JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Predicting Gaseous Reaction Rates of Short Chain Chlorinated Paraffins with ·OH: Overcoming the Difficulty in Experimental Determination.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under evaluation for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. However, information on their reaction rate constants with gaseous ·OH (kOH) is unavailable, limiting the evaluation of their persistence in the atmosphere. Experimental determination of kOH is confined by the unavailability of authentic chemical standards for some SCCP congeners. In this study, we evaluated and selected density functional theory (DFT) methods to predict kOH of SCCPs, by comparing the experimental kOH values of six polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) with those calculated by the different theoretical methods. We found that the M06-2X/6-311+G(3df,2pd)//B3LYP/6-311 +G(d,p) method is time-effective and can be used to predict kOH of PCAs. Moreover, based on the calculated kOH of nine SCCPs and available experimental kOH values of 22 PCAs with low carbon chain, a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed. The molecular structural characteristics determining the ·OH reaction rate were discussed. logkOH was found to negatively correlate with the percentage of chlorine substitutions (Cl%). The DFT calculation method and the QSAR model are important alternatives to the conventional experimental determination of kOH for SCCPs, and are prospective in predicting their persistence in the atmosphere.
Related JoVE Video
Decay dynamics of ?,?-carboxylic methyl esters (CH3OCOCH:CHR) in the lower-lying excited states-Resonance Raman and complete active space self-consistent field calculation study.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The photophysics of two ?,?-carboxylic methyl esters after excitation to the light absorbing S2(??(*)) state were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method calculations. The vibrational spectra were assigned on the basis of the experimental measurements and the B3LYP/6-31G(d) computations, as well as the normal mode analysis. The A-band resonance Raman spectra of methyl 2,4-pentadienoate (M24PDA) and methyl trans cronoate (MTCA) were measured to probe the structural dynamics in Franck-Condon region. CASSCF calculations were done to obtain the minimal excitation energies and geometric structures of the lower-lying singlet and triplet excited states, and the curve-crossing points. It was revealed that the short-time structural dynamics of M24PDA was dominated by the C?=C?-C4=C5 stretch coordinate, while that of MTCA was mostly along the C?=C? and the C=O stretch motion. Comparison of the structural dynamics of M24PDA and MTCA with that of 3-methyl-3-pentene-2-one (3M3P2O) indicated that the structural dynamics of MTCA is similar to that of 3M3P2O but different than that of M24PDA in that the variation of the Raman intensity ratios for ?7/?8, (?7+?8)/2?8, (?7+2?8)/3?8, (?7+3?8)/4?8 of MTCA is similar to that of 3M3P2O but different from that of M24PDA. It is found that the substitution of methyl group in the ?(')-position of ?,?-enones by methoxyl group does not substantially affect the short-time structural dynamics, while the substitution of vinyl group in the ?-position changes significantly the short-time structural dynamics and the subsequent decay processes. A detailed decay mechanism is proposed. Two sub-processes which consider the reconjugation and the subsequent charge-transfer reaction of O=C-C?=C? chromophore were postulated to describe the variation of short-time structural dynamics with the different substitution.
Related JoVE Video
[Progress on association between COMT gene and violence behavior in patients with schizophrenia].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The prevalence of violence behavior in patients with schizophrenia is higher than that in common population. Data suggest that genetic factors may play a substantial role for the etiology of the behavior. Among the particular gene polymorphisms that have been considered to be involved in violence behavior, the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene had been the focus of recent research. This article reviews the association research between COMT gene and violence behavior in patients with schizophrenia in several aspects: SNP polymorphism of COMT Val158Met and COMT Ala72Ser, haplotype of COMT gene and DNA methylation of promoter region of COMT gene. The genetic research direction is presented for patients with schizophrenia.
Related JoVE Video
[Estimation of soil's heavy metal concentrations (As, Cd and Zn) in Wansheng mining area with geochemistry and field spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the present paper, Chongqing Wansheng mining area was selected as the study area, and the ASD FieldSpec Pro III portable spectroradiometer (350 to 2,500 nm) was used as the spectral measurement instrument to collect the reflectance spectra of 171 soil samples and 123 soil samples in March and in August 2012 respectively. In order to create the retrieval model to retrieve soil heavy metal concentration, 40 among the 123 soil samples in August 2012 were collected to do chemical analysis. Then, the heavy metals' concentration and the reflectance of the 40 soil samples were analyzed together. The results show that the ratio of the reflectance at 2,320 and 1,755 nm in the nearinfrared range, the ratio of the reflectance on 2,260 and 2,210 nm in the nearinfrared range, and the ratio of the reflectance at 480 and 1,920 nm in the visible and near infrared range has a significant correlation with heavy metal concentration of As, Cd and Zn respectively, so the spectral absorption feature parameters (SAFP) for retrieving soil heavy metal concentration of As, Cd and Zn from soil reflectance was created. Thus, the soil heavy metal concentration of As, Cd and Zn of the soil samples can be retrieved with the reflectance spectra. Then the distributions of the soil heavy metal concentration of As, Cd and Zn were obtained with the interpolation method in study area in March and in August 2012 respectively.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular Insight into the Role of the N-terminal Extension in the Maturation, Substrate Recognition, and Catalysis of a Bacterial Alginate Lyase from Polysaccharide Lyase Family 18.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bacterial alginate lyases, which are members of several polysaccharide lyase (PL) families, have important biological roles and biotechnological applications. The mechanisms for maturation, substrate recognition, and catalysis of PL18 alginate lyases are still largely unknown. A PL18 alginate lyase, aly-SJ02, from Pseudoalteromonas sp. 0524 displays a ?-jelly roll scaffold. Structural and biochemical analyses indicated that the N-terminal extension in the aly-SJ02 precursor may act as an intramolecular chaperone to mediate the correct folding of the catalytic domain. Molecular dynamics simulations and mutational assays suggested that the lid loops over the aly-SJ02 active center serve as a gate for substrate entry. Molecular docking and site-directed mutations revealed that certain conserved residues at the active center, especially those at subsites +1 and +2, are crucial for substrate recognition. Tyr(353) may function as both a catalytic base and acid. Based on our results, a model for the catalysis of aly-SJ02 in alginate depolymerization is proposed. Moreover, although bacterial alginate lyases from families PL5, 7, 15, and 18 adopt distinct scaffolds, they share the same conformation of catalytic residues, reflecting their convergent evolution. Our results provide the foremost insight into the mechanisms of maturation, substrate recognition, and catalysis of a PL18 alginate lyase.
