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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Diagnostic and post-treatment CT appearance of biopsy proven mixed cryptococcus and candida cholangitis.
J Xray Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida are common opportunistic pathogens of human. There is very limited literature on Cryptococcus neoformans cholangitis or Candida cholangitis in immunocompetent patient while mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis has not been reported in the literature ever before. We hereby report the imaging findings of a case of mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis in an immunocompetent boy. The CT features included nodules in the cystic duct and common bile duct, dilatation of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts with mural thickening, irregular hypodense mass-like lesion extending along the bile ducts from the liver hilum to the periphery which was confirmed by the presence of enlarged and confluent lymph nodes. CT characteristics can contribute to timely diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
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Molecular insight into nanoscale water films dewetting on modified silica surfaces.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are adopted to investigate the microscopic dewetting mechanism of nanoscale water films on methylated silica surfaces. The simulation results show that the dewetting process is divided into two stages: the appearance of dry patches and the quick contraction of the water film. First, the appearance of dry patches is due to the fluctuation in the film thickness originating from capillary wave instability. Second, for the fast contraction of water film, the unsaturated electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions among water molecules are the driving forces, which induce the quick contraction of the water film. Finally, the effect of film thickness on water films dewetting is studied. Research results suggest that upon increasing the water film thickness from 6 to 8 Å, the final dewetting patterns experience separate droplets and striation-shaped structures, respectively. But upon further increasing the water film thickness, the water film is stable and there are no dry patches. The microscopic dewetting behaviors of water films on methylated silica surfaces discussed here are helpful in understanding many phenomena in scientific and industrial processes better.
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[Idea and practice of ZHU Lian concerning acupuncture education].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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ZHU Lian is a deceased famous acupuncture and Moxibustion specialist, the first director and the founder of institute of Acupuncture-Moxibustion of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. This article discusses the thought and idea of education and teaching of acupuncture-moxibustion from the following three aspects: diversified education and training mode, teaching idea of new acupuncture-moxibustion with a lot of characteristics, and the founding of professional acupuncture-moxibustion college. All above have both distinct characteristics of the times and positively enlightening significance of reality.
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[Discussion on the concepts of Xigu and acupoint].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Xigu is an important term and concept in the theory of acupuncture and moxibustion. In this paper, textual research is performed to trace the original meaning of the Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor; and by referencing medical experts' annotation and research in the history, the interpretation and annotation of Xigu is conducted. Besides, the relationship between Xigu and acupoint is discussed and emphasized. Hence, this paper could provide reference for acupoint theoretical research and clinical practice of acupuncture.
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Dopamine release from transplanted neural stem cells in Parkinsonian rat striatum in vivo.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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Embryonic stem cell-based therapies exhibit great potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) because they can significantly rescue PD-like behaviors. However, whether the transplanted cells themselves release dopamine in vivo remains elusive. We and others have recently induced human embryonic stem cells into primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs) that are self-renewable for massive/transplantable production and can efficiently differentiate into dopamine-like neurons (pNSC-DAn) in culture. Here, we showed that after the striatal transplantation of pNSC-DAn, (i) pNSC-DAn retained tyrosine hydroxylase expression and reduced PD-like asymmetric rotation; (ii) depolarization-evoked dopamine release and reuptake were significantly rescued in the striatum both in vitro (brain slices) and in vivo, as determined jointly by microdialysis-based HPLC and electrochemical carbon fiber electrodes; and (iii) the rescued dopamine was released directly from the grafted pNSC-DAn (and not from injured original cells). Thus, pNSC-DAn grafts release and reuptake dopamine in the striatum in vivo and alleviate PD symptoms in rats, providing proof-of-concept for human clinical translation.
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Synthesis of a Novel Core-Shell Nanocomposite Ag@SiO2@Lu2O3:Gd/Yb/Er for Large Enhancing Upconversion Luminescence and Bioimaging.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Upconversion nanocrystals have many advantages over other fluorescent materials. However, their upconversion luminescence intensities are not desirable, limiting their applications for highly sensitive detection. Therefore, it is really important to enhance upconversion luminescent intensities of upconversion nanocrystals. In the present study, a novel Ag core and upconversion nanocrystal shell based nanocomposite Ag@SiO2@Lu2O3:Gd/Yb/Er for metal-enhanced upconversion luminescence was fabricated successfully, and its morphology, crystalline phase, composition, optical property, and cell imaging application were investigated. It was found that a maximum upconversion luminescence enhancement of 30-fold was obtained in comparison with the control without a silver core, and the nanocomposite exhibited bright upconversion luminescence when it was used for imaging with HeLa cells. This enhancement potentially increases the overall upconversion nanocrystal detectability, endowing the nanocomposite with a potential capability for highly sensitive biological, medical, and optical detection.
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Beneficial effects of pioglitazone on retardation of persistent atrial fibrillation progression in diabetes mellitus patients.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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This study aimed to explore the effects of pioglitazone treatment on progression from persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) to permanent atrial fibrillation in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and to investigate the possible mechanisms involved in those effects.A total of 146 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with firstly identified persistent AF were selected. Seventy patients were randomized into the pioglitazone (30 mg/day) group and 76 into the placebo group. Pro-collagen type I carboxyterminal peptide (PICP), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and angiotensin II were assayed and left atrial diameter (LA diameter) was measured at the first presence of persistent AF, and at 6 and 14 months of follow-up. The time point of identification of permanent AF and the incidence of permanent AF in the patients were all recorded.Thirty-seven (49%) of the 76 patients in the placebo group and 21 (30%) of the 70 patients in the pioglitazone group progressed to permanent AF (P = 0.028). No significant differences existed in the follow-up time (20.5 ± 3.97 months for pioglitazone group versus 20.9 ± 4.14 months for placebo group) between the two groups (P = 0.535). In the pioglitazone group, no significant change was found in angiotensin II level. The PICP level did not change significantly at 6-months of follow-up, but decreased significantly at 14-months of follow-up (P = 0.032). The AGE (P = 0.037 at 6-month follow-up, P < 0.035 at 14-month follow-up) level was significantly lower at both 6 and 14-months of followup.By lowering the PICP level, pioglitazone treatment may decrease the incidence of permanent AF in DM patients with persistent AF, which may be associated with the suppressing effect of pioglitazone on AGEs.
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Electrochemical Behavior of Platinum Nanoparticles on a Carbon Xerogel Support Modified with a [(Trifluoromethyl)-benzenesulfonyl]imide Electrolyte.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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A monoprotic [(trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonyl]imide (SI) superacid electrolyte was used to covalently modify a mesoporous carbon xerogel (CX) support via reaction of the corresponding trifluoromethyl aryl sulfonimide diazonium zwitterion with the carbon surface. Electrolyte attachment was demonstrated by elemental analysis, acid-base titration, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ion-exchange capacity of the fluoroalkyl-aryl-sulfonimide-grafted carbon xerogel (SI-CX) was ?0.18 mequiv g(-1), as indicated by acid-base titration. Platinum nanoparticles were deposited onto the SI-grafted carbon xerogel samples by the impregnation and reduction method, and these materials were employed to fabricate polyelectrolyte membrane fuel-cell (PEMFC) electrodes by the decal transfer method. The SI-grafted carbon-xerogel-supported platinum (Pt/SI-CX) was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy to determine platinum nanoparticle size and distribution, and the findings are compared with CX-supported platinum catalyst without the grafted SI electrolyte (Pt/CX). Platinum nanoparticle sizes are consistently larger on Pt/SI-CX than on Pt/CX. The electrochemically active surface area (ESA) of platinum catalyst on the Pt/SI-CX and Pt/CX samples was measured with ex situ cyclic voltammetry (CV) using both hydrogen adsorption/desorption and carbon monoxide stripping methods and by in situ CV within membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The ESA values for Pt/SI-CX are consistently lower than those for Pt/CX. Some possible reasons for the behavior of samples with and without grafted SI layers and implications for the possible use of SI-grafted carbon layers in PEMFC devices are discussed.
