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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Population Pharmacokinetics of Busulfan in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplant: A Model-Based Dosing Algorithm for Personalized Therapy and Implementation into Routine Clinical Use.
Ther Drug Monit
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Population pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of busulfan in children have shown that individualized model-based algorithms provide improved targeted busulfan therapy when compared to conventional dosing. The adoption of population PK models into routine clinical practice has been hampered by the tendency of pharmacologists to develop complex models too impractical for clinicians to use. The authors aimed to develop a population PK model for busulfan in children that can reliably achieve therapeutic exposure (concentration-at-steady-state, Css) and implement a simple, model-based tool for the initial dosing of busulfan in children undergoing HCT.
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A trial of alemtuzumab adjunctive therapy in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with minimal conditioning for severe combined immunodeficiency.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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For infants with SCID the ideal conditioning regimen before allogeneic HCT would omit cytotoxic chemotherapy to minimize short- and long-term complications. We performed a prospective pilot trial with alemtuzumab monotherapy to overcome NK-cell mediated immunologic barriers to engraftment. We enrolled four patients who received CD34-selected haploidentical cells, two of whom failed to engraft donor T cells. The two patients who engrafted had delayed T-cell reconstitution, despite rapid clearance of circulating alemtuzumab. Although well-tolerated, alemtuzumab failed to overcome immunologic barriers to donor engraftment. Furthermore, alemtuzumab may slow T-cell development in patients with SCID in the setting of a T-cell depleted graft.
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A trial of plerixafor adjunctive therapy in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with minimal conditioning for severe combined immunodeficiency.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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For infants with SCID, the ideal conditioning regimen before allogeneic HCT would omit cytotoxic chemotherapy to minimize short- and long-term complications. We performed a prospective pilot trial with G-CSF plus plerixafor given to the host to mobilize HSC from their niches. We enrolled six patients who received CD34-selected haploidentical cells and one who received T-replete matched unrelated BM. All patients receiving G-CSF and plerixafor had generally poor CD34(+) cell and Lin(-) CD34(+) CD38(-) CD90(+) CD45RA(-) HSC mobilization, and developed donor T cells, but no donor myeloid or B-cell engraftment. Although well tolerated, G-CSF plus plerixafor alone failed to overcome physical barriers to donor engraftment.
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SCID patients with ARTEMIS versus RAG deficiencies following HCT: increased risk of late toxicity in ARTEMIS deficient SCID.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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A subgroup of severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) is characterized by lack of T and B cells and is caused by defects in genes required for T- and B-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Several of these genes are also involved in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand break repair, the largest subgroup consisting of patients with T(-)B(-)NK(+)SCID due to DCLRE1C/ARTEMIS defects. We postulated that in patients with ARTEMIS deficiency early and late complications following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) might be more prominent compared to patients with T(-)B(-)NK(+)SCID caused by RAG1/2 deficiencies. We analyzed 69 patients with ARTEMIS and 76 patients with RAG 1/2 deficiencies transplanted either from HLA identical donors without conditioning or from HLA non-identical donors without or with conditioning. There was no difference in survival or in the incidence or severity of acute graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD) regardless of exposure to alkylating agents. Secondary malignancies were not observed. Immune reconstitution was comparable in both groups, however ARTEMIS deficient patients had a significantly higher occurrence of infections in long-term follow-up. There is a highly significant association between poor growth in ARTEMIS deficiency and use of alkylating agents. Furthermore abnormalities in dental development and endocrine late-effects were associated with alkylation therapy in ARTEMIS deficiency.