Related JoVE Video
RasGRP3 limits Toll-like receptor-triggered inflammatory response in macrophages by activating Rap1 small GTPase.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Host immune cells can detect and destruct invading pathogens via pattern-recognition receptors. Small Rap GTPases act as conserved molecular switches coupling extracellular signals to various cellular responses, but their roles as regulators in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling have not been fully elucidated. Here we report that Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein 3 (RasGRP3), a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor activating Ras and Rap1, limits production of proinflammatory cytokines (especially IL-6) in macrophages by activating Rap1 on activation by low levels of TLR agonists. We demonstrate that RasGRP3, a dominant member of RasGRPs in macrophages, impairs TLR3/4/9-induced IL-6 production and relieves dextrane sulphate sodium-induced colitis and collagen-induced arthritis. In RasGRP3-deficient RAW264.7 cells obtained by CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, TLR3/4/9-induced activation of Rap1 was inhibited while ERK1/2 activation was enhanced. Our study suggests that RasGRP3 limits inflammatory response by activating Rap1 on low-intensity pathogen infection, setting a threshold for preventing excessive inflammatory response.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative genomics of the marine bacterial genus Glaciecola reveals the high degree of genomic diversity and genomic characteristic for cold adaptation.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To what extent the genomes of different species belonging to one genus can be diverse and the relationship between genomic differentiation and environmental factor remain unclear for oceanic bacteria. With many new bacterial genera and species being isolated from marine environments, this question warrants attention. In this study, we sequenced all the type strains of the published species of Glaciecola, a recently defined cold-adapted genus with species from diverse marine locations, to study the genomic diversity and cold-adaptation strategy in this genus.The genome size diverged widely from 3.08 to 5.96 Mb, which can be explained by massive gene gain and loss events. Horizontal gene transfer and new gene emergence contributed substantially to the genome size expansion. The genus Glaciecola had an open pan-genome. Comparative genomic research indicated that species of the genus Glaciecola had high diversity in genome size, gene content and genetic relatedness. This may be prevalent in marine bacterial genera considering the dynamic and complex environments of the ocean. Species of Glaciecola had some common genomic features related to cold adaptation, which enable them to thrive and play a role in biogeochemical cycle in the cold marine environments.
Related JoVE Video
Implementing electronic health care predictive analytics: considerations and challenges.
Health Aff (Millwood)
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The use of predictive modeling for real-time clinical decision making is increasingly recognized as a way to achieve the Triple Aim of improving outcomes, enhancing patients' experiences, and reducing health care costs. The development and validation of predictive models for clinical practice is only the initial step in the journey toward mainstream implementation of real-time point-of-care predictions. Integrating electronic health care predictive analytics (e-HPA) into the clinical work flow, testing e-HPA in a patient population, and subsequently disseminating e-HPA across US health care systems on a broad scale require thoughtful planning. Input is needed from policy makers, health care executives, researchers, and practitioners as the field evolves. This article describes some of the considerations and challenges of implementing e-HPA, including the need to ensure patients' privacy, establish a health system monitoring team to oversee implementation, incorporate predictive analytics into medical education, and make sure that electronic systems do not replace or crowd out decision making by physicians and patients.
Related JoVE Video
The legal and ethical concerns that arise from using complex predictive analytics in health care.
Health Aff (Millwood)
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Predictive analytics, or the use of electronic algorithms to forecast future events in real time, makes it possible to harness the power of big data to improve the health of patients and lower the cost of health care. However, this opportunity raises policy, ethical, and legal challenges. In this article we analyze the major challenges to implementing predictive analytics in health care settings and make broad recommendations for overcoming challenges raised in the four phases of the life cycle of a predictive analytics model: acquiring data to build the model, building and validating it, testing it in real-world settings, and disseminating and using it more broadly. For instance, we recommend that model developers implement governance structures that include patients and other stakeholders starting in the earliest phases of development. In addition, developers should be allowed to use already collected patient data without explicit consent, provided that they comply with federal regulations regarding research on human subjects and the privacy of health information.
Related JoVE Video
The ultrastructure of type I collagen at nanoscale: large or small D-spacing distribution?
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
D-Spacing is the most significant topographic feature of type I collagen fibril, and it is important for our understanding of the structure and function in collagens. Traditionally, the D-spacing of type I collagen fibril was shown to have a singular value of 67 nm, but recent works indicated that the D-spacing values have a large distribution of up to 10 nm when measured by atomic force microscopy. We found that this large distribution of D-spacing values mainly resulted from image drift during measurement. Note that the D-spacing was homogeneous in a single type I collagen fibril. Our statistical analysis indicated that the D-spacing values of type I collagen fibrils exhibited only a narrow distribution of 2.5 nm around the value of 67 nm. In addition, the D-spacing values of the collagen fibrils were nearly identical not only within a single fibril bundle, but also in different fibril bundles. The measurement of the D-spacing values of collagen may provide important structural information in many research areas such as collagen related diseases, construction of molecular model of collagen, and collagen fibrogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Structural basis for dimerization and catalysis of a novel esterase from the GTSAG motif subfamily of the bacterial hormone-sensitive lipase family.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hormone-sensitive lipases (HSLs) are widely distributed in microorganisms, plants, and animals. Microbial HSLs are classified into two subfamilies, an unnamed new subfamily and the GDSAG motif subfamily. Due to the lack of structural information, the detailed catalytic mechanism of the new subfamily is not yet clarified. Based on sequence analysis, we propose to name the new subfamily as the GTSAG motif subfamily. We identified a novel HSL esterase E25, a member of the GTSAG motif subfamily, by functional metagenomic screening, and resolved its structure at 2.05 Å. E25 is mesophilic (optimum temperature at 50 °C), salt-tolerant, slightly alkaline (optimum pH at 8.5) for its activity, and capable of hydrolyzing short chain monoesters (C2-C10). E25 tends to form dimers both in the crystal and in solution. An E25 monomer contains an N-terminal CAP domain, and a classical ?/? hydrolase-fold domain. Residues Ser(186), Asp(282), and His(312) comprise the catalytic triad. Structural and mutational analyses indicated that E25 adopts a dimerization pattern distinct from other HSLs. E25 dimer is mainly stabilized by an N-terminal loop intersection from the CAP domains and hydrogen bonds and salt bridges involving seven highly conserved hydrophilic residues from the catalytic domains. Further analysis indicated that E25 also has some catalytic profiles different from other HSLs. Dimerization is essential for E25 to exert its catalytic activity by keeping the accurate orientation of the catalytic Asp(282) within the catalytic triad. Our results reveal the structural basis for dimerization and catalysis of an esterase from the GTSAG motif subfamily of the HSL family.
Related JoVE Video
RNA-Seq-based toxicogenomic assessment of fresh frozen and formalin-fixed tissues yields similar mechanistic insights.
J Appl Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) pathology specimens represent a potentially vast resource for transcriptomic-based biomarker discovery. We present here a comparison of results from a whole transcriptome RNA-Seq analysis of RNA extracted from fresh frozen and FFPE livers. The samples were derived from rats exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) and a corresponding set of control animals. Principal components analysis indicated that samples were separated in the two groups representing presence or absence of chemical exposure, both in fresh frozen and FFPE sample types. Sixty-five percent of the differentially expressed transcripts (AFB1 vs. controls) in fresh frozen samples were also differentially expressed in FFPE samples (overlap significance: P?
Related JoVE Video
Inter-hospital transfers and outcomes of critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury: a multicenter cohort study.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) who are hospitalized at centers that do not provide renal replacement therapy (RRT) are frequently subjected to inter-hospital transfer for the provision of RRT. It is unclear whether such transfers are associated with worse patient outcomes as compared with the receipt of initial care in a center that provides RRT. This study examined the relationship between inter-hospital transfer and 30-day mortality among critically ill patients with AKI who received RRT.
Related JoVE Video
Hidden risk genes with high-order intragenic epistasis in Alzheimer's disease.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Meta-analysis of data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has confirmed the high risk of APOE and identified twenty other risk genes/loci with moderate effect size. However, many more risk genes/loci remain to be discovered to account for the missing heritability. The contributions from individual singe-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been thoroughly examined in traditional GWAS data analysis, while SNP-SNP interactions can be explored by a variety of alternative approaches. Here we applied generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction to the re-analysis of four publicly available GWAS datasets for AD. When considering 4-order intragenic SNP interactions, we observed high consistency of discovered potential risk genes among the four independent GWAS datasets. Ten potential risk genes were observed across all four datasets, including PDE1A, RYR3, TEK, SLC25A21, LOC729852, KIRREL3, PTPN5, FSHR, PARK2, and NR3C2. These potential risk genes discovered by generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction are highly relevant to AD pathogenesis based on multiple layers of evidence. The genetic contributions of these genes warrant further confirmation in other independent GWAS datasets for AD.