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GPR84 sustains aberrant ?-catenin signaling in leukemic stem cells for maintenance of MLL leukemogenesis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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?-catenin is required for establishment of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Targeted inhibition of ?-catenin signaling has been hampered by the lack of pathway components amenable to pharmacological manipulation. Here, we identified a novel ?-catenin regulator, GPR84, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family that represents a highly tractable class of drug targets. High GPR84 expression levels were confirmed in human and mouse AML LSCs compared to hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Suppression of GPR84 significantly inhibited cell growth by inducing G1-phase cell cycle arrest in pre-LSCs, reduced LSC frequency and impaired reconstitution of stem cell-derived MLL AML, which represents a particularly aggressive and drug-resistant subtype of AML. The GPR84-deficient phenotype in established AML could be rescued by expression of constitutively active ?-catenin. Furthermore, GPR84 conferred a growth advantage to Hoxa9/Meis1a transduced stem cells. Microarray analysis demonstrated that GPR84 significantly up-regulated a small set of MLL-fusion targets and ?-catenin co-effectors, and down-regulated a hematopoietic cell cycle inhibitor. Altogether, our data reveal a previously unrecognized role of GPR84 in maintaining fully developed AML by sustaining aberrant ?-catenin signaling in LSCs, and suggest that targeting the oncogenic GPR84/?-catenin signaling axis may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for AML.
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Preparation, Characterization and Origin of Highly Active and Thermally Stable Pd-Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 Catalysts via Sol-Evaporation Induced Self-Assembly Method.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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The Pd-Ce-Zr solid solution catalysts were in situ synthesized by a sol-evaporation induced self-assembly (SEISA) method. The catalytic performances of the as-prepared catalysts for CO oxidation and their physicochemical properties were investigated with various characterization techniques. The catalysts with low doping amount of Pd exhibited unique thermal stability and high activity toward CO oxidation. The CO oxidation activities of the catalysts showed a volcano type relationship with the content of Pd doping in Ce-Zr oxides. Pd-Ce0.8Zr0.2O2 with 1.0% Pd doping gave the highest catalytic activity. Its CO complete conversion temperature was 110 °C with a turnover frequency of 1.52 s(-1). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggested strong effects of Pd doping on the crystal structure, charge distribution and formation of oxygen vacancy of the Ce-based catalysts. The calculations also suggested that CO oxidation on Pd doped Ce-based catalysts follows Eley-Rideal mechanism, and the direct reaction of CO with a surface oxygen atom appears to be the main pathway of the oxidation.
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Unusual, photo-induced self-assembly of azobenzene-containing amphiphiles.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Stimuli-responsive self-assembly is playing an increasingly important role in emerging applications, ranging from smart materials to biosensors. However, obtaining essential information for further development, such as molecular arrangement and interaction, is still experimentally challenging. A molecular-level understanding of the stimuli-responsive self-assembly is needed. Azobenzene-containing (azo-containing) amphiphiles organize into photo-responsive assemblies because of the cis-trans isomerization triggered by the irradiation of ultraviolet (UV) and visible light. In this study, we applied a coarse grained (CG) molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, with the necessary potential parameters fitted from theoretical calculation data, to study the photo-induced self-assembly of 4,4'-bis(hydroxymethyl)-azobenzene (AzoCO), a simple azo-containing amphiphile. An unusual "chaotic micelle" and "monolayer phase" were obtained with cis- and trans-AzoCO molecules, respectively. The structural information and formation mechanism were studied. The "chaotic micelle" possesses a chaotic but not a pure hydrophobic interior as commonly understood. Through comparative simulations, we found that the azo (-N[double bond, length as m-dash]N-) group of azobenzene plays a crucial role in the formation of the "chaotic micelle". The "monolayer phase" is arranged by abreast rod-like trans-AzoCO molecules; the axial symmetry of the trans-AzoCO molecule drives the formation of this structure. The novel "chaotic micelle" and "monolayer phase" have potential applications in nanotechnology and bioengineering. This work is expected to trigger further studies on stimuli-responsive phenomena and materials.
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Down-regulation of connexin43 and connexin32 in keratocystic odontogenic tumours: potential association with clinical features.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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The objective of this study was to explore the potential involvement of connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin32 (Cx32), two vital members of the connexin families, in the pathogenesis of keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT).
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[Clinical analysis of 5 cases with hemangiopericytoma in nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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To improve the accuracy of diagnosis and treatment efficacy of hemangiopericytoma in nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
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The relationship of kinase insert domain receptor gene polymorphisms and clinical outcome in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with sorafenib.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) is the principal receptor that promotes the pro-angiogenic action of vascular endothelial growth factor and has been the principal target of anti-angiogenic therapies. Our aim was to determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KDR gene are associated with clinical outcomes after first-line sorafenib therapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The SNPs in KDR were tested in 78 advanced HCC patients receiving first-line sorafenib. Correlations with clinicopathological features and survival were analyzed. Patients with AA genotype of rs1870377 and AA genotype of rs2305948 were significantly associated with a better response and longer time to progression (TTP) (5.8 vs 4.0 months, P=0.001; 5.8 vs 4.5 months, P=0.016, respectively). Patients harboring AA genotype in rs1870377 and TT/TC genotype in rs2071559 had a longer overall survival (OS) (15.0 vs 9.6 months, P=0.001; 13.0 vs 9.0 months, P=0.007, respectively). At multivariate analysis, major vascular invasion and rs1870377 were independent factors in TTP and performance status, rs1870377, and rs2071559 were independent factors in OS. Our results suggest that SNPs in KDR gene can predict clinical outcome in advanced HCC patients receiving first-line sorafenib.
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Structural insight into host recognition by aggregative adherence fimbriae of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is a leading cause of acute and persistent diarrhea worldwide. A recently emerged Shiga-toxin-producing strain of EAEC resulted in significant mortality and morbidity due to progressive development of hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The attachment of EAEC to the human intestinal mucosa is mediated by aggregative adherence fimbria (AAF). Using X-ray crystallography and NMR structures, we present new atomic resolution insight into the structure of AAF variant I from the strain that caused the deadly outbreak in Germany in 2011, and AAF variant II from archetype strain 042, and propose a mechanism for AAF-mediated adhesion and biofilm formation. Our work shows that major subunits of AAF assemble into linear polymers by donor strand complementation where a single minor subunit is inserted at the tip of the polymer by accepting the donor strand from the terminal major subunit. Whereas the minor subunits of AAF have a distinct conserved structure, AAF major subunits display large structural differences, affecting the overall pilus architecture. These structures suggest a mechanism for AAF-mediated adhesion and biofilm formation. Binding experiments using wild type and mutant subunits (NMR and SPR) and bacteria (ELISA) revealed that despite the structural differences AAF recognize a common receptor, fibronectin, by employing clusters of basic residues at the junction between subunits in the pilus. We show that AAF-fibronectin attachment is based primarily on electrostatic interactions, a mechanism not reported previously for bacterial adhesion to biotic surfaces.
