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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Reconstituted human polyclonal plasma-derived secretory-like IgM and IgA maintain the barrier function of epithelial cells infected with an enteropathogen.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Intravenous administration of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies has proven to be a clinically valid approach in the treatment, or at least relief, of many acute and chronic pathologies, such as infection, immunodeficiency, and a broad range of autoimmune conditions. Plasma-derived IgG or recombinant IgG are most frequently used for intravenous or subcutaneous administration, whereas a few IgM-based products are available as well. We have established recently that secretory-like IgA and IgM can be produced upon association of plasma-derived polymeric IgA and IgM with a recombinant secretory component. As a next step toward potential future mucosal administration, we sought to unravel the mechanisms by which these secretory Igs protect epithelial cells located at the interface between the environment and the inside of the body. By using polarized epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers and Shigella flexneri as a model enteropathogen, we found that polyspecific plasma-derived SIgA and SIgM fulfill many protective functions, including dose-dependent recognition of the antigen via formation of aggregated immune complexes, reduction of bacterial infectivity, maintenance of epithelial cell integrity, and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production by epithelial cells. In this in vitro model devoid of other cellular or molecular interfering partners, IgM and secretory IgM showed stronger bacterial neutralization than secretory IgA. Together, these data suggest that mucosally delivered antibody preparations may be most effective when combining both secretory-like IgA and IgM, which, together, play a crucial role in preserving several levels of epithelial cell integrity.
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Dectin-1 is essential for reverse transcytosis of glycosylated SIgA-antigen complexes by intestinal M cells.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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Intestinal microfold (M) cells possess a high transcytosis capacity and are able to transport a broad range of materials including particulate antigens, soluble macromolecules, and pathogens from the intestinal lumen to inductive sites of the mucosal immune system. M cells are also the primary pathway for delivery of secretory IgA (SIgA) to the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. However, although the consequences of SIgA uptake by M cells are now well known and described, the mechanisms whereby SIgA is selectively bound and taken up remain poorly understood. Here we first demonstrate that both the C?1 region and glycosylation, more particularly sialic acid residues, are involved in M cell-mediated reverse transcytosis. Second, we found that SIgA is taken up by M cells via the Dectin-1 receptor, with the possible involvement of Siglec-5 acting as a co-receptor. Third, we establish that transcytosed SIgA is taken up by mucosal CX3CR1? dendritic cells (DCs) via the DC-SIGN receptor. Fourth, we show that mucosal and systemic antibody responses against the HIV p24-SIgA complexes administered orally is strictly dependent on the expression of Dectin-1. Having deciphered the mechanisms leading to specific targeting of SIgA-based Ag complexes paves the way to the use of such a vehicle for mucosal vaccination against various infectious diseases.
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Secretory IgA induces tolerogenic dendritic cells through SIGNR1 dampening autoimmunity in mice.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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IgA plays ambivalent roles in the immune system. The balance between inhibitory and activating responses relies on the multimerization status of IgA and interaction with their cognate receptors. In mucosal sites, secretory IgA (SIgA) protects the host through immune-exclusion mechanisms, but its function in the bloodstream remains unknown. Using bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, we found that both human and mouse SIgA induce tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) following binding to specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin receptor 1. This interaction was dependent on Ca(2+) and mannose residues. SIgA-primed DCs (SIgA-DCs) are resistant to TLR-dependent maturation. Although SIgA-DCs fail to induce efficient proliferation and Th1 differentiation of naive responder T cells, they generate the expansion of regulatory T cells through IL-10 production. SIgA-DCs are highly potent in inhibiting autoimmune responses in mouse models of type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. This discovery may offer new insights about mucosal-derived DC immunoregulation through SIgA opening new therapeutic approaches to autoimmune diseases.