Related JoVE Video
Research progress on the central mechanism underlying regulation of visceral biological rhythm by per2 (Review).
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The period circadian clock 2 (per2) gene plays an important role in modulating the circadian rhythm in the central nervous system. Its protein product, PER2, is mainly expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and limbic system, including the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and the hippocampus. PER2 rhythmic expression regulates hypothalamus?pituitary?adrenal (HPA) axis excitability and circadian rhythm via integration of optical signals and corticotropin?releasing factor (CRF) stress?related neurotransmitters, resulting in circadian rhythmicity in target organs. Moreover, glucocorticoids and glucocorticoid receptors exert strong negative feedback to the HPA axis and certain regions of the limbic system, modulating rhythmic per2 expression in peripheral organs. To date, the mechanism of action of PER2 in the limbic system and the HPA axis remains unclear, yet the per2 gene is considered valuable in clinical research for the study of metabolic syndromes, functional gastrointestinal disorders and certain liver diseases. In this review, we summarize the biological effects of the per2 gene and its protein product, PER2, in the limbic system, its involvement in regulation of the HPA axis by the limbic system and the resulting effects on the biological rhythm of target organs, and its clinical significance.
Related JoVE Video
Accuracy of 3-T MRI using susceptibility-weighted imaging to detect meniscal tears of the knee.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the diagnostic performance of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) at 3-T magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of meniscal tears.
Related JoVE Video
[Mechanism and clinical significance of HBx-mediated inhibition of CYP2E1 expression in the human HepG2 hepatoma cell line].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the mechanism of hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx)-mediated inhibition of CYP2El expression and its significance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis.
Related JoVE Video
Filamentous phages prevalent in Pseudoalteromonas spp. confer properties advantageous to host survival in Arctic sea ice.
ISME J
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sea ice is one of the most frigid environments for marine microbes. In contrast to other ocean ecosystems, microbes in permanent sea ice are space confined and subject to many extreme conditions, which change on a seasonal basis. How these microbial communities are regulated to survive the extreme sea ice environment is largely unknown. Here, we show that filamentous phages regulate the host bacterial community to improve survival of the host in permanent Arctic sea ice. We isolated a filamentous phage, f327, from an Arctic sea ice Pseudoalteromonas strain, and we demonstrated that this type of phage is widely distributed in Arctic sea ice. Growth experiments and transcriptome analysis indicated that this phage decreases the host growth rate, cell density and tolerance to NaCl and H2O2, but enhances its motility and chemotaxis. Our results suggest that the presence of the filamentous phage may be beneficial for survival of the host community in sea ice in winter, which is characterized by polar night, nutrient deficiency and high salinity, and that the filamentous phage may help avoid over blooming of the host in sea ice in summer, which is characterized by polar day, rich nutrient availability, intense radiation and high concentration of H2O2. Thus, while they cannot kill the host cells by lysing them, filamentous phages confer properties advantageous to host survival in the Arctic sea ice environment. Our study provides a foremost insight into the ecological role of filamentous phages in the Arctic sea ice ecosystem.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 10 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.185.
Related JoVE Video
A proposed genus boundary for the prokaryotes based on genomic insights.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genomic information has already been applied to prokaryotic species definition and classification. However, the contribution of the genome sequence to prokaryotic genus delimitation has been less studied. To gain insights into genus definition for the prokaryotes, we attempted to reveal the genus-level genomic differences in the current prokaryotic classification system and to delineate the boundary of a genus on the basis of genomic information. The average nucleotide sequence identity between two genomes can be used for prokaryotic species delineation, but it is not suitable for genus demarcation. We used the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) between two strains to estimate their evolutionary and phenotypic distance. A comprehensive genomic survey indicated that the POCP can serve as a robust genomic index for establishing the genus boundary for prokaryotic groups. Basically, two species belonging to the same genus would share at least half of their proteins. In a specific lineage, the genus and family/order ranks showed slight or no overlap in terms of POCP values. A prokaryotic genus can be defined as a group of species with all pairwise POCP values higher than 50%. Integration of whole-genome data into the current taxonomy system can provide comprehensive information for prokaryotic genus definition and delimitation.
Related JoVE Video
A novel exopolysaccharide from deep-sea bacterium Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87: low-cost fermentation, moisture retention, and antioxidant activities.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many marine microorganisms can secrete exopolysaccharides (EPSs) which have important applications in biotechnology. We have purified a novel EPS from deep-sea bacterium Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87, identified its glycosyl composition and linkage, and optimized its production to 8.9 g/l in previous studies. To reduce the fermentation cost, an economical fermentation medium containing 60.9 % whey, 10 g/l soybean meal, and 2.9 % NaCl was developed. The EPS yield of batch fermentation in this medium reached 12.1?±?0.3 g/l. Fed-batch fermentation was conducted and led to an EPS yield of 17.2?±?0.4 g/l, which represents the highest EPS yield ever reported for a marine bacterium. The EPS was extracted and it displayed good rheological properties, moisture-retention ability, and antioxidant activity. Particularly, its moisture-retention ability is superior to that of other marine bacterial EPSs reported to date. SM-A87 EPS also showed high antioxidant activity. These results suggest that SM-A87 EPS has promising potentials in biotechnology.
Related JoVE Video
Robust gene dysregulation in Alzheimer's disease brains.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The brain transcriptome of Alzheimer's disease (AD) reflects the prevailing disease mechanism at the gene expression level. However, thousands of genes have been reported to be dysregulated in AD brains in existing studies, and the consistency or discrepancy among these studies has not been thoroughly examined. Toward this end, we conducted a comprehensive survey of the brain transcriptome datasets for AD and other neurological diseases. We first demonstrated that the frequency of observed dysregulation in AD was highly correlated with the reproducibility of the dysregulation. Based on this observation, we selected 100 genes with the highest frequency of dysregulation to illustrate the core perturbation in AD brains. The dysregulation of these genes was validated in several independent datasets for AD. We further identified 12 genes with strong correlation of gene expression with disease progression. The relevance of these genes to disease progression was also validated in an independent dataset. Interestingly, we found a transcriptional "cushion" for these 100 genes in the less vulnerable visual cortex region, which may be a critical component of the protection mechanism for less vulnerable brain regions. To facilitate the research in this field, we have provided the expression information of ~8000 relevant genes on a publicly accessible web server AlzBIG (http://alz.big.ac.cn).
Related JoVE Video
Aripiprazole augmentation of antidepressants for postpartum depression: a preliminary report.
Arch Womens Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe the results of an open-label study designed to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of aripiprazole addition to an antidepressant in patients with major depressive disorder with postpartum onset who had not experienced significant clinical improvement following an adequate trial of an antidepressant. Eight of ten women completed the trial with augmentation of aripiprazole (2-10 mg) to their existing antidepressant treatment. Our results suggest a possible therapeutic role for aripiprazole when added to an antidepressant in non-breastfeeding women with postpartum depression. Aripiprazole addition appeared effective and safe with no serious adverse events reported.