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Allogeneic Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy (Remestemcel-L, Prochymal) as a Rescue Agent for Severe Refractory Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease in Pediatric Patients.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Severe steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is related to significant mortality and morbidity after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Early clinical trials of therapy with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in pediatric patients with severe aGVHD resistant to multiple immunosuppressive agents showed promising results. In this study, we evaluated the risk/benefit profile of remestemcel-L (Prochymal), a third-party, off-the-shelf source of hMSCs, as a rescue agent for treatment-resistant aGVHD in pediatric patients. Children with grade B-D aGVHD failing steroids and, in most cases, other immunosuppressive agents were eligible for enrollment. Patients received 8 biweekly i.v. infusions of 2 × 10(6) hMSCs/kg for 4 weeks, with an additional 4 weekly infusions after day +28 for patients who achieved either a partial or mixed response. The enrolled patients compose a very challenging population with severe disease that was nonresponsive to the standard of care, with 88% of the patients experiencing severe aGVHD (grade C or D). Seventy-five patients (median age, 8 yr; 58.7% male; and 61.3% Caucasian) were treated in this study. Sixty-four patients (85.3%) had received an unrelated hematopoietic stem cell graft, and 28 patients (37.3%) had received a cord blood graft. At baseline, the distribution of aGVHD grades B, C, and D was 12.0%, 28.0%, and 60.0%, respectively. The median duration of aGVHD before enrollment was 30 d (range, 2 to 1639 d), and patients failed a median of 3 immunosuppressive agents. Organ involvement at baseline was 86.7% gastrointestinal, 54.7% skin, and 36.0% liver. Thirty-six patients (48.0%) had 2 organs involved, and 11 patients (14.7%) had all 3 organs involved. When stratified by aGVHD grade at baseline, the rate of overall response (complete and partial response) at day +28 was 66.7% for aGVHD grade B, 76.2% for grade C, and 53.3% for grade D. Overall response for individual organs at day +28 was 58.5% for the gastrointestinal system, 75.6% for skin, and 44.4% for liver. Collectively, overall response at day +28 for patients treated for severe refractory aGVHD was 61.3%, and this response was correlated with statistically significant improved survival at day +100 after hMSC infusion. Patients who responded to therapy by day +28 had a higher Kaplan-Meier estimated probability of 100-d survival compared with patients who did not respond (78.1% versus 31.0%; P < .001). Prochymal infusions were generally well tolerated, with no evidence of ectopic tissue formation.
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Unresolved issues in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency: need for safer conditioning and reduced late effects.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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In this review we discuss recent outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), including survival, T- and B-cell reconstitution, and late effects, particularly those related to genotype, use of conditioning regimen, and use of alternative donors. We identify the following issues that require additional data, which can be obtained through cooperative studies: outcomes of patients with SCID who did not receive conditioning before alternative donor HCT; outcomes of patients with SCID who did not receive graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis after T cell-replete HCT; late effects of HCT for patients with SCID, including neurocognitive outcomes, growth, and development; and their relationship to genotype and use of alkylating agents for conditioning. Careful follow-up of outcomes of all newborns receiving diagnoses based on newborn screening programs for SCID is essential because data are scarce on the effects of conditioning regimens in very young patients. A consensus on the definition of T- and B-cell recovery, criteria for additional "boosts," pharmacokinetic data of chemotherapy agents used in young children, and uniformity of the use of various chemotherapy agents are needed to compare results among institutions. Finally, development of new nontoxic conditioning regimens for HCT that can be safely used in very young children is required.
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Unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome in children.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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We describe long-term disease-free survival (DFS) after unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in 118 patients aged ?18 years. Forty-six patients had refractory cytopenia (RC), 55 refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB), and 17 refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-t). Transplant-related mortality was higher after mismatched BMT (relative risk [RR] 3.29, P = .002). Disease recurrence was more likely with advanced stages of MDS at the time of BMT: RAEB (RR 6.50, P = .01) or RAEB-t (RR 11.00, P = .004). Treatment failure (recurrent disease or death from any cause; inverse of DFS) occurred in 68 patients. Treatment failure was higher after mismatched BMT (RR 2.79, P = .001) and in those with RAEB-t (RR 2.38, P = .02). Secondary MDS or chemotherapy prior to BMT was not associated with recurrence or treatment failure. Similarly, cytogenetic abnormalities were not associated with transplant outcomes. Eight-year DFS for patients with RC after matched and mismatched unrelated donor BMT was 65% and 40%, respectively. Corresponding DFS for patients with RAEB and RAEB-t was 48% and 28%, respectively. When a matched adult unrelated donor is available, BMT should be offered as first-line therapy, and children with RC can be expected to have the best outcome.
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Clinical update on graft-versus-host disease in children.
Semin Cutan Med Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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The last decade has yielded many significant advances in hematopoietic transplantation techniques, immunomodulatory prophylaxis, and diagnostic and treatment approaches to acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Unfortunately, GVHD remains the cardinal complication in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with significant associated rates of morbidity and mortality. In this review, we highlight the numerous strides that have been made in making hematopoietic transplantation more successful and provide an update on the clinical and histopathological features of both acute and chronic GVHD in the pediatric population. It is critical for dermatologists to be aware of the characteristic features of cutaneous acute and chronic GVHD and to remain up to date on the evolving spectrum of these conditions. We discuss 5 cases with clinico-pathologic correlation to illustrate the key concepts and principles underlying the diagnosis and management of both acute and chronic GVHD.