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Rotavirus specific plasma secretory immunoglobulin in children with acute gastroenteritis and children vaccinated with an attenuated human rotavirus vaccine.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Rotavirus (RV)-specific secretory immunoglobulin (RV-SIg) has been previously detected in serum of naturally RV infected children and shown to reflect the intestinal Ig immune response. Total plasma SIgA and plasma RV-SIg were evaluated by ELISA in children with gastroenteritis due or not due to RV infection and in 50 children vaccinated with the attenuated RIX4414 human RV vaccine and 62 placebo recipients. RV-SIg was only detected in children with evidence of previous RV infection or with acute RV gastroenteritis. Vaccinees had higher RV-SIg titers than placebo recipients and RV-SIg titers increased after the second vaccine dose. RV-SIg measured after the second dose correlated with protection when vaccinees and placebo recipients were analyzed jointly. RV-SIg may serve as a valuable correlate of protection for RV vaccines.
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Agglutinating secretory IgA preserves intestinal epithelial cell integrity during apical infection by Shigella flexneri.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Shigella flexneri, by invading intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and inducing inflammatory responses of the colonic mucosa, causes bacillary dysentery. Although M cells overlying Peyers patches are commonly considered the primary site of entry of S. flexneri, indirect evidence suggests that bacteria can also use IECs as a portal of entry to the lamina propria. Passive delivery of secretory IgA (SIgA), the major immunoglobulin secreted at mucosal surfaces, has been shown to protect rabbits from experimental shigellosis, but no information exists as to its molecular role in maintaining luminal epithelial integrity. We have established that the interaction of virulent S. flexneri with the apical pole of a model intestinal epithelium consisting of polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers resulted in the progressive disruption of the tight junction network and actin depolymerization, eventually resulting in cell death. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-specific agglutinating SIgAC5 monoclonal antibody (MAb), but not monomeric IgAC5 or IgGC20 MAbs of the same specificity, achieved protective functions through combined mechanisms, including limitation of the interaction between S. flexneri and epithelial cells, maintenance of the tight junction seal, preservation of the cell morphology, reduction of NF-?B nuclear translocation, and inhibition of proinflammatory mediator secretion. Our results add to the understanding of the function of SIgA-mediated immune exclusion by identifying a mode of action whereby the formation of immune complexes translates into maintenance of the integrity of epithelial cells lining the mucosa. This novel mechanism of protection mediated by SIgA is important to extend the arsenal of effective strategies to fight against S. flexneri mucosal invasion.
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The effect of vaccines based on ovalbumin coupled to gas-filled microbubbles for reducing infection by ovalbumin-expressing Listeria monocytogenes.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Gas-filled microbubbles (MB) are a very promising alternative to the currently evaluated lipid- or polymer-based particulate Ag delivery systems. We recently demonstrated the ability of MB to deliver associated Ag to DC, to activate them and thereby induce both humoral and cellular immune responses. We now extended the characterization of MB as antigen-delivery system by appraising the efficiency of MB-associated ovalbumin (OVA-MB) at protecting mice against pathogen infection. Ultrasound-mediated imaging demonstrated that the administration of OVA via MB generates a depot at the injection site that lasts for several hours. We found that OVA-MB injected subcutaneously is far more effective at inducing specific Ab and T cell immunity than immunization with free OVA. Moreover, a covalent link between MB and OVA causes a stronger bias towards a Th1-type of immune response than adsorption of the Ag or its covalent link to liposomes of the same lipid composition. Finally, vaccination of mice with OVA-MB partially protects against a systemic infection with OVA-expressing Listeria monocytogenes. The vaccine induces specific effector CD8 T cell responses capable of decreasing more than 100 fold the bacterial load. MB thus represent a potent Ag delivery system for vaccination against intracellular infectious agents.
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Particulate formulations for the delivery of poly(I:C) as vaccine adjuvant.
Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Current research and development of antigens for vaccination often center on purified recombinant proteins, viral subunits, synthetic oligopeptides or oligosaccharides, most of them suffering from being poorly immunogenic and subject to degradation. Hence, they call for efficient delivery systems and potent immunostimulants, jointly denoted as adjuvants. Particulate delivery systems like emulsions, liposomes, nanoparticles and microspheres may provide protection from degradation and facilitate the co-formulation of both the antigen and the immunostimulant. Synthetic double-stranded (ds) RNA, such as polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid, poly(I:C), is a mimic of viral dsRNA and, as such, a promising immunostimulant candidate for vaccines directed against intracellular pathogens. Poly(I:C) signaling is primarily dependent on Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), and on melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5 (MDA-5), and strongly drives cell-mediated immunity and a potent type I interferon response. However, stability and toxicity issues so far prevented the clinical application of dsRNAs as they undergo rapid enzymatic degradation and bear the potential to trigger undue immune stimulation as well as autoimmune disorders. This review addresses these concerns and suggests strategies to improve the safety and efficacy of immunostimulatory dsRNA formulations. The focus is on technological means required to lower the necessary dosage of poly(I:C), to target surface-modified microspheres passively or actively to antigen-presenting cells (APCs), to control their interaction with non-professional phagocytes and to modulate the resulting cytokine secretion profile.
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Multi-faceted functions of secretory IgA at mucosal surfaces.
Front Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Secretory IgA (SIgA) plays an important role in the protection and homeostatic regulation of intestinal, respiratory, and urogenital mucosal epithelia separating the outside environment from the inside of the body. This primary function of SIgA is referred to as immune exclusion, a process that limits the access of numerous microorganisms and mucosal antigens to these thin and vulnerable mucosal barriers. SIgA has been shown to be involved in avoiding opportunistic pathogens to enter and disseminate in the systemic compartment, as well as tightly controlling the necessary symbiotic relationship existing between commensals and the host. Clearance by peristalsis appears thus as one of the numerous mechanisms whereby SIgA fulfills its function at mucosal surfaces. Sampling of antigen-SIgA complexes by microfold (M) cells, intimate contact occurring with Peyers patch dendritic cells (DC), down-regulation of inflammatory processes, modulation of epithelial, and DC responsiveness are some of the recently identified processes to which the contribution of SIgA has been underscored. This review aims at presenting, with emphasis at the biochemical level, how the molecular complexity of SIgA can serve these multiple and non-redundant modes of action.
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N-Glycans on secretory component: mediators of the interaction between secretory IgA and gram-positive commensals sustaining intestinal homeostasis.
Gut Microbes
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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Human beings live in symbiosis with billions of microorganisms colonizing mucosal surfaces. The understanding of the mechanisms underlying this fine-tuned intestinal balance has made significant processes during the last decades. We have recently demonstrated that the interaction of SIgA with Gram-positive bacteria is essentially based on Fab-independent, glycan-mediated recognition. Results obtained using mouse hybridoma- and colostrum-derived secretory IgA (SIgA) consistently show that N-glycans present on secretory component (SC) play a crucial role in the process. Natural coating may involve specific Gram-positive cell wall components, which may explain selective recognition at the molecular level. More widely, the existence of these complexes is involved in the modulation of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) responses in vitro and the formation of intestinal biofilms. Thus, SIgA may act as one of the pillars in homeostatic maintenance of the microbiota in the gut, adding yet another facet to its multiple roles in the mucosal environment.
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The phagocytosis of gas-filled microbubbles by human and murine antigen-presenting cells.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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This study was designed to evaluate the potential of gas-filled microbubbles (MB) to be internalized by antigen-presenting cells (APC). Fluorescently labeled MB were prepared, thus permitting to track binding to, and internalization in, APC. Both human and mouse cells, including monocytes and dendritic cells (DC), prove capable to phagocyte MB in vitro. Observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that interaction between MB and target cells resulted in a rapid internalization in cellular compartments and to a lesser extent in the cytoplasm. Capture of MB by APC resulted in phagolysosomal targeting as verified by double staining with anti-lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 monoclonal antibody and decrease of internalization by phagocytosis inhibitors. Fluorescent MB injected subcutaneously (s.c.) in mice were found to be associated with CD11c(+)DC in lymph nodes draining the injection sites 24 h after administration. Altogether, our study demonstrates that MB can successfully target APC both in vitro and in vivo, and thus may serve as a potent Ag delivery system without requirement for ultrasound-based sonoporation. This adds to the potential of applications of MB already extensively used for diagnostic imaging in humans.