Related JoVE Video
Optimization of fermentation conditions for the production of the M23 protease Pseudoalterin by deep-sea Pseudoalteromonas sp. CF6-2 with artery powder as an inducer.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Proteases in the M23 family have speci?c activities toward elastin and bacterial peptidoglycan. The peptidoglycan-degrading property makes these proteases have potential as novel antimicrobials. Because M23 proteases cannot be maturely expressed in Escherichia coli, it is significant to improve the production of these enzymes in their wild strains. Pseudoalterin is a new M23 protease secreted by the deep-sea bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. CF6-2. In this study, the fermentation conditions of strain CF6-2 for pseudoalterin production were optimized using single factor experiments and response surface methodology to improve the enzyme yield. To reduce the fermentation cost, bovine artery powder instead of elastin was determined as a cheap and efficient inducer. Based on single factor experiments, artery powder content, culture temperature and culture time were determined as the main factors influencing pseudoalterin production and were further optimized by the central composite design. The optimal values of these factors were determined as: artery powder of 1.2%, culture temperature of 20.17 °C and culture time of 28.04 h. Under the optimized conditions, pseudoalterin production reached 100.02±9.0 U/mL, more than twice of that before optimization. These results lay a good foundation for developing the biotechnological potential of pseudoalterin.
Related JoVE Video
Rhbdd3 controls autoimmunity by suppressing the production of IL-6 by dendritic cells via K27-linked ubiquitination of the regulator NEMO.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Excessive activation of dendritic cells (DCs) leads to the development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, which has prompted a search for regulators of DC activation. Here we report that Rhbdd3, a member of the rhomboid family of proteases, suppressed the activation of DCs and production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) triggered by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Rhbdd3-deficient mice spontaneously developed autoimmune diseases characterized by an increased abundance of the TH17 subset of helper T cells and decreased number of regulatory T cells due to the increase in IL-6 from DCs. Rhbdd3 directly bound to Lys27 (K27)-linked polyubiquitin chains on Lys302 of the modulator NEMO (IKK?) via the ubiquitin-binding-association (UBA) domain in endosomes. Rhbdd3 further recruited the deubiquitinase A20 via K27-linked polyubiquitin chains on Lys268 to inhibit K63-linked polyubiquitination of NEMO and thus suppressed activation of the transcription factor NF-?B in DCs. Our data identify Rhbdd3 as a critical regulator of DC activation and indicate K27-linked polyubiquitination is a potent ubiquitin-linked pattern involved in the control of autoimmunity.
Related JoVE Video
Enhancing ablation effects of a microbubble-enhancing contrast agent ("SonoVue") in the treatment of uterine fibroids with high-intensity focused ultrasound: a randomized controlled trial.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the role of the ultrasound contrast agent SonoVue in enhancing the ablation effects of ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on uterine fibroids.
Related JoVE Video
Asymmetric addition of triethylaluminium to aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by titanium-(5,5'-biquinoline-6,6'-diol) complexes.
Chirality
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel convenient procedure for the resolution of 5,5'-biquinoline-6,6'-diol (BIQOL) was achieved by separating the corresponding diastereomeric mixture of (S)-(+)-camphorsulfonates on a semiprepared XDB-C8 column followed by hydrolysis. The efficient asymmetric addition of triethylaluminium to aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by Ti-(+)/(-)BIQOL complexes under mild conditions is described. The reactions led to the formation of 1-arylpropan-1-ol in up to 87.5% ee.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative genomics provide insights into evolution of trichoderma nutrition style.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Saprotrophy on plant biomass is a recently developed nutrition strategy for Trichoderma. However, the physiology and evolution of this new nutrition strategy is still elusive. We report the deep sequencing and analysis of the genome of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an efficient cellulase producer. The 31.7-Mb genome, smallest among the sequenced Trichoderma species, encodes fewer nutrition-related genes than saprotrophic T. reesei (Tr), including glycoside hydrolases and nonribosomal peptide synthetase-polyketide synthase. Homology and phylogenetic analyses suggest that a large number of nutrition-related genes, including GH18 chitinases, ?-1,3/1,6-glucanases, cellulolytic enzymes, and hemicellulolytic enzymes, were lost in the common ancestor of T. longibrachiatum (Tl) and Tr. dN/dS (?) calculation indicates that all the nutrition-related genes analyzed are under purifying selection. Cellulolytic enzymes, the key enzymes for saprotrophy on plant biomass, are under stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr than in mycoparasitic species, suggesting that development of the nutrition strategy of saprotrophy on plant biomass has increased the selection pressure. In addition, aspartic proteases, serine proteases, and metalloproteases are subject to stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr, suggesting that these enzymes may also play important roles in the nutrition. This study provides insights into the physiology and evolution of the nutrition strategy of Trichoderma.
Related JoVE Video
Development of a genetic system for the deep-sea psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913.
Microb. Cell Fact.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pseudoalteromonas species are a group of marine gammaproteobacteria frequently found in deep-sea sediments, which may play important roles in deep-sea sediment ecosystem. Although genome sequence analysis of Pseudoalteromonas has revealed some specific features associated with adaptation to the extreme deep-sea environment, it is still difficult to study how Pseudoalteromonas adapt to the deep-sea environment due to the lack of a genetic manipulation system. The aim of this study is to develop a genetic system in the deep-sea sedimentary bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913, making it possible to perform gene mutation by homologous recombination.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of a novel subtilisin-like protease myroicolsin from deep sea bacterium Myroides profundi D25 and molecular insight into its collagenolytic mechanism.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Collagen is an insoluble protein that widely distributes in the extracellular matrix of marine animals. Collagen degradation is an important step in the marine nitrogen cycle. However, the mechanism of marine collagen degradation is still largely unknown. Here, a novel subtilisin-like collagenolytic protease, myroicolsin, which is secreted by the deep sea bacterium Myroides profundi D25, was purified and characterized, and its collagenolytic mechanism was studied. Myroicolsin displays low identity (<30%) to previously characterized subtilisin-like proteases, and it contains a novel domain structure. Protein truncation indicated that the Pro secretion system C-terminal sorting domain in the precursor protein is involved in the cleavage of the N-propeptide, and the linker is required for protein folding during myroicolsin maturation. The C-terminal ?-jelly roll domain did not bind insoluble collagen fiber, suggesting that myroicolsin may degrade collagen without the assistance of a collagen-binding domain. Myroicolsin had broad specificity for various collagens, especially fish-insoluble collagen. The favored residue at the P1 site was basic arginine. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, together with biochemical analyses, confirmed that collagen fiber degradation by myroicolsin begins with the hydrolysis of proteoglycans and telopeptides in collagen fibers and fibrils. Myroicolsin showed strikingly different cleavage patterns between native and denatured collagens. A collagen degradation model of myroicolsin was proposed based on our results. Our study provides molecular insight into the collagen degradation mechanism and structural characterization of a subtilisin-like collagenolytic protease secreted by a deep sea bacterium, shedding light on the degradation mechanism of deep sea sedimentary organic nitrogen.