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Significance of p53 dynamics in regulating apoptosis in response to ionizing radiation, and polypharmacological strategies.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Developing pharmacological strategies for controlling ionizing radiation (IR)-induced cell death is important for both mitigating radiation damage and alleviating the side effects of anti-cancer radiotherapy manifested in surrounding tissue morbidity. Exposure to IR often triggers the onset of p53-dependent apoptotic pathways. Here we build a stochastic model of p53 induced apoptosis comprised of coupled modules of nuclear p53 activation, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and cytosolic caspase activation that also takes into account cellular heterogeneity. Our simulations show that the strength of p53 transcriptional activity and its coupling (or timing with respect) to mitochondrial pore opening are major determinants of cell fate: for systems where apoptosis is elicited via a p53-transcription-independent mechanism, direct activation of Bax by p53 becomes critical to IR-induced-damage initiation. We further show that immediate administration of PUMA inhibitors following IR exposure effectively suppresses excessive cell death, provided that there is a strong caspase/Bid feedback loop; however, the efficacy of the treatment diminishes with increasing delay in treatment implementation. In contrast, the combined inhibition of Bid and Bax elicits an anti-apoptotic response that is effective over a range of time delays.
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Identifying direct miRNA-mRNA causal regulatory relationships in heterogeneous data.
J Biomed Inform
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Discovering the regulatory relationships between microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs is an important problem that interests many biologists and medical researchers. A number of computational methods have been proposed to infer miRNA-mRNA regulatory relationships, and are mostly based on the statistical associations between miRNAs and mRNAs discovered in observational data. The miRNA-mRNA regulatory relationships identified by these methods can be both direct and indirect regulations. However, differentiating direct regulatory relationships from indirect ones is important for biologists in experimental designs. In this paper, we present a causal discovery based framework (called DirectTarget) to infer direct miRNA-mRNA causal regulatory relationships in heterogeneous data, including expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs, and miRNA target information. DirectTarget is applied to the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) datasets. The validation by experimentally confirmed target databases suggests that the proposed method can effectively identify direct miRNA-mRNA regulatory relationships. To explore the upstream regulators of miRNA regulation, we further identify the causal feedforward patterns (CFFPs) of TF-miRNA-mRNA to provide insights into the miRNA regulation in EMT. DirectTarget has the potential to be applied to other datasets to elucidate the direct miRNA-mRNA causal regulatory relationships and to explore the regulatory patterns.
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The Adaptor Protein p62 Is Involved in RANKL-induced Autophagy and Osteoclastogenesis.
J. Histochem. Cytochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Previous studies have implicated autophagy in osteoclast differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of p62, a characterized adaptor protein for autophagy, in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Real-time quantitative PCR and western blot analyses were used to evaluate the expression levels of autophagy-related markers during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. Meanwhile, the potential relationship between p62/LC3 localization and F-actin ring formation was tested using double-labeling immunofluorescence. Then, the expression of p62 in RAW264.7 cells was knocked down using small-interfering RNA (siRNA), followed by detecting its influence on RANKL-induced autophagy activation, osteoclast differentiation, and F-actin ring formation. The data showed that several key autophagy-related markers including p62 were significantly altered during RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. In addition, the expression and localization of p62 showed negative correlation with LC3 accumulation and F-actin ring formation, as demonstrated by western blot and immunofluorescence analyses, respectively. Importantly, the knockdown of p62 obviously attenuated RANKL-induced expression of autophagy- and osteoclastogenesis-related genes, formation of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells, accumulation of LC3, as well as formation of F-actin ring. Our study indicates that p62 may play essential roles in RANKL-induced autophagy and osteoclastogenesis, which may help to develop a novel therapeutic strategy against osteoclastogenesis-related diseases.
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In situ encapsulation of germanium clusters in carbon nanofibers: high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Alloyed anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) usually suffer from considerable capacity losses during charge-discharge process. Herein, in?situ-grown germanium clusters are homogeneously encapsulated into porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (N-CNFs) to form Ge/N-CNFs hybrids, using a facile electrospinning method followed by thermal treatment. When used as anode in LIBs, the Ge/N-CNFs hybrids exhibit excellent lithium storage performance in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. The excellent electrochemical properties can be attributed to the unique structural features: the distribution of the germanium clusters, porous carbon nanofibers, and Ge?N chemical bonds all contribute to alleviating the large volume changes of germanium during the discharge-charge process, while at same time the unique porous N-CNFs not only increase the contact area between the electrode and the electrolyte, but also the conductivity of the hybrid.
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[Serum HER2 ECD level and its clinical significance in advanced breast cancer patients with different molecular subtypes].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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To evaluate the serum HER2 ECD level and its significance in advanced breast cancer patients with different molecular subtypes.
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Iron Oxide Encapsulated by Ruthenium Hydroxyapatite as Heterogeneous Catalyst for the Synthesis of 2,5-Diformylfuran.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Magnetic ?-Fe2 O3 nanocrystallites encapsulated by hydroxyapatite (HAP), HAP@?-Fe2 O3 , were prepared followed by cation exchange of Ca(2+) on the external HAP surface with Ru(3+) to give the ?-Fe2 O3 @HAP-Ru catalyst. The structure of the as-prepared catalyst was characterized, and its catalytic activity was studied in the aerobic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). ?-Fe2 O3 @HAP-Ru showed a high catalytic activity for the aerobic oxidation of HMF into 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF). A high DFF yield of 89.1?% with an HMF conversion of 100?% was obtained after 4?h at 90?°C. Importantly, the synthesis of DFF from fructose was realized by two consecutive steps. The dehydration of fructose in the presence of a magnetic acid catalyst (Fe3 O4 @SiO2 ?SO3 H) produced HMF in a yield of 90.1?%. Then the Fe3 O4 @SiO2 ?SO3 H catalyst was removed from the reaction solution with a permanent magnet, and HMF in the resulting solution was further oxidized to DFF with a yield of 79.1?% based on fructose. The synthesis of DFF from fructose by two steps avoids the tedious separation of the intermediate HMF, which saves time and energy.
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Clinical value of circulating tumor cells for the prognosis of postoperative transarterial chemoembolization therapy.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The aim of this study was to clarify circulating tumor cells (CTCs) count could reflect the effect of postoperative transarterial chemoembolization therapy. A single-blind, two-parallel group, randomized trial was conducted in Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, China, with patients: (1) with biopsy-confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and (2) undergoing partial resection. Patients in transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) group received TACE 1 month after resection, while control group received no managements. The time points for blood collection to count CTCs were as follows: (1) 1 month after resection (also 1 day before TACE); (2) 1 month after TACE; (3) 2 months after TACE; (4) 3 months after TACE; (5) 6 months after TACE; and (6) 1 year after TACE. A diagnosis of recurrence was based on computed tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, or digital subtraction angiography. We compared recurrence rate (RR) and CTC counts between groups. Between July 2010 and July 2012, 171 patients (TACE group: n = 81; control group: n = 90) were recruited. After TACE, mean CTC count in TACE group was 1.32 (CI 2.59-3.34), compared with 3.65 (CI 3.43-3.88) in control group (F = 200.89, P<0.05). CTCs counts were statistically significantly between groups at post-TACE time points. In addition, RR of TACE group was 25.9 % (21/81), while the number was 56.7 % (51/90) in control group. RR was statistically significantly between groups (P = 0.031). CTCs count was an important prognostic parameter for postoperative TACE on HCC recurrence.