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Recognition of gram-positive intestinal bacteria by hybridoma- and colostrum-derived secretory immunoglobulin A is mediated by carbohydrates.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Humans live in symbiosis with 10(14) commensal bacteria among which >99% resides in their gastrointestinal tract. The molecular bases pertaining to the interaction between mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) and bacteria residing in the intestine are not known. Previous studies have demonstrated that commensals are naturally coated by SIgA in the gut lumen. Thus, understanding how natural SIgA interacts with commensal bacteria can provide new clues on its multiple functions at mucosal surfaces. Using fluorescently labeled, nonspecific SIgA or secretory component (SC), we visualized by confocal microscopy the interaction with various commensal bacteria, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Escherichia coli, and Bacteroides strains. These experiments revealed that the interaction between SIgA and commensal bacteria involves Fab- and Fc-independent structural motifs, featuring SC as a crucial partner. Removal of glycans present on free SC or bound in SIgA resulted in a drastic drop in the interaction with gram-positive bacteria, indicating the essential role of carbohydrates in the process. In contrast, poor binding of gram-positive bacteria by control IgG was observed. The interaction with gram-negative bacteria was preserved whatever the molecular form of protein partner used, suggesting the involvement of different binding motifs. Purified SIgA and SC from either mouse hybridoma cells or human colostrum exhibited identical patterns of recognition for gram-positive bacteria, emphasizing conserved plasticity between species. Thus, sugar-mediated binding of commensals by SIgA highlights the currently underappreciated role of glycans in mediating the interaction between a highly diverse microbiota and the mucosal immune system.
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Toward protein biomarkers for allergy: CD4+ T cell proteomics in allergic and nonallergic subjects sampled in and out of pollen season.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Allergy is an immunological disorder of the upper airways, lung, skin, and the gut with a growing prevalence over the last decades in Western countries. Atopy, the genetic predisposition for allergy, is strongly dependent on familial inheritance and environmental factors. These observations call for predictive markers of progression from atopy to allergy, a prerequisite to any active intervention in neonates and children (prophylactic interventions/primary prevention) or in adults (immunomodulatory interventions/secondary prevention). In an attempt to identify early biomarkers of the "atopic march" using minimally invasive sampling, CD4+ T cells from 20 adult volunteers (10 healthy and 10 with respiratory allergies) were isolated and quantitatively analyzed and their proteomes were compared in and out of pollen season (± antigen exposure). The proteome study based on high-resolution 2D gel electrophoresis revealed three candidate protein markers that distinguish the CD4+ T cell proteomes of normal from allergic individuals when sampled out of pollen season, namely Talin 1, Nipsnap homologue 3A, and Glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory protein. Three proteins were found differentially expressed between the CD4+ T cell proteomes of normal and allergic subjects when sampled during pollen season: carbonyl reductase, glutathione S-transferase ? 1, and 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase. The results were partly validated by Western blotting.