Related JoVE Video
Oceanisphaera profunda sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from deep-sea sediment, and emended description of the genus Oceanisphaera.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive, flagellated, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated SM1222(T), was isolated from the deep-sea sediment of the South China Sea. The strain grew at 4-35 °C and with 0.5-8?% NaCl (w/v). Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SM1222(T) was affiliated with the genus Oceanisphaera in the class Gammaproteobacteria. It shared the highest sequence similarity with the type strain of Oceanisphaera ostreae (96.8?%) and 95.4-96.6?% sequence similarities with type strains of other species of the genus Oceanisphaera with validly published names. Strain SM1222(T) contained summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?7c and/or iso-C15?:?0 2-OH), C18?:?1?7c, C16?:?0, C12?:?0 and summed feature 2 (C14?:?0 3-OH and/or iso-C16?:?1 I) as the major fatty acids and ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant respiratory quinone. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SM1222(T) was 51.5 mol%. On the basis of the evidence presented in this study, strain SM1222(T) represents a novel species of the genus Oceanisphaera, for which the name Oceanisphaera profunda sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Oceanisphaera profunda is SM1222(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2013241(T)?=?KCTC 32510(T)). An emended description of the genus Oceanisphaera Romanenko et al. 2003 emend. Choi et al. 2011 is also proposed.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular insight into bacterial cleavage of oceanic dimethylsulfoniopropionate into dimethyl sulfide.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The microbial cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) generates volatile DMS through the action of DMSP lyases and is important in the global sulfur and carbon cycles. When released into the atmosphere from the oceans, DMS is oxidized, forming cloud condensation nuclei that may influence weather and climate. Six different DMSP lyase genes are found in taxonomically diverse microorganisms, and dddQ is among the most abundant in marine metagenomes. Here, we examine the molecular mechanism of DMSP cleavage by the DMSP lyase, DddQ, from Ruegeria lacuscaerulensis ITI_1157. The structures of DddQ bound to an inhibitory molecule 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid and of DddQ inactivated by a Tyr131Ala mutation and bound to DMSP were solved. DddQ adopts a ?-barrel fold structure and contains a Zn(2+) ion and six highly conserved hydrophilic residues (Tyr120, His123, His125, Glu129, Tyr131, and His163) in the active site. Mutational and biochemical analyses indicate that these hydrophilic residues are essential to catalysis. In particular, Tyr131 undergoes a conformational change during catalysis, acting as a base to initiate the ?-elimination reaction in DMSP lysis. Moreover, structural analyses and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that two loops over the substrate-binding pocket of DddQ can alternate between "open" and "closed" states, serving as a gate for DMSP entry. We also propose a molecular mechanism for DMS production through DMSP cleavage. Our study provides important insight into the mechanism involved in the conversion of DMSP into DMS, which should lead to a better understanding of this globally important biogeochemical reaction.
Related JoVE Video
Differentiation of retinal ganglion cells and photoreceptor precursors from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells carrying an atoh7/math5 lineage reporter.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The neural retina is a critical component of the visual system, which provides the majority of sensory input in humans. Various retinal degenerative diseases can result in the permanent loss of retinal neurons, especially the light-sensing photoreceptors and the centrally projecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The replenishment of lost RGCs and the repair of optic nerve damage are particularly challenging, as both RGC specification and their subsequent axonal growth and projection involve complex and precise regulation. To explore the developmental potential of pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitors, we have established mouse iPS cells that allow cell lineage tracing of progenitors that have expressed Atoh7/Math5, a bHLH transcription factor required for RGC production. These Atoh7 lineage reporter iPS cells encode Cre to replace one copy of the endogenous Atoh7 gene and a Cre-dependent YFP reporter in the ROSA locus. In addition, they express pluripotent markers and are capable of generating teratomas in vivo. Under anterior neural induction and neurogenic conditions in vitro, the Atoh7-Cre/ROSA-YFP iPS cells differentiate into neurons that co-express various RGC markers and YFP, indicating that these neurons are derived from Atoh7-expressing progenitors. Consistent with previous in vivo cell lineage studies, the Atoh7-Cre/ROSA-YFP iPS cells also give rise to a subset of Crx-positive photoreceptor precursors. Furthermore, inhibition of Notch signaling in the iPSC cultures results in a significant increase of YFP-positive RGCs and photoreceptor precursors. Together, these results show that Atoh7-Cre/ROSA-YFP iPS cells can be used to monitor the development and survival of RGCs and photoreceptors from pluripotent stem cells.
Related JoVE Video
HBx inhibits CYP2E1 gene expression via downregulating HNF4? in human hepatoma cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CYP2E1, one of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidases located predominantly in liver, plays a key role in metabolism of xenobiotics including ethanol and procarcinogens. Recently, down-expression of CYP2E1 was found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with the majority to be chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HBx may inhibit CYP2E1 gene expression via hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?). By enforced HBx gene expression in cultured HepG2 cells, we determined the effect of HBx on CYP2E1 mRNA and protein expression. With a bioinformatics analysis, we found a consensus HNF-4? binding sequence located on -318 to -294 bp upstream of human CYP2E1 promoter. Using reporter gene assay and site-directed mutagenesis, we have shown that mutation of this site dramatically decreased CYP2E1 promoter activity. By silencing endogenous HNF-4?, we have further validated knockdown of HNF-4? significantly decreased CYP2E1 expression. Ectopic overexpression of HBx in HepG2 cells inhibits HNF-4? expression, and HNF-4? levels were inversely correlated with viral proteins both in HBV-infected HepG2215 cells and as well as HBV positive HCC liver tissues. Moreover, the HBx-induced CYP2E1 reduction could be rescued by ectopic supplement of HNF4? protein expression. Furthermore, human hepatoma cells C34, which do not express CYP2E1, shows enhanced cell growth rate compared to E47, which constitutively expresses CYP2E1. In addition, the significantly altered liver proteins in CYP2E1 knockout mice were detected with proteomics analysis. Together, HBx inhibits human CYP2E1 gene expression via downregulating HNF4? which contributes to promotion of human hepatoma cell growth. The elucidation of a HBx-HNF4?-CYP2E1 pathway provides novel insight into the molecular mechanism underlining chronic HBV infection associated hepatocarcinogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Epidermal growth factor-like domain-containing protein 7 (EGFL7) enhances EGF receptor-AKT signaling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and metastasis of gastric cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidermal growth factor-like domain-containing protein 7 (EGFL7) is upregulated in human epithelial tumors and so is a potential biomarker for malignancy. Indeed, previous studies have shown that high EGFL7 expression promotes infiltration and metastasis of gastric carcinoma. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) initiates the metastatic cascade and endows cancer cells with invasive and migratory capacity; however, it is not known if EGFL7 promotes metastasis by triggering EMT. We found that EGFL7 was overexpressed in multiple human gastric cancer (GC) cell lines and that overexpression promoted cell invasion and migration as revealed by scratch wound and transwell migration assays. Conversely, shRNA-mediated EGFL7 knockdown reduced invasion and migration. Furthermore, EGFL7-overexpressing cells grew into larger tumors and were more likely to metastasize to the liver compared to underexpressing CG cells following subcutaneous injection in mice. EGFL7 overexpression protected GC cell lines against anoikis, providing a plausible mechanism for this enhanced metastatic capacity. In excised human gastric tumors, expression of EGFL7 was positively correlated with expression levels of the mesenchymal marker vimentin and the EMT-associated transcription repressor Snail, and negatively correlated with expression of the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin. In GC cell lines, EGFL7 knockdown reversed morphological signs of EMT and decreased both vimentin and Snail expression. In addition, EGFL7 overexpression promoted EGF receptor (EGFR) and protein kinase B (AKT) phospho-activation, effects markedly suppressed by the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478. Moreover, AG1478 also reduced the elevated invasive and migratory capacity of GC cell lines overexpressing EGFL7. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that EGFL7 promotes metastasis by activating EMT through an EGFR-AKT-Snail signaling pathway. Disruption of EGFL7-EGFR-AKT-Snail signaling may a promising therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Sling exercise for chronic low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trials on sling exercise (SE), commonly performed to manage chronic low back pain (LBP), yield conflicting results. This study aimed to review the effects of SE on chronic LBP.
