Hyperoxic lung injury is characterized by cellular damage from high oxygen concentrations that lead to an inflammatory response in the lung with cellular infiltration and pulmonary edema. Adenosine is a signaling molecule that is generated extracellularly by CD73 in response to injury. Extracellular adenosine signals through cell surface receptors and has been found to be elevated and plays a protective role in acute injury situations. In particular, ADORA2B activation is protective in acute lung injury. However, little is known about the role of adenosine signaling in hyperoxic lung injury. We hypothesized that hyperoxia-induced lung injury leads to CD73-mediated increases in extracellular adenosine, which is protective through ADORA2B signaling pathways. To test this hypothesis, we exposed C57BL6, CD73(-/-), and Adora2B(-/-) mice to 95% oxygen or room air and examined markers of pulmonary inflammation, edema, and monitored lung histology. Hyperoxic exposure caused pulmonary inflammation and edema in association with elevations in lung adenosine levels. Loss of CD73-mediated extracellular adenosine production exacerbated pulmonary edema without affecting inflammatory cell counts. Furthermore, loss of the ADORA2B had similar results with worsening of pulmonary edema following hyperoxia exposure without affecting inflammatory cell infiltration. This loss of barrier function correlated with a decrease in occludin in pulmonary vasculature in CD73(-/-) and Adora2B(-/-) mice following hyperoxia exposure. These results demonstrate that exposure to a hyperoxic environment causes lung injury associated with an increase in adenosine concentration, and elevated adenosine levels protect vascular barrier function in hyperoxic lung injury through the ADORA2B-dependent regulation of occludin.
Caffeine is used to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature neonates. Hyperoxia contributes to the development of BPD, inhibits cell proliferation and decreases cell survival. The mechanisms responsible for the protective effect of caffeine in pulmonary oxygen toxicity remain largely unknown. A549 and MLE 12 pulmonary epithelial cells were exposed to hyperoxia or maintained in room air, in the presence of different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 1mM) of caffeine. Caffeine had a differential concentration-specific effect on cell cycle progression, oxidative stress and viability, with 1mM concentration being deleterious and 0.05 mM being protective. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during hyperoxia was modulated by caffeine in a similar concentration-specific manner. Caffeine at 1mM, but not at the 0.05 mM concentration decreased the G2 arrest in these cells. Taken together this study shows the novel funding that caffeine has a concentration-specific effect on cell cycle regulation, ROS generation, and cell survival in hyperoxic conditions.
Hyperoxia contributes to acute lung injury in diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1 has been shown to modulate hyperoxic lung injury. The mechanistic role(s) of CYP1A1 in hyperoxic lung injury in vivo is not known. In this investigation, we hypothesized that Cyp1a1(-/-) mice would be more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than wild-type (WT) mice, and that the protective role of CYP1A1 is in part due to CYP1A1-mediated decrease in the levels of reactive oxygen species-mediated lipid hydroperoxides, e.g., F2-isoprostanes/isofurans, leading to attenuation of oxidative damage. Eight- to ten-week-old male WT (C57BL/6J) or Cyp1a1(-/-) mice were exposed to hyperoxia (>95% O2) or room air for 24-72 h. The Cyp1a1(-/-) mice were more susceptible to oxygen-mediated lung damage and inflammation than WT mice, as evidenced by increased lung weight/body weight ratio, lung injury, neutrophil infiltration, and augmented expression of IL-6. Hyperoxia for 24-48 h induced CYP1A expression at the mRNA, protein, and enzyme levels in liver and lung of WT mice. Pulmonary F2-isoprostane and isofuran levels were elevated in WT mice after hyperoxia for 24 h. On the other hand, Cyp1a1(-/-) mice showed higher levels after 48-72 h of hyperoxia exposure compared to WT mice. Our results support the hypothesis that CYP1A1 protects against hyperoxic lung injury by decreasing oxidative stress. Future research could lead to the development of novel strategies for prevention and/or treatment of acute lung injury.
