti-CD25 antibody, daclizumab, in vivo on Tregs in islet allograft recipients enrolled in a single-center study and monitored post-transplant. Our data shows that the reduction in CD25+ Treg cells observed post-transplant is due to masking of CD25 receptor by daclizumab and not due to depletion. In addition, using Treg marker, FoxP3, we show that anti-CD25+ ATG treatment leads to an increase in FoxP3+ Tregs post-transplant. These data suggest that anti-CD25-based therapy has beneficial effects on Tregs and combined with ATG may be a promising therapy for autoimmunity and transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
A new enzyme mixture to increase the yield and transplant rate of autologous and allogeneic human islet products.
Transplantation
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The optimal enzyme blend that maximizes human islet yield for transplantation remains to be determined. In this study, we evaluated eight different enzyme combinations (ECs) in an attempt to improve islet yield. The ECs consisted of purified, intact or truncated class 1 (C1) and class 2 (C2) collagenases from Clostridium histolyticum (Ch), and neutral protease (NP) from Bacillus thermoproteolyticus rokko (thermolysin) or Ch (ChNP).
Related JoVE Video
Antiapoptotic actions of exendin-4 against hypoxia and cytokines are augmented by CREB.
Endocrinology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Islets isolated from cadaveric donor pancreas are functionally viable and can be transplanted in diabetic patients to reduce insulin requirements. This therapeutic approach is less efficient because a significant portion of functional islets is lost due to oxidative stress, inflammation, and hypoxia. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, is known to improve islet survival through activation of the transcription factor, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). However, isolated human islets are exposed to several stresses known to down-regulate CREB. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the cytoprotective actions of exendin-4 in human islets can be augmented by increasing the levels of CREB. Simulation of ischemia/reperfusion injury and exposure to hypoxic conditions in cultured human islets resulted in decreased CREB activation and induction of apoptosis. Islets were transduced with adenoviral CREB followed by exposure to exendin-4 as a strategy for improving their survival. This combination increased the levels of several proteins needed for ?-cell survival and function, including insulin receptor substrate-2, Bcl-2, and baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 3, and suppressed the expression of proapoptotic and inflammatory genes. A combination of CREB and exendin-4 exerted enhanced antiapoptotic action in cultured islets against hypoxia and cytokines. More significantly, transplantation of human islets transduced with adenoviral CREB and treated with exendin-4 showed improved glycemic control over a 30-d period in diabetic athymic nude mice. These observations have significant implications in the therapeutic potential of exendin-4 and CREB in the islet transplantation setting as well as in preserving ?-cell mass of diabetic patients.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.