Related JoVE Video
Cognitive enhancement in Canadian medical students.
J Psychoactive Drugs
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cognitive enhancing agents are substances that may augment functions such as memory, attention, concentration, wakefulness, and intelligence.
Related JoVE Video
Changes in matrix metalloproteinase-9 levels during progression of atrial fibrillation.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and evaluate their significance in various stages of idiopathic atrial fibrillation (AF).
Related JoVE Video
Distribution, recognition and regulation of non-CpG methylation in the adult mammalian brain.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
DNA methylation has critical roles in the nervous system and has been traditionally considered to be restricted to CpG dinucleotides in metazoan genomes. Here we show that the single base-resolution DNA methylome from adult mouse dentate neurons consists of both CpG (?75%) and CpH (?25%) methylation (H = A/C/T). Neuronal CpH methylation is conserved in human brains, enriched in regions of low CpG density, depleted at protein-DNA interaction sites and anticorrelated with gene expression. Functionally, both methylated CpGs (mCpGs) and mCpHs can repress transcription in vitro and are recognized by methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) in neurons in vivo. Unlike most CpG methylation, CpH methylation is established de novo during neuronal maturation and requires DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) for active maintenance in postmitotic neurons. These characteristics of CpH methylation suggest that a substantially expanded proportion of the neuronal genome is under cytosine methylation regulation and provide a new foundation for understanding the role of this key epigenetic modification in the nervous system.
Related JoVE Video
Structural and mechanistic insights into collagen degradation by a bacterial collagenolytic serine protease in the subtilisin family.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A number of proteases in the subtilisin family derived from environmental or pathogenic microorganisms have been reported to be collagenolytic serine proteases. However, their collagen degradation mechanisms remain unclear. Here, the degradation mechanism of type I collagen fibres by the S8 collagenolytic protease MCP-01, from Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913, was studied. Atomic force microscopy observation and biochemical analysis confirmed that MCP-01 progressively released single fibrils from collagen fibres and released collagen monomers from fibrils mainly by hydrolysing proteoglycans and telopeptides in the collagen fibres. Structural and mutational analyses indicated that an enlarged substrate-binding pocket, mainly composed of loops 7, 9 and 11, is necessary for collagen recognition and that the acidic and aromatic residues on these loops form a negatively charged, hydrophobic environment for collagen binding. MCP-01 displayed a non-strict preference for peptide bonds with Pro or basic residues at the P1 site and/or Gly at the P1 site in collagen. His211 is a key residue for the P1-basic-residue preference of MCP-01. Our study gives structural and mechanistic insights into collagen degradation of the S8 collagenolytic protease, which is helpful in developing therapeutics for diseases with S8 collagenolytic proteases as pathogenic factors and in studying environmental organic nitrogen degradation mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
Overweight trajectories and psychosocial adjustment among adolescents.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few studies have investigated overweight trajectories and psychosocial adjustment among adolescents. We conducted analyses with data from the multisite Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD).
Related JoVE Video
[The application of mitomycin C in treatment of airway scarring stenosis].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the feasibility and efficacy of mitomycin C(MMC) in the treatment of airway scarring stenosis.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of IFN-?-producing innate B cells.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although B cells play important roles in the humoral immune response and the regulation of adaptive immunity, B cell subpopulations with unique phenotypes, particularly those with non-classical immune functions, should be further investigated. By challenging mice with Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, vesicular stomatitis virus and Toll-like receptor ligands, we identified an inducible CD11a(hi)Fc?RIII(hi) B cell subpopulation that is significantly expanded and produces high levels of IFN-? during the early stage of the immune response. This subpopulation of B cells can promote macrophage activation via generating IFN-?, thereby facilitating the innate immune response against intracellular bacterial infection. As this new subpopulation is of B cell origin and exhibits the phenotypic characteristics of B cells, we designated these cells as IFN-?-producing innate B cells. Dendritic cells were essential for the inducible generation of these innate B cells from the follicular B cells via CD40L-CD40 ligation. Increased Brutons tyrosine kinase activation was found to be responsible for the increased activation of non-canonical NF-?B pathway in these innate B cells after CD40 ligation, with the consequent induction of additional IFN-? production. The identification of this new population of innate B cells may contribute to a better understanding of B cell functions in anti-infection immune responses and immune regulation.Cell Research advance online publication 3 December 2013; doi:10.1038/cr.2013.155.
Related JoVE Video
Allocating scarce resources in real-time to reduce heart failure readmissions: a prospective, controlled study.
BMJ Qual Saf
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To test a multidisciplinary approach to reduce heart failure (HF) readmissions that tailors the intensity of care transition intervention to the risk of the patient using a suite of electronic medical record (EMR)-enabled programmes.
Related JoVE Video
N,N,N,N,N,N-Hexa-kis-(2-hy-droxy-ethyl)butane-1,4-diaminium bis-(2-sul-fan-ylidene-1,3-di-thiole-4,5-dithiolato-?(2) S (4),S (5))zincate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, (C16H38N2O6)[Zn(C3S5)2], two independent cations lie across inversion centers. In one of the cations, the three symmetry-unique O-H groups are disordered over two sets of sites with refined occupancy ratios of 0.701?(9):0.299?(9), 0.671?(8):0.329?(8) and 0.566?(7):0.434?(7). In the anion, the Zn(II) ion is coordinated in a distorted tetra-hedral environment by four S atoms of two chelating 1,3-di-thiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolato ligands. The dihedral angle between the mean planes [maximun deviations = 0.022?(3) and 0.0656?(6)?Å] of the two ligands is 87.76?(3)°. An intamolecular O-H?O hydrogen bond occurs in the disordered cation. In the crystal, O-H?O and O-H?S hydrogen bonds link the components into a two-dimensional network parallel to (0-11).
Related JoVE Video
A prospective study of diagnostic conversion of major depressive disorder to bipolar disorder in pregnancy and postpartum.
Bipolar Disord
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to determine the rate of, and risk factors for, a change in diagnosis from major depressive disorder to bipolar disorder, and from bipolar II disorder to bipolar I disorder in pregnancy and postpartum.
Related JoVE Video
Tetra-phenyl-phospho-nium [?3-(4-methyl-phen-yl)tellurolato]tris-[tetra-carbonyl-iron(0)].
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the anion of the title compound, (C24H20P)[Fe3(C7H7Te)(CO)12], each Fe(0) atom is coordinated by four CO ligands and a Te atom, resulting in a trigonal-bipyramidal coordination environment. The Te atom is coordinated by a 4-methyl-phenyl group and the Fe(0) atoms in a distorted tetra-hedral geometry. The average Te-Fe bond length is 2.574?(4)?Å.
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacotherapy of bipolar II disorder during and after pregnancy.
Curr Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacotherapy of bipolar II disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period.
Related JoVE Video
Effective ablation therapy of adenomyosis with ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the effects of ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on adenomyosis.
Related JoVE Video
Superior Vena Cava Drainage During Thoracoscopic Cardiac Surgery: Bilateral Internal Jugular Vein Sheaths Versus One Percutaneous Superior Vena Cava Cannula.
J. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate bilateral internal jugular vein sheaths as a replacement of one percutaneous superior vena cava cannula for superior vena cava drainage during thoracoscopic cardiac surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Specific frequency band of amplitude low-frequency ?uctuation predicts Parkinsons disease.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has been considered for development as a biomarker and analytical tool for evaluation of Parkinsons disease (PD). Here we utilized analysis of the amplitude low-frequency ?uctuations (ALFF) to determine changes in intrinsic neural oscillations in 72 patients with PD. Two different frequency bands (slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz; slow-4: 0.027-0.073 Hz) were analyzed. In the slow-5 band, PD patients compared with controls had increased ALFF values mainly in the caudate and several temporal regions, as well as decreased ALFF values in the cerebellum and the parieto-temporo-occipital cortex. Additionally, in the slow-4 band, PD patients relative to controls exhibited reduced ALFF value in the thalamus, cerebellum, and several occipital regions. Together, our data demonstrate that PD patients have widespread abnormal intrinsic neural oscillations in the corticostriatal network in line with the pathophysiology of PD, and further suggest that the abnormalities are dependent on speci?c frequency bands. Thus, frequency domain analyses of resting state BOLD signals may provide a useful means to study the pathophysiology of PD and the physiology of the brains dopaminergic pathways.
Related JoVE Video
Developmental trajectories of cigarette use and associations with multilayered risk factors among Chinese adolescents.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to identify developmental trajectories of cigarette use and risk factors associated with the distinct developmental courses of smoking in Chinese early adolescents from age 12 to 16 years.
Related JoVE Video
[Identification of mouse acute pneumonia model induced by influenza virus using gene clone and sequence analysis].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify mouse acute pneumonia model induced by influenza virus adapted strains (FM1 strain) using RT-PCR, gene clone and sequence analysis and pathological examination of lung tissues.
Related JoVE Video
Do knee concentric and eccentric strength and sagittal-plane knee joint biomechanics differ between jumpers and non-jumpers in landing?
Hum Mov Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of knee concentric and eccentric strength and impact related knee biomechanics between jumpers and non-jumpers during step-off landing tasks. Ten male college swimming athletes (non-jumpers) and 10 track and volleyball athletes (jumpers) were recruited to participate in two test sessions: a muscle strength testing session of concentric and eccentric extension for dominant knee joint at 60°/s and 180°/s and a landing testing session. The participants performed five trials of step-off landing in each of four conditions: soft and stiff landing from 0.4m and 0.6m landing heights. The three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction force were recorded simultaneously during step-off landing conditions. The results showed that the jumpers had significantly greater peak knee eccentric extension and concentric flexion torques compared to the non-jumpers. No significant group effects were found for peak vertical ground reaction force and knee range of motion during landing. The jumpers had significantly greater knee contact flexion angle, maximum knee flexion angle and initial knee extension moment compared to the non-jumpers. These results suggest that these athletes adopted a favorable impact attenuation strategy that is related to the greater knee eccentric muscle strength and training.
Related JoVE Video
A novel thermometric biosensor for fast surveillance of ?-lactamase activity in milk.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Regulatory restrictions on antibiotic residues in dairy products have resulted in the illegal addition of ?-lactamase to lower antibiotic levels in milk in China. Here we demonstrate a fast, sensitive and convenient method based on enzyme thermistor (ET) for the surveillance of ?-lactamase in milk. A fixed amount of penicillin G, which is a specific substrate of ?-lactamase, was incubated with the milk sample, and an aliquot of the mixture was directly injected into the ET system to give a temperature change corresponding to the remained penicillin G. The amount of ?-lactamase present in sample was deduced by the penicillin G consumed during incubation. This method was successfully applied to quantify ?-lactamase in milk with the linear range of 1.1-20 UmL(-1) and the detection limit of 1.1 UmL(-1). The recoveries ranged from 93% to 105%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8%. The stability of the column equipped in ET was also studied, and only 5% decrease of activity was observed after 60 days of use. Compared with the conventional culture-based assay, the advantages of high throughput, timesaving and accurate quantification have made this method an ideal alternative for routine use.
Related JoVE Video
Induction of Siglec-G by RNA viruses inhibits the innate immune response by promoting RIG-I degradation.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
RIG-I is a critical RNA virus sensor that serves to initiate antiviral innate immunity. However, posttranslational regulation of RIG-I signaling remains to be fully understood. We report here that RNA viruses, but not DNA viruses or bacteria, specifically upregulate lectin family member Siglecg expression in macrophages by RIG-I- or NF-?B-dependent mechanisms. Siglec-G-induced recruitment of SHP2 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl to RIG-I leads to RIG-I degradation via K48-linked ubiquitination at Lys813 by c-Cbl. By increasing type I interferon production, targeted inactivation of Siglecg protects mice against lethal RNA virus infection. Taken together, our data reveal a negative feedback loop of RIG-I signaling and identify a Siglec-G-mediated immune evasion pathway exploited by RNA viruses with implication in antiviral applications. These findings also provide insights into the functions and crosstalk of Siglec-G, a known adaptive response regulator, in innate immunity.
Related JoVE Video
Functional Networking of Human Divergently Paired Genes (DPGs).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Divergently paired genes (DPGs), also known as bidirectional (head-to-head positioned) genes, are conserved across species and lineages, and thus deemed to be exceptional in genomic organization and functional regulation. Despite previous investigations on the features of their conservation and gene organization, the functional relationship among DPGs in a given species and lineage has not been thoroughly clarified. Here we report a network-based comprehensive analysis on human DPGs and our results indicate that the two members of the DPGs tend to participate in different biological processes while enforcing related functions as modules. Comparing to randomly paired genes as a control, the DPG pairs have a tendency to be clustered in similar "cellular components" and involved in similar "molecular functions". The functional network bridged by DPGs consists of three major modules. The largest module includes many house-keeping genes involved in core cellular activities. This module also shows low variation in expression in both CNS (central nervous system) and non-CNS tissues. Based on analyses of disease transcriptome data, we further suggest that this particular module may play crucial roles in HIV infection and its disease mechanism.
Related JoVE Video
Long-lasting changes in DNA methylation following short-term hypoxic exposure in primary hippocampal neuronal cultures.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
While the effects of hypoxia on gene expression have been investigated in the CNS to some extent, we currently do not know what role epigenetics plays in the transcription of many genes during such hypoxic stress. To start understanding the role of epigenetic changes during hypoxia, we investigated the long-term effect of hypoxia on gene expression and DNA methylation in hippocampal neuronal cells. Primary murine hippocampal neuronal cells were cultured for 7 days. Hypoxic stress of 1% O2, 5% CO2 for 24 hours was applied on Day 3, conditions we found to maximize cellular hypoxic stress response without inducing cell death. Cells were returned to normoxia for 4 days following the period of hypoxic stress. On Day 7, Methyl-Sensitive Cut Counting (MSCC) was used to identify a genome-wide methylation profile of the hippocampal cell lines to assess methylation changes resulting from hypoxia. RNA-Seq was also done on Day 7 to analyze changes in gene transcription. Phenotypic analysis showed that neuronal processes were significantly shorter after 1 day of hypoxia, but there was a catch-up growth of these processes after return to normoxia. Transcriptome profiling using RNA-Seq revealed 369 differentially expressed genes with 225 being upregulated, many of which form networks shown to affect CNS development and function. Importantly, the expression level of 59 genes could be correlated to the changes in DNA methylation in their promoter regions. CpG islands, in particular, had a strong tendency to remain hypomethylated long after hypoxic stress was removed. From this study, we conclude that short-term, sub-lethal hypoxia results in long-lasting changes to genome wide DNA methylation status and that some of these changes can be highly correlated with transcriptional modulation in a number of genes involved in functional pathways that have been previously implicated in neural growth and development.