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Genetic variants in the KDR gene is associated with the prognosis of transarterial chemoembolization treated hepatocellular carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) is the principal receptor that promotes the proangiogenic action of vascular endothelial growth factor and is involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of many malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of KDR have been reported to be with the risk and prognosis of several malignancies. Our aim was to determine whether SNPs in KDR gene are associated with clinical outcomes in HCC patients treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. A total of 192 HCC patients were tested for KDR SNPs, and the SNP results were correlated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The association of the SNPs with the overall survival (OS) of patients was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method, and then Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the variables resulted significant at univariate analysis. No significant differences were found in correlation between KDR SNPs and patients' PFS. Our data showed that genotype AA?+?TA of rs1870377 and genotype CC?+?TC of rs2071559 were significantly associated with overall survival of HCC patients (P?400 ?g/L), existence of portal vein tumor thrombus, and high BCLC stage (HR?=?0.61; 95 % CI, 0.36-0.88; P?=?0.003 and HR?=?0.54; 95 % CI, 0.40-0.94; P?=?0.002, respectively). Our results suggest that SNPs rs1870377 and rs2071559 in the KDR gene may serve as independent prognosis biomarkers for unresectable HCC patient, which warranted further validating investigation.
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Synthesis of NaLuF4-based nanocrystals and large enhancement of upconversion luminescence of NaLuF4:Gd, Yb, Er by coating an active shell for bioimaging.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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A series of NaLuF4-based hexagonal phase upconversion nanocrystals (UCNs) were synthesized by a facile solvothermal method and the properties of the UCNs were investigated. The results show that the as-prepared nanocrystals exhibit pure hexagonal lattice structures, uniform morphologies, high monodispersities and excellent upconversion luminescence. The upconversion luminescence (UCL) intensities of the UCNs can be enhanced by coating with a shell of NaLuF4. More interestingly, the UCL intensities of active-shell coated nanocrystals (NaLuF4:Gd, Yb, Er@NaLuF4:Yb, Ho and NaLuF4:Gd, Yb, Er@NaLuF4:Yb) are remarkably higher than that of inert-shell coated nanocrystals (NaLuF4:Gd, Yb, Er@NaLuF4), and NaLuF4:Gd, Yb, Er@NaLuF4:Yb, Ho is higher than NaLuF4:Gd, Yb, Er@NaLuF4:Yb. The mechanisms of upconversion luminescence enhancement are discussed in detail. The bioimaging application of the nanocrystals showed that bright upconversion luminescence was observed when UCNs-labeled HeLa cells were excited with 980 nm light. This study presents a facile method for the synthesis of NaLuF4-based upconversion nanocrystals with intense luminescence that can be used as potential fluorescent probes for sensitive bioimaging, and the suggested mechanism could provide new insights into fabrication of upconversion materials with high upconversion fluorescence.
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The effects of sesquiterpenes-rich extract of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. on amyloid-?-induced cognitive impairment and neuronal abnormalities in the cortex and hippocampus of mice.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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As a kind of medicine which can also be used as food, Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. has a long clinical history in China. A variety of studies demonstrated the significant neuroprotective activity effects of chloroform (CF) extract from the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla. In order to further elucidate the possible mechanisms of CF extract which mainly contains sesquiterpenes with neuroprotection on the cognitive ability, mice were injected with A?(1-42) and later with CF in this study. The results showed that the long-term treatment of CF enhanced the cognitive performances in behavior tests, increased activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and amyloid-? (A?), and reversed the activation of microglia, degeneration of neuronal acidophilia, and nuclear condensation in the cortex and hippocampus. These results demonstrate that CF ameliorates learning and memory deficits by attenuating oxidative stress and regulating the activation of microglia and degeneration of neuronal acidophilia to reinforce cholinergic functions.
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TRIM16 inhibits proliferation and migration through regulation of interferon beta 1 in melanoma cells.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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High basal or induced expression of the tripartite motif protein, TRIM16, leads to reduce cell growth and migration of neuroblastoma and skin squamous cell carcinoma cells. However, the role of TRIM16 in melanoma is currently unknown. TRIM16 protein levels were markedly reduced in human melanoma cell lines, compared with normal human epidermal melanocytes due to both DNA methylation and reduced protein stability. TRIM16 knockdown strongly increased cell migration in normal human epidermal melanocytes, while TRIM16 overexpression reduced cell migration and proliferation of melanoma cells in an interferon beta 1 (IFN?1)-dependent manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed TRIM16 directly bound the IFN?1 gene promoter. Low level TRIM16 expression in 91 melanoma patient samples, strongly correlated with lymph node metastasis, and, predicted poor patient prognosis in a separate cohort of 170 melanoma patients with lymph node metastasis. The BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, increased TRIM16 protein levels in melanoma cells in vitro, and induced growth arrest in BRAF-mutant melanoma cells in a TRIM16-dependent manner. High levels of TRIM16 in melanoma tissues from patients treated with Vemurafenib correlated with clinical response. Our data, for the first time, demonstrates TRIM16 is a marker of cell migration and metastasis, and a novel treatment target in melanoma.
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Validation and application of modeling algorithms for the design of molecularly imprinted polymers.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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In the study, four different semiempirical algorithms, modified neglect of diatomic overlap, a reparameterization of Austin Model 1, complete neglect of differential overlap and typed neglect of differential overlap, have been applied for the energy optimization of template, monomer, and template-monomer complexes of imprinted polymers. For phosmet-, estrone-, and metolcarb-imprinted polymers, the binding energies of template-monomer complexes were calculated and the docking configures were assessed in different molar ratio of template/monomer. It was found that two algorithms were not suitable for calculating the binding energy in template-monomers complex system. For the other algorithms, the obtained optimum molar ratio of template and monomers were consistent with the experimental results. Therefore, two algorithms have been selected and applied for the preparation of enrofloxacin-imprinted polymers. Meanwhile using a different molar ratio of template and monomer, we prepared imprinted polymers and nonimprinted polymers, and evaluated the adsorption to template. It was verified that the experimental results were in good agreement with the modeling results. As a result, the semiempirical algorithm had certain feasibility in designing the preparation of imprinted polymers.
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Inferring condition-specific miRNA activity from matched miRNA and mRNA expression data.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in complex cellular networks by binding to the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of protein coding genes. It has been found that miRNA regulation is often condition-specific. A number of computational approaches have been developed to identify miRNA activity specific to a condition of interest using gene expression data. However, most of the methods only use the data in a single condition, and thus, the activity discovered may not be unique to the condition of interest. Additionally, these methods are based on statistical associations between the gene expression levels of miRNAs and mRNAs, so they may not be able to reveal real gene regulatory relationships, which are causal relationships.