The genotoxicity of a complex mixture [neutral fraction (NF)] from a wood preserving waste and reconstituted mixture (RM) mimicking the NF with seven major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was investigated by determining DNA adducts and tumor incidence in male B6C3F1 mice exposed to three different doses of the chemical mixtures. The peak values of DNA adducts were observed after 24 h, and the highest levels of PAH-DNA adducts were exhibited in mice administered NF + BaP, and the highest tumor incidence and mortality were also observed in this group. DNA adduct levels after 1, 7, or 21 days were significantly correlated with animal mortality and incidence of total tumors including liver, lung, and forestomach. However, only hepatic DNA adducts after 7 days significantly correlated with liver tumor incidence. Most proteins involved in DNA repair including ATM, pATR, Chk1, pChk1, DNA PKcs, XRCC1, FANCD2, Ku80, Mre11, and Brca2 were significantly lower in liver tumor tissue compared to non-tumor tissue. Expressions of proteins involved in apoptosis and cell cycle regulation were also significantly different in tumor versus non-tumor tissues, and it is possible that PAH-induced changes in these gene products are important for tumor development and growth.
Maternal smoking is one of the risk factors for preterm birth and for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposure of rats to benzo[a]pyrene (BP), a component of cigarette smoke, will result in increased susceptibility of newborns to oxygen-mediated lung injury and alveolar simplification, and that cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A and 1B1 enzymes and oxidative stress mechanistically contribute to this phenomenon. Timed pregnant Fisher 344 rats were administered BP (25 mg/kg) or the vehicle corn oil (CO) on gestational days 18, 19 and 20, and newborn rats were either maintained in room air or exposed to hyperoxia (85% O2) for 7 or 14 days. Hyperoxic newborn rats prenatally exposed to the vehicle CO showed lung injury and alveolar simplification, and inflammation, and these effects were potentiated in rats that were prenatally exposed to BP. Prenatal exposure to BP, followed by hyperoxia, also resulted in significant modulation of hepatic and pulmonary cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A and 1B1 enzymes at PND 7-14. These rats displayed significant oxidative stress in lungs at postnatal day (PND) 14, as evidenced by increased levels of the F2-isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2?. Furthermore, these animals showed BP-derived DNA adducts and oxidative DNA adducts in the lung. In conclusion, our results show increased susceptibility of newborns to oxygen-mediated lung injury and alveolar simplification following maternal exposure to BP, and our results suggest that modulation of CYP1A/1B1 enzymes, increases in oxidative stress, and BP-DNA adducts contributed to this phenomenon.
Exposure to high concentration of oxygen (hyperoxia) leads to lung injury in experimental animal models and plays a role in the pathogenesis of diseases such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. The major goal of this study was to characterize the changes in the pulmonary transcriptome following hyperoxia exposure and further elucidate the sex-specific changes. Male and female (8-10 wk) wild type (WT) (C57BL/6J) mice were exposed to hyperoxia (FiO2>0.95) and gene expression in lung tissues was studied at 48 h. A combination of fold change ?1.4 and false discovery rate (FDR)<5% was used to define differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Overrepresentation of gene ontology terms representing biological processes and signaling pathway impact analysis (SPIA) was performed. Comparison of DEG profiles identified 327 genes unique to females, 585 unique to males and 1882 common genes. The major new findings of this study are the identification of new candidate genes of interest and the sex-specific transcriptomic changes in hyperoxic lung injury. We also identified DEGs involved in signaling pathways like MAP kinase and NF-kappa B which may explain the differences in sex-specific susceptibility to hyperoxic lung injury. These findings highlight changes in the pulmonary transcriptome and sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury, and suggest new pathways, whose components could serve as sex-specific biomarkers and possible therapeutic targets for acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress (ARDS) in humans.
Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO2>0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 alpha (8-iso-PGF 2?) (LC-MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2? levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F>M) and VEGF (M>F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans.
Hyperoxia contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. New BPD is characterized as having alveolar simplification. We reported previously that aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) deficiency increased susceptibility to hyperoxic lung injury in adult mice, and this was associated with decreased expression of cytochrome P450 1A enzymes and increased lung inflammation. Whether AhR protects newborn mice against hyperoxia-induced alveolar simplification is unknown. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that decreased activation of the pulmonary AhR augments hyperoxia-induced alveolar simplification and lung inflammation in newborn mice. Experimental groups included one-day old wild type (WT) and AhR dysfunctional (AhRd) mice exposed to 21% O? (air) or 85% O? (hyperoxia) for 14 days. Exposure of newborn WT mice to hyperoxia resulted in increased protein, enzyme and mRNA expression of the AhR-regulated lung cytochrome P450 1A1, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1, and microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 enzymes, suggesting that hyperoxia increases activation of the pulmonary AhR. On the other hand, in the AhRd mice, hyperoxia induced the AhR-regulated enzymes to a lesser extent probably due to the dysfunctional AhR in these mice. Alveolar simplification and lung inflammation was increased in mice exposed to hyperoxia compared with those exposed to air, and AhRd mice were more susceptible to hyperoxia-induced alveolar simplification and lung inflammation compared with WT mice. These findings suggest that decreased activation of the pulmonary AhR in newborn AhRd mice augments hyperoxia-induced alveolar simplification and lung inflammation in these mice.
Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) enzymes, which are regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), have been shown to attenuate hyperoxic lung injury in rodents. Omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, used in humans to treat gastric acid-related disorders, induces hepatic CYP1A in vitro. However, the mechanism by which omeprazole induces CYP1A and its impact on CYP1A expression in vivo and hyperoxic lung injury are unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that omeprazole attenuates hyperoxic lung injury in adult wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice by an AhR-mediated induction of pulmonary and hepatic CYP1A enzymes. Accordingly, we determined the effects of omeprazole on pulmonary and hepatic CYP1A expression and hyperoxic lung injury in adult WT and AhR dysfunctional (AhRd) mice. We found that omeprazole attenuated lung injury in WT mice. Attenuation of lung injury by omeprazole paralleled enhanced pulmonary CYP1A1 and hepatic CYP1A2 expression in the omeprazole-treated mice. On the other hand, omeprazole failed to enhance pulmonary CYP1A1 and hepatic CYP1A2 expression and protect against hyperoxic lung injury in AhRd mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that omeprazole attenuates hyperoxic lung injury in mice by AhR-mediated mechanisms, and this phenomenon is associated with induction of CYP1A enzymes. These studies have important implications for the prevention and/or treatment of hyperoxia-induced disorders such as BPD in infants and acute respiratory distress syndrome in older children and adults.
Hyperoxia contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants. Earlier we observed that aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-deficient mice are more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than AhR-sufficient mice, and this phenomenon was associated with a lack of expression of cytochrome P450 1A enzymes. Omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor used in humans with gastric acid-related disorders, activates AhR in hepatocytes in vitro. However, the effects of omeprazole on AhR activation in the lungs and its impact on hyperoxia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inflammation are unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that omeprazole attenuates hyperoxia-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in human lung-derived H441 cells via AhR activation. Experimental groups included cells transfected with AhR small interfering RNA (siRNA). Hyperoxia resulted in significant increases in cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and MCP-1 production, which were significantly attenuated with the functional activation of AhR by omeprazole. The protective effects of omeprazole on cytotoxicity, ROS production, and MCP-1 production were lost in H441 cells whose AhR gene was silenced by AhR siRNA. These findings support the hypothesis that omeprazole protects against hyperoxic injury in vitro via AhR activation that is associated with decreased ROS generation and expression of MCP-1.
Supplemental oxygen administration is frequently administered to pre-term and term infants having pulmonary insufficiency. However, hyperoxia contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)A enzymes have been implicated in hyperoxic lung injury. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that hyperoxia induces CYP1A1 and 1A2 enzymes by transcriptional activation of the corresponding promoters in vivo, and transgenic mice expressing the human CYP1A1 or the mouse 1A2 promoter would be more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than wild type (WT) mice. Adult WT (CD-1) (12week-old) mice, transgenic mice carrying a 10kb human CYP1A1 promoter and the luciferase (luc) reporter gene (CYP1A1-luc), or mice expressing the mouse CYP1A2 promoter (CYP1A2-luc) were maintained in room air or exposed to hyperoxia for 24-72h. Hyperoxia exposure of CYP1A1-luc mice for 24 and 48h resulted in 2.5- and 1.25-fold increases, respectively, in signal intensities, compared to room air controls. By 72h, the induction had declined to control levels. CYP1A2-luc mice also showed enhanced luc expression after 24-48h, albeit to a lesser extent than those expressing the CYP1A1 promoter. Also, these mice showed decreased levels of endogenous CYP1A1 and 1A2 expression after prolonged hyperoxia, and were also more susceptible to lung injury than similarly exposed WT mice, with CYP1A2-luc mice showing the greatest injury. Our results support the hypothesis that hyperoxia induces CYP1A enzymes by transcriptional activation of its corresponding promoters, and that decreased endogenous expression of these enzymes contribute to the increased susceptibilities to hyperoxic lung injury in the transgenic animals. In summary, this is the first report providing direct evidence of hyperoxia-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression in vivo by mechanisms entailing transcriptional activation of the corresponding promoters, a phenomenon that has implications for hyperoxic lung injury, as well as other pathologies caused by oxidative stress.