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Tuning the immune response of dendritic cells to surface-assembled poly(I:C) on microspheres through synergistic interactions between phagocytic and TLR3 signaling.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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The artificial dsRNA polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid, poly(I:C), is a potent adjuvant candidate for vaccination, as it strongly drives cell-mediated immunity. However, because of its effects on non-immune bystander cells, poly(I:C) administration may bear danger for the development of autoimmune diseases. Thus poly(I:C) should be applied in the lowest dose possible. We investigated microspheres carrying surface-assembled poly(I:C) as a two-in-one adjuvant formulation to stimulate maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). Negatively charged polystyrene microspheres were equipped with a poly(ethylene glycol) corona through electrostatically driven surface assembly of a library of polycationic poly(l-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers, PLL-g-PEG. Stable surface assembly of poly(I:C) was achieved by incubation of polymer-coated microspheres in an aqueous poly(I:C) solution. Surface-assembled poly(I:C) exhibited a strongly enhanced efficacy to stimulate maturation of MoDCs by up to two orders of magnitude, as compared to free poly(I:C). Multiple phagocytosis events were the key factor to enhance the efficacy. The cytokine secretion pattern of MoDCs after exposure to surface-assembled poly(I:C) differed from that of free poly(I:C), while their ability to stimulate T cell proliferation was similar. Overall, phagocytic signaling plays an important role in defining the resulting immune response to such two-in-one adjuvant formulations.
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Transient suppression of Shigella flexneri type 3 secretion by a protective O-antigen-specific monoclonal IgA.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Mucosal immunity to the enteric pathogen Shigella flexneri is mediated by secretory IgA (S-IgA) antibodies directed against the O-antigen (O-Ag) side chain of lipopolysaccharide. While secretory antibodies against the O-Ag are known to prevent bacterial invasion of the intestinal epithelium, the mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully understood. In this study, we report that the binding of a murine monoclonal IgA (IgAC5) to the O-Ag of S. flexneri serotype 5a suppresses activity of the type 3 secretion (T3S) system, which is necessary for S. flexneri to gain entry into intestinal epithelial cells. IgAC5s effects on the T3S were rapid (5 to 15 min) and were coincident with a partial reduction in the bacterial membrane potential and a decrease in intracellular ATP levels. Activity of the T3S system returned to normal levels 45 to 90 min following antibody treatment, demonstrating that IgAC5s effects were transient. Nonetheless, these data suggest a model in which the association of IgA with the O-Ag of S. flexneri partially de-energizes the T3S system and temporarily renders the bacterium incapable of invading intestinal epithelial cells.
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Potentiation of polarized intestinal Caco-2 cell responsiveness to probiotics complexed with secretory IgA.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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The precise mechanisms underlying the interaction between intestinal bacteria and the host epithelium lead to multiple consequences that remain poorly understood at the molecular level. Deciphering such events can provide valuable information as to the mode of action of commensal and probiotic microorganisms in the gastrointestinal environment. Potential roles of such microorganisms along the privileged target represented by the mucosal immune system include maturation prior, during and after weaning, and the reduction of inflammatory reactions in pathogenic conditions. Using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell grown as polarized monolayers, we found that association of a Lactobacillus or a Bifidobacterium with nonspecific secretory IgA (SIgA) enhanced probiotic adhesion by a factor of 3.4-fold or more. Bacteria alone or in complex with SIgA reinforced transepithelial electrical resistance, a phenomenon coupled with increased phosphorylation of tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin. In contrast, association with SIgA resulted in both enhanced level of nuclear translocation of NF-?B and production of epithelial polymeric Ig receptor as compared with bacteria alone. Moreover, thymic stromal lymphopoietin production was increased upon exposure to bacteria and further enhanced with SIgA-based complexes, whereas the level of pro-inflammatory epithelial cell mediators remained unaffected. Interestingly, SIgA-mediated potentiation of the Caco-2 cell responsiveness to the two probiotics tested involved Fab-independent interaction with the bacteria. These findings add to the multiple functions of SIgA and underscore a novel role of the antibody in interaction with intestinal bacteria.
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Role of secretory immunoglobulin A and secretory component in the protection of mucosal surfaces.