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OsCERK1 and OsRLCK176 play important roles in peptidoglycan and chitin signaling in rice innate immunity.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity plays critical roles in the basal resistance defense response in plants. Chitin and peptidoglycan (PGN) are major molecular patterns for fungi and bacteria, respectively. Two rice (Oryza sativa) lysin motif-containing proteins, OsLYP4 and OsLYP6, function as receptors that sense bacterial PGN and fungal chitin. These membrane receptors, which lack intracellular kinase domains, likely contain another component for transmembrane immune signal transduction. Here, we demonstrate that the rice LysM receptor-like kinase OsCERK1, a key component of the chitin elicitor signaling pathway, also plays an important role in PGN-triggered immunity in rice. Silencing of OsCERK1 suppressed PGN-induced (and chitin-induced) immunity responses, including reactive oxygen species generation, defense gene expression, and callose deposition, indicating that OsCERK1 is essential for both PGN and chitin signaling initiated by OsLYP4 and OsLYP6. OsLYP4 associated with OsLYP6 and the rice chitin receptor CEBiP in the absence of PGN or chitin, and treatment with PGN or chitin led to their disassociation in vivo. OsCERK1 associated with OsLYP4 or OsLYP6 when induced by PGN but it associated with OsLYP4, OsLYP6, or CEBiP under chitin treatment, suggesting the presence of different patterns of ligand-induced heterooligomeric receptor complexes. Furthermore, the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase OsRLCK176 functions downstream of OsCERK1 in the PGN and chitin signaling pathways, suggesting that these MAMPs share overlapping intracellular signaling components. Therefore, OsCERK1 plays dual roles in PGN and chitin signaling in rice innate immunity and as an adaptor involved in signal transduction at the plasma membrane in conjunction with OsLYP4 and OsLYP6. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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A case of membranous nephropathy and myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Membranous nephropathy (MN) may be a primary disease or secondary to autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus, infection (for example, with hepatitis B or C virus), cancer or drugs. In primary MN, crescents are rarely observed. Therefore, the presence of crescents suggests another underlying disease, for example lupus nephritis, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease or anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis (ANCA-GN). The coexistence of primary MN and ANCA-GN is rare. In the present case, a 51-year-old female with mild edema in the lower extremities for 1 year was admitted to hospital for renal biopsy. The serum test for myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA was positive. The patient was diagnosed with stage 2 MN with crescentic glomerulonephritis type 3; however, no causal association was found between these two diseases in this case. Treatment was initiated with 500 mg methylprednisolone for 3 days followed by 40 mg of oral methylprednisolone together with 50 mg cyclophosphamide twice per day. One month following treatment, the biochemical data results of the patient had improved.
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From miRNA regulation to miRNA-TF co-regulation: computational approaches and challenges.
Brief. Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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microRNAs (miRNAs) are important gene regulators. They control a wide range of biological processes and are involved in several types of cancers. Thus, exploring miRNA functions is important for diagnostics and therapeutics. To date, there are few feasible experimental techniques for discovering miRNA regulatory mechanisms. Alternatively, predictions of miRNA-mRNA regulatory relationships by computational methods have increasingly achieved promising results. Computational approaches are proving their ability as effective tools in reducing the number of biological experiments that must be conducted and to assist with the design of the experiments. In this review, we categorize and review different computational approaches to identify miRNA activities and functions, including the co-regulation of miRNAs and transcription factors. Our main focuses are on the recent approaches that use multiple data types for exploring miRNA functions. We discuss the remaining challenges in the evaluation and selection of models based on the results from a case study. Finally, we analyse the remaining challenges of each computational approach and suggest some future research directions.
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Isolation and characterization of a novel lectin with mitogenic activity from Pleurotus ferulae.
Pak J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Lectins are the tools for the determination of sugar chain structure. Recently, lectin arrays have become a popular new technology; therefore, lectins with specific sugar-binding properties are required. The objective of the study was to isolate a novel lectin from Pleurotus ferulae mushrooms and characterize its various biological activities. A novel lectin was extracted with deionized water, precipitated from the aqueous extract using 75% saturated (NH4)2SO4, and subjected on DEAE-cellulose followed by affinity chromatography on sepharose-6B. The activity was tested using hemagglutination assays, and carbohydrate-binding specificity was determined by glycan microarray analysis. Its effects on the mitogenic activity of mouse splenocytes were determined by MTT assay. The novel lectin was adsorbed on ion-exchange chromatography DEAE-cellulose and shown as a band with the molecular mass of 17.5 kDa on a SDS-PAGE and as a single 35.0-kDa peak in gel filtration on Superdex G-75. The hemagglutinating activity of the lectin was inhibited by D-glucose, lactose, D-galactose, and galactosamine. The lectin was stable on 60°C. The hemagglutinating activity of lectin was reduced by 50% at 70°C. At 80°C, it was further reduced to 6.25% of its original activity. The hemagglutinating activity was the highest at pH 6-9. Moreover, its hemagglutinating activity was inhibited by Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. The lectin isolated from P. ferulae in the current study possessed highly potent hemagglutinating and proliferative activities toward mouse splenocytes.
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Multicomponent reaction of chalcones, malononitrile and DMF leading to ?-ketoamides.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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An efficient synthesis of ?-ketoamides was developed by the one-pot multicomponent reaction of chalcones, malononitrile and DMF (as both the reactant and solvent) in the presence of NaOH (3.0 equiv.). The reaction features high atom economy, easily available starting materials, operational simplicity, and good tolerance with diverse functional groups.
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Associations between apolipoprotein CIII concentrations and microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Microalbuminuria (MAU) is a strong predictor of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Dyslipidemia exists in the majority of patients with DM and contributes to micro- and macrovascular complications associated with DM. Apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) is an inhibitor of the activity of lipoprotein lipase, which metabolizes triglyceride (TG) in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and facilitates its clearance from plasma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between apoCIII and MAU and the effects of atorvastatin in type 2 diabetes. In total, 120 subjects were divided into type 2 diabetes and type 2 DN groups, while 60 healthy subjects were selected as controls. The patients with DN were administered 20 mg atorvastatin daily for 16 weeks. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and levels of HbA1c, FBG, TG, VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C), apoCIII and MAU were markedly elevated in the type 2 diabetes and type 2 DN groups compared with those in the control group (P<0.01), while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were decreased significantly (P<0.01). All patients with type 2 DN showed significantly elevated blood pressure, apoCIII levels, MAU, course of the disease and rate of stroke and retinopathy compared with the patients with type 2 diabetes (P<0.01). MAU was significantly positively correlated with the course of the disease, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, BMI and HbA1c, FBG, TG, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, VLDL-C and apoCIII levels (P<0.05), whereas negatively correlated with HDL-C levels (r=-0.194, P=0.020). Logistic regression analysis showed that apoCIII levels were independently associated with MAU (odds ratio, 1.100; 95% confidence interval, 1.037-1.153; P<0.001). Atorvastatin improved the lipid profile and MAU in patients with type 2 DN (P<0.01). Therefore, the present study demonstrated that an independent positive correlation exists between the levels of apoCIII and MAU in patients with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, atorvastatin may be used to improve the lipid profile and MAU in type 2 DN.
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Enhancing upconversion luminescence of NaYF4:Yb/Er nanocrystals by Mo(3+) doping and their application in bioimaging.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Enhancement of upconversion luminescence is imperative for the applications of upconversion nanocrystals (UCNs). In this work, we investigated the upconversion luminescence enhancement of NaYF4:Yb/Er by Mo(3+) ion doping. It was found that the upconversion luminescence intensities of the green and red emissions of UCNs co-doped with 10 mol% Mo(3+) ions were enhanced by 6 and 8 times, respectively. This enhancement offers a potential increase in the overall detectability of upconversion nanocrystals. HeLa cell imaging using NaYF4:Yb/Er/Mo as luminescent probes showed bright upconversion fluorescence. Moreover, the Mo(3+) doping endowed the UCNs with excellent paramagnetic behavior. It is expected that the as-prepared UCNs with a high upconversion luminescence and excellent paramagnetic properties could be promising bi-functional nanoprobes for sensitive multi-modal bioimaging and other optical applications.
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[Acutrak headless compression screw fixation for the treatment of scaphoid non-union].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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To evaluate the early clinical and radiographic outcome of scaphoid non-unions treated with Acutrak headless compression screw.