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Infusion of cytomegalovirus specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes from a sero-negative donor can facilitate resolution of infection and immune reconstitution.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2009
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We report a stem cell transplant patient with a therapy-refractory cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection who received CMV-specific T cells from his sero-negative stem cell donor. This donor received the Towne strain CMV vaccine, and T cells were expanded using monocytes pulsed with pp65 overlapping peptides. CMV DNA decreased after the CTL infusion, and CMV-specific cytotoxicity increased. This strategy could be implemented in similar situations or with persistent viremia post-transplant.
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High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue for atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) of the central nervous system are rare but aggressive tumors of childhood. Median survival with surgery and standard chemotherapy is less than 12 months. In an attempt to improve outcome, patients were treated with aggressive surgical resection and multi-agent chemotherapy, followed by high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue. Nine consecutive children (median age 21 months) were diagnosed with AT/RT at the University of California San Francisco Childrens Hospital from 1997 to 2007 and treated with this aggressive approach. Diagnosis was confirmed using molecular markers. There are two long-term survivors (78 and 98 months from diagnosis). One additional patient is alive with disease. Three patients died of disease during therapy. Three patients died of disease after therapy was complete. There were no toxic deaths. Two of nine patients treated for AT/RT at our institution with high dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplant are long-term survivors, suggesting that a subset of patients can be cured with this approach.
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Development of herpes simplex virus stomatitis during receipt of cidofovir therapy.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2009
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We report 3 children who, after undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant, developed herpes simplex virus (HSV) stomatitis while receiving weekly cidofovir as preemptive treatment for cytomegalovirus infection. All patients responded well to treatment with either acyclovir or ganciclovir. Despite the in vitro susceptibility of HSV to cidofovir, once-weekly treatment with this agent may not be adequate prophylaxis in pediatric patients.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for refractory myasthenia gravis.
Arch. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
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To describe a patient with intractable myasthenia gravis (MG) who was treated with a matched sibling peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
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Primary graft failure after umbilical cord blood transplant rescued by parental haplocompatible stem cell transplantation.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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AB Graft failure and aplasia are known complications of umbilical cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In the absence of a second HSCT, graft failure is generally a fatal complication due to overwhelming infection. We describe 2 children with primary graft failure and life-threatening infections after UCB HSCT who were rescued by the use of related haplocompatible T-cell-depleted peripheral blood stem cell transplants. The rapid availability of haplocompatible donors and the brisk neutrophil recovery after haplocompatible peripheral blood stem cell transplant with high numbers of CD34+ cells make this an attractive rescue strategy for patients with graft failure after UCB HSCT.
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Airway management in children with mucopolysaccharidoses.
Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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To review of the natural history of airway disease in children with muccopolysaccharidoses (MPSs), which represent a group of hereditary progressive disorders caused by excessive accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in various tissues.
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131I-MIBG followed by consolidation with busulfan, melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation for refractory neuroblastoma.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
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(131) I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) produces a 37% response rate in relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma, and could be used to improve remission status prior to myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). The purpose of our report was to evaluate safety and response with MIBG therapy followed by myeloablative busulfan and melphalan (BuMel) with ASCT in patients with refractory neuroblastoma.