Future Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
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The contribution of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies in the defense of mucosal epithelia plays an important role in preventing pathogen adhesion to host cells, therefore blocking dissemination and further infection. This mechanism, referred to as immune exclusion, represents the dominant mode of action of the antibody. However, SIgA antibodies combine multiple facets, which together confer properties extending from intracellular and serosal neutralization of antigens, activation of non-inflammatory pathways and homeostatic control of the endogenous microbiota. The sum of these features suggests that future opportunities for translational application from research-based knowledge to clinics include the mucosal delivery of bioactive antibodies capable of preserving immunoreactivity in the lung, gastrointestinal tract, the genito-urinary tract for the treatment of infections. This article covers topics dealing with the structure of SIgA, the dissection of its mode of action in epithelia lining different mucosal surfaces and its potential in immunotherapy against infectious pathogens.
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Premature replacement of mu with alpha immunoglobulin chains impairs lymphopoiesis and mucosal homing but promotes plasma cell maturation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Sequentially along B cell differentiation, the different classes of membrane Ig heavy chains associate with the Ig alpha/Ig beta heterodimer within the B cell receptor (BCR). Whether each Ig class conveys specific signals adapted to the corresponding differentiation stage remains debated. We investigated the impact of the forced expression of an IgA-class receptor throughout murine B cell differentiation by knocking in the human C alpha Ig gene in place of the S mu region. Despite expression of a functional BCR, homozygous mutant mice showed a partial developmental blockade at the pro-B/pre-BI and large pre-BII cell stages, with decreased numbers of small pre-BII cells. Beyond this stage, peripheral B cell compartments of reduced size developed and allowed specific antibody responses, whereas mature cells showed constitutive activation and a strong commitment to plasma cell differentiation. Secreted IgA correctly assembled into polymers, associated with the murine J chain, and was transported into secretions. In heterozygous mutants, cells expressing the IgA allele competed poorly with those expressing IgM from the wild-type allele and were almost undetectable among peripheral B lymphocytes, notably in gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Our data indicate that the IgM BCR is more efficient in driving early B cell education and in mucosal site targeting, whereas the IgA BCR appears particularly suited to promoting activation and differentiation of effector plasma cells.
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Antigen binding to secretory immunoglobulin A results in decreased sensitivity to intestinal proteases and increased binding to cellular Fc receptors.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2009
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In intestinal secretions, secretory IgA (SIgA) plays an important sentinel and protective role in the recognition and clearance of enteric pathogens. In addition to serving as a first line of defense, SIgA and SIgA x antigen immune complexes are selectively transported across Peyers patches to underlying dendritic cells in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, contributing to immune surveillance and immunomodulation. To explain the unexpected transport of immune complexes in face of the large excess of free SIgA in secretions, we postulated that SIgA experiences structural modifications upon antigen binding. To address this issue, we associated specific polymeric IgA and SIgA with antigens of various sizes and complexity (protein toxin, virus, bacterium). Compared with free antibody, we found modified sensitivity of the three antigens assayed after exposure to proteases from intestinal washes. Antigen binding further impacted on the immunoreactivity toward polyclonal antisera specific for the heavy and light chains of the antibody, as a function of the antigen size. These conformational changes promoted binding of the SIgA-based immune complex compared with the free antibody to cellular receptors (Fc alphaRI and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor) expressed on the surface of premyelocytic and epithelial cell lines. These data reveal that antigen recognition by SIgA triggers structural changes that confer to the antibody enhanced receptor binding properties. This identifies immune complexes as particular structural entities integrating the presence of bound antigens and adds to the known function of immune exclusion and mucus anchoring by SIgA.