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Histone deacetylase 2 and N-Myc reduce p53 protein phosphorylation at serine 46 by repressing gene transcription of tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Myc oncoproteins and histone deacetylases (HDACs) exert oncogenic effects by modulating gene transcription. Paradoxically, N-Myc induces p53 gene expression. Tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) phosphorylates p53 protein at serine 46, leading to enhanced p53 activity, transcriptional activation of p53 target genes and programmed cell death. Here we aimed to identify the mechanism through which N-Myc overexpressing p53 wild-type neuroblastoma cells acquired resistance to apoptosis. TP53INP1 was found to be one of the genes most significantly repressed by HDAC2 and N-Myc according to Affymetrix microarray gene expression datasets. HDAC2 and N-Myc reduced TP53INP1 gene expression by direct binding to the TP53INP1 gene promoter, leading to transcriptional repression of TP53INP1, p53 protein de-phosphorylation at serine 46, neuroblastoma cell proliferation and survival. Moreover, low levels of TP53INP1 expression in human neuroblastoma tissues correlated with high levels of N-Myc expression and poor patient outcome, and the BET bromodomain inhibitors JQ1 and I-BET151 reduced N-Myc expression and reactivated TP53INP1 expression in neuroblastoma cells. These findings identify TP53INP1 repression as an important co-factor for N-Myc oncogenesis, and provide further evidence for the potential application of BET bromodomain inhibitors in the therapy of N-Myc-induced neuroblastoma.
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NOX4 promotes non-small cell lung cancer cell proliferation and metastasis through positive feedback regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is deregulated in various cancers and involved in cancer proliferation and metastasis. However, what the role of NOX4 plays during malignant progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unknown. Our results show that NOX4 was upregulated in NSCLC cell lines and samples from patients, compared with controls; NOX4 protein levels were closely correlated with clinical disease stage and survival time. Overexpression of NOX4 in A549 and H460 NSCLC cells enhanced cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and produced larger tumors, shorter survival time, and more lung metastasis in nude mice than control cells. On the contrary, NOX4 depletion inhibited NSCLC cell aggressiveness. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway could sufficiently block the cellular effects of NOX4 overexpression in NSCLC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, we demonstrated that PI3K/Akt pathway also positively regulated NOX4 expression via NF-?B-mediated manner. Therefore, there existed a mutual positive regulation between NOX4 and PI3K/Akt signaling in NSCLC cells, and NOX4 was confirmed to functionally interplay with PI3K/Akt signaling to promote NSCLC cell proliferation and invasion. In conclusion, the positive feedback loop between NOX4 and PI3K/Akt signaling contributes to NSCLC progression.
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Compositional differences between near-isogenic GM and conventional maize hybrids are associated with backcrossing practices in conventional breeding.
Plant Biotechnol. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Here, we show that differences between genetically modified (GM) and non-GM comparators cannot be attributed unequivocally to the GM trait, but arise because of minor genomic differences in near-isogenic lines. Specifically, this study contrasted the effect of three GM traits (drought tolerance, MON 87460; herbicide resistance, NK603; insect protection, MON 89034) on maize grain composition relative to the effects of residual genetic variation from backcrossing. Important features of the study included (i) marker-assisted backcrossing to generate genetically similar inbred variants for each GM line, (ii) high-resolution genotyping to evaluate the genetic similarity of GM lines to the corresponding recurrent parents and (iii) introgression of the different GM traits separately into a wide range of genetically distinct conventional inbred lines. The F1 hybrids of all lines were grown concurrently at three replicated field sites in the United States during the 2012 growing season, and harvested grain was subjected to compositional analysis. Proximates (protein, starch and oil), amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols and minerals were measured. The number of statistically significant differences (? = 0.05), as well as magnitudes of difference, in mean levels of these components between corresponding GM variants was essentially identical to that between GM and non-GM controls. The largest sources of compositional variation were the genetic background of the different conventional inbred lines (males and females) used to generate the maize hybrids and location. The lack of any compositional effect attributable to GM suggests the development of modern agricultural biotechnology has been accompanied by a lack of any safety or nutritional concerns.
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Expression profile of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: Correlation with intravesical recurrence following transurethral resection.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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To evaluate the expression of molecular markers involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key process mediating the progression of malignant tumors, in non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (NMIUCB) to clarify the significance of these markers as predictors of intravesical recurrence in patients treated with transurethral resection (TUR).
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Trace analysis of uranyl ion (UO2(2+)) in aqueous solution by fluorescence turn-on detection via aggregation induced emission enhancement effect.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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A sensitive fluorescence turn-on method for trace amounts of uranyl ion (UO2(2+)) in solution has been developed in this study, based on aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE) characteristics of 4-pethoxycarboxyl salicylaldehyde azine (PCSA) induced by complex interaction between UO2(2+) and PCSA. Under optimized conditions, a fluorescence enhancement at 540 nm could be observed, which was linearly related to the concentration of UO2(2+) in the range of 1-25 ppb (part per billion). Analytical data showed that a detection limit of 0.2 ppb was achieved with the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) 1.3% (n=5). The proposed method was successfully utilized in quantifying UO2(2+) in fuel processing wastewaters.
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[Analysis of clinicopathological features of 1879 cases of gastric cancer in Southern China: a single center experience].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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To investigate the clinicopathological features of gastric cancer in Southern China, and provide a base of research and therapy for gastric cancer.
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Enhanced autophagy by everolimus contributes to the antirestenotic mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells.
J. Vasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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The present study aims to investigate the underlying mechanisms accounting for the activities of everolimus to inhibit the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which contributes to restenosis.
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RCCRT1 is correlated with prognosis and promotes cell migration and invasion in renal cell carcinoma.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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To investigate the expression pattern of a novel long noncoding ribonucleic acid (RNA), RCCRT1, in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tissues among the patients with various clinicopathologic features and to detect the role of RCCRT1 in migration and invasion of RCC in vitro.
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NMR assignment of the amylase-binding protein A from Streptococcus parasanguinis.
Biomol NMR Assign
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Streptococcus parasanguinis is a primary colonizer of tooth surfaces in the oral cavity. Amylase-binding protein A (AbpA) from S. parasanguinis is responsible for the recruitment of salivary amylase to bacterial surface, which plays an important role in the development of oral biofilms. Here, we describe the essentially complete NMR assignments for AbpA.
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Dax1 and Nanog act in parallel to stabilize mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotency.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Nanog expression is heterogeneous and dynamic in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, the mechanism for stabilizing pluripotency during the transitions between Nanog(high) and Nanog(low) states is not well understood. Here we report that Dax1 acts in parallel with Nanog to regulate mouse ESC (mESCs) identity. Dax1 stable knockdown mESCs are predisposed towards differentiation but do not lose pluripotency, whereas Dax1 overexpression supports LIF-independent self-renewal. Although partially complementary, Dax1 and Nanog function independently and cannot replace one another. They are both required for full reprogramming to induce pluripotency. Importantly, Dax1 is indispensable for self-renewal of Nanog(low) mESCs. Moreover, we report that Dax1 prevents extra-embryonic endoderm (ExEn) commitment by directly repressing Gata6 transcription. Dax1 may also mediate inhibition of trophectoderm differentiation independent or as a downstream effector of Oct4. These findings establish a basal role of Dax1 in maintaining pluripotency during the state transition of mESCs and somatic cell reprogramming.
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Effect of RNA interference therapy on the mice eosinophils CCR3 gene and granule protein in the murine model of allergic rhinitis.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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To observe the clinical manifestations of allergic rhinitis mice and the expression changes of the eosinophils CCR3 and the granule protein mRNA in the bone marrow, peripheral blood and nasal lavage fluid.
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Clinicopathological features and trend changes of gastric carcinoma in Southern China.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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To investigate the clinicopathological features of gastric carcinoma in southern China and disease trends changes over the last 18 years.