Related JoVE Video
Phosphorylation of the p68 subunit of Pol ? acts as a molecular switch to regulate its interaction with PCNA.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
DNA polymerase delta (Pol ?) is a central enzyme for eukaryotic DNA replication and repair. Pol ? is a complex of four subunits p125, p68, p50, and p12. The functional properties of Pol ? are largely determined by its interaction with its DNA sliding clamp PCNA (proliferating cellular nuclear antigen). The regulatory mechanisms that govern the association of Pol ? with PCNA are largely unknown. In this study, we identified S458, located in the PCNA-interacting protein (PIP-Box) motif of p68, as a phosphorylation site for PKA. Phosphomimetic mutation of S458 resulted in a decrease in p68 affinity for PCNA as well as the processivity of Pol ?. Our results suggest a role of phosphorylation of the PIP-motif of p68 as a molecular switch that dynamically regulates the functional properties of Pol ?.
Related JoVE Video
Social control correlates of arrest behavior among homeless youth in five U.S. cities.
Violence Vict
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study identified homelessness, substance use, employment, and mental health correlates of homeless youths arrest activity in 5 cities. Two hundred thirty-eight street youth from Los Angeles, Austin, Denver, New Orleans, and St. Louis were recruited using comparable sampling strategies. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression results reveal that being arrested for criminal activity is associated with length of homelessness, history of juvenile detention and incarceration, receiving income from theft, substance abuse, and mental illness. Arrests are also associated with interactions between lack of formal employment income and receiving income from theft and between drug and alcohol abuse/ dependency. Understanding the health and situational factors associated with homeless youths delinquent activity has implications for providing more comprehensive health, mental health, and substance abuse services.
Related JoVE Video
Complete genome sequence of seawater bacterium Glaciecola nitratireducens FR1064(T).
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glaciecola nitratireducens strain FR1064(T) was isolated from seawater and described as a new species by Baik et al. in 2006. The genome size is about 1.01 to 1.26 Mb smaller than two reported Glaciecola genomes, indicating the gain or loss of large genome segments in the evolution of Glaciecola strains.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic structure of three fosmid-fragments encoding 16S rRNA genes of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG): implications for physiology and evolution of marine sedimentary archaea.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Archaea of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG) exist widely in soil, freshwater and marine sediments of both surface and subsurface. However, current knowledge about this group is limited to its phylogenetic diversity. An archaeal 16S library was constructed from a sediment sample from the South China Sea, which was dominated by MCG and Marine Group I (MG-I). A metagenomic library was constructed from the same sediment sample, and three MCG fosmids (E6-3G, E37-7F and E48-1C) containing 16S rRNA genes were screened. Annotation showed that the three genomic fragments encode a variety of open reading frames (ORFs) that are potentially homologous to important functional genes related to lipid biosynthesis, energy metabolism, and resistance to oxidants. No colinear regions were found between MCG fosmids and reported archaeal genomic fragments or genomes, suggesting that the MCG archaea are quite different from the sequenced archaea in gene arrangement. Analyses of both the phylogenies of 16S rRNA genes and several informational processing genes and nucleotide frequencies showed that MCG archaea are distinct from MG-I plus relatives. In addition, tetranucleotide frequency analysis in combination with phylogenetic analysis suggested that some fragments in the MCG fosmids are probably derived from non-MCG or non-archaeal genomes.
Related JoVE Video
(meso-5,5,7,12,12,14-Hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetra-aza-cyclo-tetra-deca-ne)nickel(II) bis-[O,O-(1,2-phenyl-ene) dithio-phosphate].
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Ni(C(16)H(36)N(4))](C(6)H(4)O(2)PS(2))(2), the Ni(II) cation is located on a center of inversion and is chelated by the folded tetra-amine macrocycle ligand in a slightly distorted NiN(4) square-planar geometry. Two symmetry-related O,O-(1,2-phenyl-ene)dithio-phosphate anions are located on either side of the Ni(II) cation, with Ni?S of 3.9558?(5)?Å, and link to the tetra-amine macrocycle ligand via N-H?S hydrogen bonding.
Related JoVE Video
Correlates of overweight status in Chinese youth: an East-West paradox.
Am J Health Behav
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the odds of overweight and related correlates in Chinese adolescents.
Related JoVE Video
Mental health system in China: history, recent service reform and future challenges.
World Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper summarizes the history of the development of Chinese mental health system; the current situation in the mental health field that China has to face in its effort to reform the system, including mental health burden, workforce and resources, as well as structural issues; the process of national mental health service reform, including how it was included into the national public health program, how it began as a training program and then became a treatment and intervention program, its unique training and capacity building model, and its outcomes and impacts; the barriers and challenges of the reform process; future suggestions for policy; and Chinese experiences as response to the international advocacy for the development of mental health.
Related JoVE Video
Crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of linker L(R) and the assembly of cyanobacterial phycobilisome rods.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Phycobilisomes are light-harvesting supramolecular complexes in cyanobacteria and red algae. Linkers play a pivotal role in the assembly and energy transfer modulation of phycobilisomes. However, how linkers function remains unclear due to the lack of structural and biochemical studies of linkers, especially the N-terminal domain of L(R) (pfam00427). Here, we report the crystal structure of the pfam00427 domain of the linker L(R) (30) from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 at 1.9 Å. The pfam00427 presents as a previously uncharacterized point symmetric six ?-helix bundle. To elucidate the binding style of pfam00427 in the C-phycocyanin (C-PC) (??)(6) hexamer, we fixed pfam00427 computationally into the C-PC (??)(6) inner cavity using the program AutoDock. Combined with a conserved C-PC binding patch on pfam00427 identified, we arrived at a model for the pfam00427-C-PC (??)(6) complex. This model was further optimized and evaluated as a reasonable result by a molecular dynamics simulation. In the resulting model, the pfam00427 domain is stably positioned in the central hole of the C-PC trimer. Moreover, the L(RT) (pfam01383) was docked into our pfam00427-C-PC model to generate a complete phycobilisome rod in which the linkers join individual biliprotein hexamers.
Related JoVE Video
Relative income inequality and selected health outcomes in urban Chinese youth.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Self reported cross-sectional data gathered in 2002 from 12,449 middle and high school students from seven major cities in China were examined to explore the association of self-perceived relative income inequality (SPRII) with general health status, depression, stress, and cigarette smoking. Two types of self-perceived relative income were evaluated: household income relative to peers (SPRII-S) and relative to their own past (SPRII-P). SPRII-S and SPRII-P were coded as three-level categorical variables: lower, equal, and higher. As hypothesized, the youth in the "Lower" SPRII-S or SPRII-P groups reported the worst general health and the highest levels of depression and stress; the youth in the "Higher" groups reported the best general health. Unexpectedly, the youth in the "Higher" groups did not report the lowest levels of depression and stress, and the relationship between SPRII and cigarette smoking was even less straightforward. The expected positive relationship between SPRII and the general health status is consistent with previous research, but the relationships between SPRII and depression, stress, and cigarette smoking behavior are not. Further studies are needed to elucidate the complex associations between SPRII and health outcomes in rapidly transforming economies such as China.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence and correlates of major depressive disorder in breast cancer survivors in Shanghai, China.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our objective is to measure the prevalence and correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD) among Chinese breast cancer patients after surgery, which is essential for analyzing the service needs and allocating mental health resources.
Related JoVE Video
Psychiatrists attitudes towards the procedure of involuntary admission to mental hospitals in China.
Int J Soc Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to protect the rights of the mentally ill, legislation on the standards and procedures of compulsory detention has been made at the local and national level in China.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.