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Busulfan, fludarabine, and alemtuzumab as a reduced toxicity regimen for children with malignant and nonmalignant diseases improves engraftment and graft-versus-host disease without delaying immune reconstitution.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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For children receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs), the toxicity of the conditioning regimen and graft failure remain challenges. We previously reported that targeted i.v. busulfan, fludarabine, and rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG) decreased toxicity but had a graft failure rate of 21%. To improve the engraftment rate, we replaced ATG with alemtuzumab, a monoclonal Ab targeting CD52. Thirty-five children with malignant and nonmalignant diseases were enrolled in this phase II prospective study. Twelve children had HLA-matched related donors (MRDs), 16 had 10 of 10, and 7 had 9 of 10 HLA allele-matched unrelated donors (MUDs). Thirty-one of 34 evaluable patients (91%) achieved a durable engraftment. All 3 patients who rejected had a nonmalignant disease and received a MUD transplantation (2 mismatched at 1 antigen). Three patients died of a transplantation-related complication (9% ± 5.2%). Seven patients had disease relapse or progression, 2 of whom died. At a median follow-up of 35 months (range, 15-85 months), the event-free survival (EFS) was 61% ± 9.0% and the overall survival (OS) was 78% ± 7.5%. The median time to neutrophil recovery, B cell, and T cell reconstitution were 16 days, 3 months, and 6 months, respectively. At 1 year, the median donor chimerism in whole blood, CD3, CD14/15, and CD19 subsets were 97%, 87%, 100%, and 99%, respectively. Six patients (17% ± 6.6%) developed acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), only 2 of which were >grade II. Two patients (8% ± 5.4%) progressed to chronic GVHD (cGVHD). These results suggest that replacement of rATG with alemtuzumab may improve engraftment as well as decrease cGVHD rates without resulting in delays in immune reconstitution.
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Massage for children undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation: a qualitative report.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
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Background. No in-depth qualitative research exists about the effects of therapeutic massage with children hospitalized to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The objective of this study is to describe parent caregivers experience of the effects of massage/acupressure for their children undergoing HCT. Methods. We conducted a qualitative analysis of open-ended interviews with 15 parents of children in the intervention arm of a massage/acupressure trial. Children received both practitioner and parent-provided massage/acupressure. Results. Parents reported that their child experienced relief from pain and nausea, relaxation, and greater ease falling asleep. They also reported increased caregiver competence and closeness with their child as a result of learning and performing massage/acupressure. Parents supported a semistandardized massage protocol. Conclusion. Massage/acupressure may support symptom relief and promote relaxation and sleep among pediatric HCT patients if administered with attention to individual patients needs and hospital routines and may relieve stress among parents, improve caregiver competence, and enhance the sense of connection between parent and child.
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Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
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Background. Pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is a lifesaving treatment that often results in physical and psychological discomfort. An acupressure-massage intervention may improve symptom management in this setting. Methods. This randomized controlled pilot trial compared a combined massage-acupressure intervention to usual care. Children were offered three practitioner-provided sessions per week throughout hospitalization. Parents were trained to provide additional acupressure as needed. Symptoms were assessed using nurses reports and two questionnaires, the behavioral affective and somatic experiences scale and the Peds quality of life cancer module. Results. We enrolled 23 children, ages 5 to 18. Children receiving the intervention reported fewer days of mucositis (Hedges g effect size ES = 0.63), lower overall symptom burden (ES = 0.26), feeling less tired and run-down (ES = 0.86), having fewer moderate/severe symptoms of pain, nausea, and fatigue (ES = 0.62), and less pain (ES = 0.42). The intervention group showed trends toward increasing contentness/serenity (ES = +0.50) and decreasing depression (ES = -0.45), but not decreased anxiety (ES = +0.42). Differences were not statistically significant. Discussion. Feasibility of studying massage-acupressure was established in children undergoing HCT. Larger studies are needed to test the efficacy of such interventions in reducing HCT-associated symptoms in children.
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Adoptive immunotherapy with CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes for stem cell transplant patients with refractory CMV infections.
J. Immunother.
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Adoptive immunotherapy with cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) is an effective strategy for preventing and treating viral reactivation after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). We have shown previously that CMV CTL can be generated in 1 to 2 weeks by stimulating donor lymphocytes with peptide mixes derived from full-length pp65 and IE1. We conducted a multi-institutional study of CMV-specific CTL for patients with persistent or anti-viral-resistant CMV infections after allogeneic SCT, to determine the safety, feasibility, and immunologic effects of this approach. We were successful in stimulating CTL from 10/10 donors with pooled CMV overlapping peptide mixes. Five of the 7 subjects who met infusion criteria had new onset CMV-specific CTL activity detected within 4 to 6 weeks after infusion. Of the 2 subjects who did not have immunologic responses after infusion, 1 received CTL with a low viability after thawing, and the other patient received cyclosporine A and systemic corticosteroids at the time of the infusion, achieving only a low, transient increase (10%) in pp65-specific activity. There was no graft-versus-host disease attributable to these infusions. These findings indicate that the infusion of CTL stimulated over 1 to 2 weeks with overlapping CMV peptides can result in virus-specific immune reconstitution in SCT recipients, without exacerbations of graft-versus-host disease.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.