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Atypical neurological complications of ipilimumab therapy in patients with metastatic melanoma.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Ipilimumab is a novel FDA-approved recombinant human monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 and has been used to treat patients with metastatic melanoma. Immune-related neurological adverse effects include inflammatory myopathy, aseptic meningitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, Guillain-Barré syndrome, myasthenia gravis-type syndrome, sensorimotor neuropathy, and inflammatory enteric neuropathy. To date, there is no report for ipilimumab-induced chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), transverse myelitis (TM), or concurrent myositis and myasthenia gravis-type syndrome. Our objective is to raise early recognition of atypical neurological adverse events and to share our therapeutic approach.
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Ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel in rabbits after topical ocular administration.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel is a novel ophthalmic preparation for topical ocular anesthesia. The study is aimed at evaluating the ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel in rabbits after ocular topical administration. Thirty-six rabbits were randomly placed in 12 groups (3 rabbits per group). The rabbits were quickly killed according to their groups at 0 (predose), 0.0833, 0.167, 0.333, 0.667, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h postdose and then the ocular tissue and plasma samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed by a validated LC-MS/MS method. The test result showed that the maximum concentration (C max) of lidocaine in different ocular tissues and plasma were all achieved within 20 min after drug administration, and the data of C max were (2,987 ± 1814) ?g/g, (44.67 ± 12.91) ?g/g, (26.26 ± 7.19) ?g/g, (11,046 ± 2,734) ng/mL, and (160.3 ± 61.0) ng/mL for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The data of the elimination half-life in these tissues were 1.5, 3.2, 3.5, 1.9, and 1.7 h for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The intraocular lidocaine levels were significantly higher than that in plasma, and the elimination half-life of lidocaine in cornea, conjunctiva, and aqueous humor was relatively longer than that in tear fluid and plasma. The high intraocular penetration, low systemic exposure, and long duration in the ocular tissues suggested lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel as an effective local anesthetic for ocular anesthesia during ophthalmic procedures.
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Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells efficiently rescue carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver failure in mouse.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) may be an attractive source for acute and chronic liver injury because they are abundant and easy to obtain. We aim to investigate the efficacy of ADMSCs transplantation in the acute liver failure (ALF) caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in mice.
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Upregulation of let-7a inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in vitro and in vein graft intimal hyperplasia in rats.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of intimal hyperplasia, which is the main cause of restenosis after vascular reconstruction. In this study, we assessed the impact of let-7a microRNA (miRNA) on the proliferation of VSMCs.
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Primary natural killer/T-cell lymphoma presenting as leptomeningeal disease.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Primary central nervous system natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (primary-CNS-NK/TCL) is a rare non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. To our knowledge, only five patients have been described previously, all of whom were male, with brain parenchymal involvement and previous Epstein-Barr virus infection, it has never been reported to present as leptomeningeal disease as our case. Our objective is to report a rare case of primary-CNS-NK/TCL presenting as leptomeningeal disease and to share our diagnostic/therapeutic approach to this rare disease.
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Prognostic and predictive values of SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 are known to be closely associated with tumor progression in several kinds of human tumors. This study aimed to investigate the expression of SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and to evaluate their association with the prognosis in oral carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was used to examine the expression of SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 in 17 normal oral mucosa, 6 oral epithelial dysplasia and 43 OSCC specimens by tissue microarrays. High expression of SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 was found in OSCC patients, and SPP1 and PAI expression were significantly higher in OSCC than in normal oral mucosa. No significant correlations were found between SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 expression and clinicopathological factors. Expression of SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 was also not associated with overall survival. Moreover, SPP1 was closely correlated with PAI, caveolin-1 and Keap1, and PAI had significant correlations with caveolin-1, Keap1 and Nrf2, and caveolin-1 was associated with Keap1 by using the Pearson correlation coefficient test. Our findings suggest that overexpressed SPP1, PAI and caveolin-1 were linked to carcinogenesis and progression, and thus they may serve as potential prognostic factors in OSCC.
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Arsenic trioxide-based therapy in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma patients: a meta-analysis and systematic review.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal malignancy characterized by the proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow and the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin. Although some newly approved drugs (thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib) demonstrate significant benefit for MM patients with improved survival, all MM patients still relapse. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is the most active single agent in acute promyelocytic leukemia, the antitumor activity of which is partly dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species. Due to its multifaceted effects observed on MM cell lines and primary myeloma cells, Phase I/II trials have been conducted in heavily pretreated patients with relapsed or refractory MM. Therapy regimens varied dramatically as to the dosage of ATO and monotherapy versus combination therapy with other agents available for the treatment of MM. Although ATO-based combination treatment was well tolerated by most patients, most trials found that ATO has limited effects on MM patients. However, since small numbers of patients were randomized to different treatment arms, trials have not been statistically powered to determine the differences in progression-free survival and overall survival among the experimental arms. Therefore, large Phase III studies of ATO-based randomized controlled trials will be needed to establish whether ATO has any potential beneficial effects in the clinical setting.
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Using LaserSight Astrapro Planner 2.2 Z software in corneal topography-guided laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia with asymmetric corneal shape.
Int J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To determine the clinical outcomes of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) treatments using LaserSight AstraPro Planner 2.2 Z software for myopia with asymmetric corneal shape.
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4-Nitro-phenyl-hydrazinium picrate monohydrate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In the crystal structure of the title compound, C6H8N3O2 (+)·C6H2N3O7 (-)·H2O, N-H?O and O-H?O hydrogen bonds link the components into a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). In addition, there are pairs of weak inversion-related C-H?O hydrogen bonds within the two-dimensional network. The three nitro groups are twisted by 1.6?(3), 7.8?(3) and 12.1?(3)° from the ring plane in the anion, while in the cation, the nitro group makes a dihedral angle of 4.6?(2)° with the ring.
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Two new triterpenoids from Gelsemium elegans and Aglaia odorata.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2013
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Eleganoside A (1) and odoratanone A (15), a triterpenoid trisaccharide glycoside and a nortriterpenoid, together with twelve known compounds (2-13) and a mixture of cerebrosides (14) were isolated from Gelsemium elegans and Aglaia odorata. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. Eleganoside A (1) features a 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside of a peculiar 3,16-dihydroxyl-lanosta-8,24-dien-26-oic acid triterpenoid skeleton, and odoratanone A (15) is a 29-norcycloartane-type triterpenoid bearing an unusual five-membered methyl acetal ring. Anti-acetylcholinesterase/butyrylcholinesterase (AChE/BChE) assay indicated that at 50 microM, ethyl caffeate (5) was promising as a dual inhibitor of AChE and BChE, and paeonol (3) and 24-hydroperoxy-24-vinylcholesterol (9) exhibited BChE-selective inhibition.
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[IgG subclasses targeting NC16A domain of BP180 in bullous pemphigoid].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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To evaluate the distribution of four IgG subclasses targeting NC16A domain of BP180 in bullous pemphigoid (BP) patients by developing and optimizing a detection method of anti-BP180NC16A IgG subclasses so as to assess its sensitivity and specificity.