Many carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites can bind covalently to DNA. Carcinogen-DNA adducts may lead to mutations in critical genes, eventually leading to cancer. In this study we report that fish oil (FO) blocks the formation of DNA adducts by detoxification of PAHs. B6C3F1 male mice were fed a FO or corn oil (CO) diet for 30 days. The animals were then treated with seven carcinogenic PAHs including benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) with one of two doses via a single intraperitoneal injection. Animals were terminated at 1, 3, or 7 d after treatment. The levels of DNA adducts were analyzed by the (32)P-postlabeling assay. Our results showed that the levels of total hepatic DNA adducts were significantly decreased in FO groups compared to CO groups with an exception of low PAH dose at 3 d (P?=?0.067). Total adduct levels in the high dose PAH groups were 41.36±6.48 (Mean±SEM) and 78.72±8.03 in 10(9) nucleotides (P?=?0.011), respectively, for the FO and CO groups at 7 d. Animals treated with the low dose (2.5 fold lower) PAHs displayed similar trends. Total adduct levels were 12.21±2.33 in the FO group and 24.07±1.99 in the CO group, P?=?0.008. BPDE-dG adduct values at 7 d after treatment of high dose PAHs were 32.34±1.94 (CO group) and 21.82±3.37 (FO group) in 10(9) nucleotides with P value being 0.035. Low dose groups showed similar trends for BPDE-dG adduct in the two diet groups. FO significantly enhanced gene expression of Cyp1a1 in both the high and low dose PAH groups. Gstt1 at low dose of PAHs showed high levels in FO compared to CO groups with P values being 0.014. Histological observations indicated that FO played a hepatoprotective role during the early stages. Our results suggest that FO has a potential to be developed as a cancer chemopreventive agent.
Supplemental oxygen contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal treatment of pregnant mice (C57BL/6J) with the cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1 inducer, ß-napthoflavone (BNF), will lead to attenuation of lung injury in newborns (delivered from these dams) exposed to hyperoxia by mechanisms entailing transplacental induction of hepatic and pulmonary CYP1A enzymes. Pregnant mice were administered the vehicle corn oil (CO) or BNF (40 mg/kg), i.p., once daily for 3 days on gestational days (17-19), and newborns delivered from the mothers were either maintained in room air or exposed to hyperoxia (>95% O(2)) for 1-5 days. After 3-5 days of hyperoxia, the lungs of CO-treated mice showed neutrophil infiltration, pulmonary edema, and perivascular inflammation. On the other hand, BNF-pretreated neonatal mice showed decreased susceptibility to hyperoxic lung injury. These mice displayed marked induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) (CYP1A1) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) (CYP1A2) activities, and levels of the corresponding apoproteins and mRNA levels until PND 3 in liver, while CYP1A1 expression alone was augmented in the lung. Prenatal BNF did not significantly alter gene expression of pulmonary NAD(P)H quinone reductase (NQO1). Hyperoxia for 24-72 h resulted in increased pulmonary levels of the F(2)-isoprostane 8-iso-PGF(2?), whose levels were decreased in mice prenatally exposed to BNF. In conclusion, our results suggest that prenatal BNF protects newborns against hyperoxic lung injury, presumably by detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides by CYP1A enzymes, a phenomenon that has implications for prevention of BPD in infants.
The cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) enzymes play important roles in the metabolic activation and detoxification of numerous environmental carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that hepatic CYP1A2 differentially regulates mouse hepatic and pulmonary CYP1A1 expression and suppresses transcriptional activation of human CYP1A1 (hCYP1A1) promoter in response to 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) in vivo. Administration of wild-type (WT) (C57BL/6J) or Cyp1a2-null mice with a single dose of MC (100 ?mol/kg i.p.) caused significant increases in hepatic CYP1A1/1A2 activities, apoprotein content, and mRNA levels 1 day after carcinogen withdrawal compared with vehicle-treated controls. The induction persisted in the WT, but not Cyp1a2-null, animals, for up to 15 days. In the lung, MC caused persistent CYP1A1 induction for up to 8 days in both genotypes, with Cyp1a2-null mice displaying a greater extent of CYP1A1 expression. It is noteworthy that MC caused significant augmentation of human CYP1A1 promoter activation in transgenic mice expressing the hCYP1A1 and the reporter luciferase gene on a Cyp1a2-null background, compared with transgenic mice on the WT background. In contrast, the mouse endogenous hepatic, but not pulmonary, persistent CYP1A1 expression was repressed by MC in the hCYP1A1-Cyp1a2-null mice. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry experiments showed that CYP1A2 catalyzed the formation of 1-hydroxy-3-MC and/or 2-hydroxy-3-MC, a metabolite that may contribute to the regulation of CYP1A1 expression. In conclusion, the results suggest that CYP1A2 plays a pivotal role in the regulation of hepatic and pulmonary CYP1A1 by PAHs, a phenomenon that potentially has important implications for PAH-mediated carcinogenesis.