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Secretory IgA-mediated neutralization of Shigella flexneri prevents intestinal tissue destruction by down-regulating inflammatory circuits.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2009
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Shigella, a Gram-negative invasive enteropathogenic bacterium responsible for bacillary dysentery, causes the rupture, invasion, and inflammatory destruction of the human colonic mucosa. We explored the mechanisms of protection mediated by Shigella LPS-specific secretory IgA (SIgA), the major mucosal Ab induced upon natural infection. Bacteria, SIgA, or SIgA-S. flexneri immune complexes were administered into rabbit ligated intestinal loops containing a Peyers patch. After 8 h, localizations of bacteria, SIgA, and SIgA-S. flexneri immune complexes were examined by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy imaging. We found that anti-Shigella LPS SIgA, mainly via immune exclusion, prevented Shigella-induced inflammation responsible for the destruction of the intestinal barrier. Besides this luminal trapping, a small proportion of SIgA-S. flexneri immune complexes were shown to enter the rabbit Peyers patch and were internalized by dendritic cells of the subepithelial dome region. Local inflammatory status was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR using newly designed primers for rabbit pro- and anti-inflammatory mediator genes. In Peyers patches exposed to immune complexes, limited up-regulation of the expression of proinflammatory genes, including TNF-alpha, IL-6, Cox-2, and IFN-gamma, was observed, consistent with preserved morphology. In contrast, in Peyers patches exposed to Shigella alone, high expression of the same mediators was measured, indicating that neutralizing SIgA dampens the proinflammatory properties of Shigella. These results show that in the form of immune complexes, SIgA guarantees both immune exclusion and neutralization of translocated bacteria, thus preserving the intestinal barrier integrity by preventing bacterial-induced inflammation. These findings add to the multiple facets of the noninflammatory properties of SIgA.
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Secretory immunoglobulin A: well beyond immune exclusion at mucosal surfaces.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2009
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At mucosal surfaces, secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies serve as the first line of defense against microorganisms through a mechanism called immune exclusion that prevents interaction of neutralized antigens with the epithelium. In addition, SIgA plays a role in the immune balance of the epithelial barrier through selective adhesion to M cells in intestinal Peyers patches. This mediates the transepithelial retro-transport of the antibody and associated antigens from the intestinal lumen to underlying gut-associated organized lymphoid tissue. In Peyers patches, SIgA-based immune complexes are internalized by underlying antigen-presenting cells, leaving the antigen with masked epitopes, a form that limits the risk of overwhelming the local immune protection system with danger signals. This translates into the onset of mucosal and systemic responses associated with production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and limited activation of antigen-presenting cells. In the gastrointestinal tract, SIgA exhibits thus properties of a neutralizing agent (immune exclusion) and of an immunopotentiator inducing effector immune responses in a noninflammatory context favorable to preserve local homeostasis.
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Human plasma-derived polymeric IgA and IgM antibodies associate with secretory component to yield biologically active secretory-like antibodies.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Immunotherapy with monoclonal and polyclonal immunoglobulin is successfully applied to improve many clinical conditions, including infection, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency. Most immunoglobulin products, recombinant or plasma-derived, are based on IgG antibodies, whereas to date, the use of IgA for therapeutic application has remained anecdotal. In particular, purification or production of large quantities of secretory IgA (SIgA) for potential mucosal application has not been achieved. In this work, we sought to investigate whether polymeric IgA (pIgA) recovered from human plasma is able to associate with secretory component (SC) to generate SIgA-like molecules. We found that ?15% of plasma pIgA carried J chain and displayed selective SC binding capacity either in a mixture with monomeric IgA (mIgA) or after purification. The recombinant SC associated covalently in a 1:1 stoichiometry with pIgA and with similar efficacy as colostrum-derived SC. In comparison with pIgA, the association with SC delayed degradation of SIgA by intestinal proteases. Similar results were obtained with plasma-derived IgM. In vitro, plasma-derived IgA and SIgA neutralized Shigella flexneri used as a model pathogen, resulting in a delay of bacteria-induced damage targeted to polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers. The sum of these novel data demonstrates that association of plasma-derived IgA or IgM with recombinant/colostrum-derived SC is feasible and yields SIgA- and SIgM-like molecules with similar biochemical and functional characteristics as mucosa-derived immunoglobulins.
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Role of secretory IgA in infection and maintenance of homeostasis.