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Toxoplasma gondii-Induced Activation of EGFR Prevents Autophagy Protein-Mediated Killing of the Parasite.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2013
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Toxoplasma gondii resides in an intracellular compartment (parasitophorous vacuole) that excludes transmembrane molecules required for endosome - lysosome recruitment. Thus, the parasite survives by avoiding lysosomal degradation. However, autophagy can re-route the parasitophorous vacuole to the lysosomes and cause parasite killing. This raises the possibility that T. gondii may deploy a strategy to prevent autophagic targeting to maintain the non-fusogenic nature of the vacuole. We report that T. gondii activated EGFR in endothelial cells, retinal pigment epithelial cells and microglia. Blockade of EGFR or its downstream molecule, Akt, caused targeting of the parasite by LC3(+) structures, vacuole-lysosomal fusion, lysosomal degradation and killing of the parasite that were dependent on the autophagy proteins Atg7 and Beclin 1. Disassembly of GPCR or inhibition of metalloproteinases did not prevent EGFR-Akt activation. T. gondii micronemal proteins (MICs) containing EGF domains (EGF-MICs; MIC3 and MIC6) appeared to promote EGFR activation. Parasites defective in EGF-MICs (MIC1 ko, deficient in MIC1 and secretion of MIC6; MIC3 ko, deficient in MIC3; and MIC1-3 ko, deficient in MIC1, MIC3 and secretion of MIC6) caused impaired EGFR-Akt activation and recombinant EGF-MICs (MIC3 and MIC6) caused EGFR-Akt activation. In cells treated with autophagy stimulators (CD154, rapamycin) EGFR signaling inhibited LC3 accumulation around the parasite. Moreover, increased LC3 accumulation and parasite killing were noted in CD154-activated cells infected with MIC1-3 ko parasites. Finally, recombinant MIC3 and MIC6 inhibited parasite killing triggered by CD154 particularly against MIC1-3 ko parasites. Thus, our findings identified EGFR activation as a strategy used by T. gondii to maintain the non-fusogenic nature of the parasitophorous vacuole and suggest that EGF-MICs have a novel role in affecting signaling in host cells to promote parasite survival.
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The significance of LRPPRC overexpression in gastric cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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LRPPRC is a multifunctional protein involved in mitochondrial gene expression and function, cell cycle progression, and tumorigenesis. We analyzed LRPPRC gene expression in 253 paired cases of gastric cancer and noncancerous regions and six gastric cancer cell lines to demonstrate the importance of LRPPRC expression for the prediction of prognosis of gastric cancer. Our results showed that LRPPRC expression in gastric cancer tissues is significantly higher than that in paired control tissue (P < 0.001). Patients with higher LRPPRC expression showed a poorer overall survival rate than those with lower LRPPRC expression (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that lymph node metastasis (N), distant metastasis (M), TNM stage, and LRPPRC expression were independent prognostic factors for gastric cancer (P = 0.004, 0.002, 0.017, 0.004 respectively).Moreover, Western blotting showed that LRPPRC expression was increased in SGC7901, BGC823, MKN45, and XGC9811cells. The in vitro proliferation assay showed that LRPPRC expression is inversely associated with gastric cancer cells growth. Our results indicated that LRPPRC could be used as a predictive marker for patient prognosis of gastric cancer and may be a novel therapeutic target for gastric cancer in future.
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Itch, an E3 ligase of Oct4, is required for embryonic stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency induction.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Itch, a C2-WW-HECT domain ubiquitin E3 ligase, plays an important role in various biological processes. However, its role in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains unknown. Here, we report that Itch interacts with and targets pluripotency-associated transcription factor Oct4 for ubiquitination. Moreover, Itch enhances Oct4 transcriptional activities and controls Oct4 protein stability dependent on its catalytic activity. Importantly, silencing Itch expression compromises ESC self-renewal capacity and somatic cell reprogramming efficiency. Taken together, our study identifies Itch as a regulator of Oct4 stability and transcriptional activity, establishing a functional link between an E3 ligase and the regulation of pluripotency.
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Prognostic and predictive value of a microRNA signature in stage II colon cancer: a microRNA expression analysis.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Current staging methods do not accurately predict the risk of disease recurrence and benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients who have had surgery for stage II colon cancer. We postulated that expression patterns of multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) could, if combined into a single model, improve postoperative risk stratification and prediction of chemotherapy benefit for these patients.
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[Chlorination characteristic and disinfection by-product formation potential of dissolved organic nitrogen compounds in municipal wastewater].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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In order to explore the chlorinated disinfection by-product formation potential and chemical structure of dissolved organic nitrogen compounds in municipal wastewater, the water quality parameters, such as DON, DOC, NH4(+) -N and UV254 etc, were determined in the secondary effluent and the molecular weight distribution of the DON was investigated before and after the reaction with chlorine. DBPs were determined by gas chromatography, and the changes of DON were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy before and after the reaction with chlorine. The results showed that DON, DOC, NH4(+) -N and UV254 were 2.47 mg x L(-1), 14.45 mg x L(-1), 5.42 mg x L(-1) and 15.88 m(-1), and m(DOC)/m(DON) and SUVA were 5.85 mg x mg(-1) and 1.09 L x (m x mg)(-1) in the secondary effluent. After the reaction with chlorine, the proportion of small molecular weight (M(r) < 6 000) DON increased from 78% to 70% , and the proportion of large molecular weight (M(r) > 20 000) DON decreased from 21% to 14%. The medium molecular weight (M(r)6000-20000) DON accounted for a small proportion and was unchanged. Among the DBPs, the concentration of bromochloroacetonitrile was the highest, which was 6.887 microg x L(-1), and the concentration of trichloroacetonitrile was the lowest, which was only 0.217 microg x L(-1). In FTIR spectrum, the dominating bands were at 3 500-3 400, 2 260-2 200, 1 700-1 640, 1 500-1 450, 1 150-1 100 and 850-800 cm(-1) respectively before the reaction, and the 1 380-1 350 cm(-1) and 600-550 cm(-1) bands were the dominating bands in addition to the original absorbing regions after the reaction. 3DEEM revealed that the variation of DON depends intimately on tryptophan protein-like substances, aromatic protein-like substances and fulvic acid-like substances.
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The blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma receiving sorafenib.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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Increasing evidence correlates the presence of systemic inflammation with poor survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of the blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with advanced HCC who received sorafenib monotherapy.
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Functional connectivity in healthy subjects is nonlinearly modulated by the COMT and DRD2 polymorphisms in a functional system-dependent manner.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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The dopamine system is known to modulate brain function in an inverted U-shaped manner. Recently, the functional networks of the brain were categorized into two systems, a "control system" and a "processing system." However, it remains unclear whether the inverted U-shaped model of dopaminergic modulation could be applied to both of these functional systems. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) were genotyped in 258 healthy young human subjects. The local and long-range functional connectivity densities (FCDs) of each voxel were calculated and compared in a voxel-wise manner using a two-way (COMT and DRD2 genotypes) analysis of covariance. The resting-state functional connectivity analysis was performed to determine the functional networks to which brain regions with significant FCD differences belonged. Significant COMT × DRD2 interaction effects were found in the local FCDs of the superior portion of the right temporal pole (sTP) and left lingual gyrus (LG) and in the long-range FCDs of the right putamen and left medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Post hoc tests showed nonlinear relationships between the genotypic subgroups and FCD. In the control system, the sTP and putamen, components of the salience network, showed a U-shaped modulation by dopamine signaling. In the processing system, however, the MPFC of the default-mode network and the LG of the visual network showed an inverted U-shaped modulation by the dopamine system. Our findings suggest an interaction between COMT and DRD2 genotypes and show a functional system-dependent modulation of dopamine signaling.
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[Differentiation potential of CD41? cells derived from the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region, yolk sac and embryonic circulating blood].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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To compare the differentiation ability difference of hematopoietic, mesenchymal and endothelial potential between CD41? cells derived from the mouse aorta-gonadmesonephros (AGM) region, yolk sac (YS) and embryonic circulating blood (CB).
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[Establishment of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the detection of BP180NC16A-specific IgE and its significance in bullous pemphigoid].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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To establish a method of detecting circulating immunoglobulin E (IgE) autoantibodies for BP180NC16A and evaluate its significance in bullous pemphigoid (BP).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.