Carcinogen-DNA adducts could lead to mutations in critical genes, eventually resulting in cancer. Many studies have shown that retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in inducing cell apoptosis. Here we have tested the hypothesis that levels of carcinogen-DNA adducts can be diminished by DNA repair and/or by eliminating damaged cells through apoptosis. Our results showed that the levels of total DNA adducts in HepG2 cells treated with benzo(a)pyrene (BP, 2 ?M)+RA (1 ?M) were significantly reduced compared to those treated with BP only (P=0.038). In order to understand the mechanism of attenuation of DNA adducts, further experiments were performed. Cells were treated with BP (4 ?M) for 24h to initiate DNA adduct formation, following which the medium containing BP was removed, and fresh medium containing 1 ?M RA was added. The cells were harvested 24h after RA treatment. Interestingly, the levels of total DNA adducts were lower in the BP/RA group (390 ± 34) than those in the BP/DMSO group (544 ± 33), P=0.032. Analysis of cell apoptosis showed an increase in BP+RA group, compared to BP or RA only groups. Our results also indicated that attenuation of BP-DNA adducts by RA was not primarily due to its effects on CYP1A1 expression. In conclusion, our results suggest a mechanistic link between cellular apoptosis and DNA adduct formation, phenomena that play important roles in BP-mediated carcinogenesis. Furthermore, these results help understand the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, especially in relation to the chemopreventive properties of nutritional apoptosis inducers.
Cytochrome P450 (P450)1A1 plays a critical role in the metabolic activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are potent human carcinogens. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that MC elicits persistent induction of CYP1A1 expression in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and that this phenomenon is mediated by sustained transcriptional activation of the CYP1A1 promoter. Treatment of HepG2 cells with MC resulted in marked induction (8-20-fold) of ethoxyresorufin O-de-ethylase activities, CYP1A1 apoprotein contents, and mRNA levels, which persisted for up to 96 h. MC also caused sustained transcriptional activation of the human CYP1A1 promoter for up to 96 h, as inferred from transient transfection experiments. Experiments with deletion constructs indicated that Ah response elements located at -886, -974, and -1047, but not -491, nucleotides from the start site, contributed to the sustained transcriptional activation of the CYP1A1 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility-shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggested that prolonged CYP1A1 induction was mediated by Ah receptor (AHR)-independent mechanisms. Experiments with [3H]MC and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry demonstrated rapid elimination of MC and its metabolites from the cells by 12 to 24 h, suggesting that these compounds did not elicit sustained CYP1A1 induction via the classical AHR-mediated pathway. In conclusion, the results of this study support the hypothesis that MC causes persistent induction of CYP1A1 in human hepatoma cells by mechanisms entailing sustained transcriptional activation of the CYP1A1 promoter via AHR-independent mechanisms. These observations have important implications for human carcinogenesis mediated by PAHs.
There is significant human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are potent carcinogens. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A enzymes play key roles in the metabolic activation of PAHs to carcinogenic metabolites. We previously showed persistent induction of CYP1A enzymes by 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) in vivo in rodents. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MC elicits persistent induction of CYP1A1 and 1A2 in vivo by mechanisms entailing sustained transcriptional activation of the corresponding promoters. Adult male wild type (WT) (Cd-1) mice, transgenic mice expressing the human CYP1A1 promoter or the mouse CYP1A2 promoter were treated with the vehicle corn oil (CO) or the carcinogenic PAH, 3-methylcholanthrene (MC), once daily for 4days, and luciferase reporter gene expression was determined at 1, 8, 15, and 22days after MC withdrawal by bioluminescent imaging. Pulmonary and hepatic endogenous expression of CYP1A1 and 1A2 was also determined at the enzymatic, protein, and mRNA levels. The major findings were that MC elicited marked enhancement in the luciferase expression in the CYP1A1-luc as well CYP1A2-luc transgenic mice that was sustained for up to 22days, the magnitude of induction being more pronounced in the CYP1A1-luc mice. MC also caused persistent induction of endogenous CYP1A1 and 1A2 expression in the WT, CYP1A1-luc, and 1A2-luc mice for up to 22days. In conclusion, our results support the hypothesis that MC elicits sustained CYP1A1 and 1A2 expression by sustained transcriptional activation of the corresponding promoters. Thus, these novel transgenic models should be very useful for further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of persistent CYP1A induction, in relation to PAH-mediated carcinogenesis.
Vitiligo is an acquired disorder characterized by circumscribed depigmented macules devoid of identifiable melanocytes. Complex genetic, immunological, neural and self destructive mechanisms interplay in its pathogenesis. According to autocytotoxic hypothesis, oxidative stress has been suggested to be the initial pathogenic event in melanocyte degeneration.
Inflammation is a major component of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions (IADRs). To understand the molecular mechanism of inflammation-mediated IADRs, we determined the role of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway in idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of the anti-psychotic drug, chlorpromazine (CPZ). Activation of TLRs recruits the first adaptor protein, Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) to the TIR domain of TLRs leading to the activation of the downstream kinase, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Prolonged activation of JNK leads to cell-death. We hypothesized that activation of TLR2 by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) or TLR4 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) will augment the hepatotoxicity of CPZ by TIRAP-dependent mechanism involving prolonged activation of JNK. Adult male C57BL/6, TIRAP(+/+) and TIRAP(-/-) mice were pretreated with saline, LPS (2 mg/kg) or LTA (6 mg/kg) for 30 min or 16 h followed by CPZ (5 mg/kg) or saline (vehicle) up to 24h. We found that treatment of mice with CPZ in presence of LPS or LTA leads to ~3-4 fold increase in serum ALT levels, a marked reduction in hepatic glycogen content, significant induction of serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ? and prolonged JNK activation, compared to LPS or LTA alone. Similar results were observed in TIRAP(+/+) mice, whereas the effects of LPS or LTA on CPZ-induced hepatotoxicity were attenuated in TIRAP(-/-) mice. For the first time, we show that inflammation-mediated hepatotoxicity of CPZ is dependent on TIRAP, and involves prolonged JNK activation in vivo. Thus, TIRAP-dependent pathways may be targeted to predict and prevent inflammation-mediated IADRs.
Expression and activity of several key drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters are altered in various pathophysiological conditions, leading to altered drug metabolism and disposition. This can have profound impact on the pharmacotherapy of widely used clinically relevant medications in terms of safety and efficacy by causing inter-individual variabilities in drug responses. This review article highlights altered drug disposition in inflammation and infectious diseases, and commonly encountered disorders such as cancer, obesity/diabetes, fatty liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. Many of the clinically relevant drugs have a narrow therapeutic index. Thus any changes in the disposition of these drugs may lead to reduced efficacy and increased toxicity. The implications of changes in DMEs and transporters on the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of clinically-relevant medications are also discussed. Inflammation-mediated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to play a major role in down-regulation of DMEs and transporters. Although the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear, several studies have shown that inflammation-associated cell-signaling pathway and its interaction with basal transcription factors and nuclear receptors in regulation of DMEs and transporters play a significant role in altered drug metabolism. Altered regulation of DMEs and transporters in a multitude of disease states will contribute towards future development of powerful in vitro and in vivo tools in predicting the drug response and opt for better drug design and development. The goal is to facilitate a better understanding of the mechanistic details underlying the regulation of DMEs and transporters in pathophysiological conditions.
Microsomal cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, which are important in the metabolism of carcinogens, are expressed in both epithelial and stromal cells in the mammary gland. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of mammary epithelial P450 enzymes in the bioactivation and disposition of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), a breast carcinogen, in the mammary gland. A new mouse model (named MEpi-Cpr-null) was produced, wherein P450 activities in the mammary epithelial cells are suppressed through tissue-specific deletion of the gene for P450 reductase (Cpr), an enzyme required for the activities of all microsomal P450 enzymes. Comparisons between wild-type and MEpi-Cpr-null mice showed that the tissue-specific deletion of Cpr in the mammary epithelial cells was accompanied by significant increases in the levels of DMBA and DMBA-DNA adduct in the mammary gland following a single intraperitoneal injection of DMBA at 50mg/kg. Immunohistochemical and immunoblot analysis further revealed greater induction of CYP1B1 expression by the DMBA treatment in the mammary stroma of the MEpi-Cpr-null mice than in that of the WT mice. These findings not only demonstrate that the epithelial P450 enzymes play important roles in the clearance of DMBA, but also suggest that P450 enzymes in both mammary epithelial and stromal cells contribute to carcinogen-mediated DNA damage.
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