Autoimmun Rev
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An important activity of mucosal surfaces is the production of antibodies (Abs) referred to as secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) that serve as a first line of defense to repel pathogenic microorganisms and provide a finely tuned balance to guarantee controlled survival of essential commensal bacteria. By excluding bacteria from the epithelial cell, SIgA participates in the cross-talk between the host and its intestinal content, ensuring appropriate homeostasis under normal conditions. Besides the classical view of immune exclusion function, SIgA Abs exhibit the striking feature to adhere to gastrointestinal M cells residing in the follicle-associated epithelium in organized structures called Peyers patches. Selective binding of SIgA results in transport across the microfold (M) cells, a process that facilitates the association of the Ab with dendritic cells (DCs) located in the underlying subepithelial dome region of Peyers patches. Limited entry of free SIgA and SIgA-coated bacteria via this pathway is crucial to the modulation of local immune responses in an environment that limits the onset of pro-inflammatory circuits. Such a mechanism would ensure homeostasis by allowing antigen recognition under neutralized conditions and by avoiding tissue dissemination, two features that endow SIgA with non-inflammatory properties in the mucosal environment.
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The role of secretory immunoglobulin A in the natural sensing of commensal bacteria by mouse Peyers patch dendritic cells.
J. Biol. Chem.
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The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors a diverse population of commensal species collectively known as the microbiota, which interact continuously with the host. From very early in life, secretory IgA (SIgA) is found in association with intestinal bacteria. It is considered that this helps to ensure self-limiting growth of the microbiota and hence participates in symbiosis. However, the importance of this association in contributing to the mechanisms ensuring natural host-microorganism communication is in need of further investigation. In the present work, we examined the possible role of SIgA in the transport of commensal bacteria across the GI epithelium. Using an intestinal loop mouse model and fluorescently labeled bacteria, we found that entry of commensal bacteria in Peyers patches (PP) via the M cell pathway was mediated by their association with SIgA. Preassociation of bacteria with nonspecific SIgA increased their dynamics of entry and restored the reduced transport observed in germ-free mice known to have a marked reduction in intestinal SIgA production. Selective SIgA-mediated targeting of bacteria is restricted to the tolerogenic CD11c(+)CD11b(+)CD8(-) dendritic cell subset located in the subepithelial dome region of PPs, confirming that the host is not ignorant of its resident commensals. In conclusion, our work supports the concept that SIgA-mediated monitoring of commensal bacteria targeting dendritic cells in the subepithelial dome region of PPs represents a mechanism whereby the host mucosal immune system controls the continuous dialogue between the host and commensal bacteria.
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Intragastric and Intranasal Administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC2461 Modulates Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice.
Int J Inflam
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Introduction. Preclinical and clinical evidences for a role of oral probiotics in the management of allergic diseases are emerging. Aim. We aimed at testing the immunomodulatory effects of intranasal versus intragastric administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC2461 in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation and the specificity of different probiotics by comparing L. paracasei NCC2461 to Lactobacillus plantarum NCC1107. Methods. L. paracasei NCC2461 or L. plantarum NCC1107 strains were administered either intragastrically (NCC2461) or intranasally (NCC2461 or NCC1107) to OVA-sensitized mice challenged with OVA aerosols. Inflammatory cell recruitment into BALF, eotaxin and IL-5 production in the lungs were measured. Results. Intranasal L. paracasei NCC2461 efficiently protected sensitized mice upon exposure to OVA aerosols in a dose-dependent manner as compared to control mice. Inflammatory cell number, eotaxin and IL-5 were significantly reduced in BALF. Intranasal supplementation of L. paracasei NCC2461 was more potent than intragastric application in limiting the allergic response and possibly linked to an increase in T regulatory cells in the lungs. Finally, intranasal L. plantarum NCC1107 reduced total and eosinophilic lung inflammation, but increased neutrophilia and macrophages infiltration. Conclusion. A concerted selection of intervention schedule, doses, and administration routes (intranasal versus intragastric) may markedly contribute to modulate airway inflammation in a probiotic strain-specific manner.
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Gas-filled microbubble-mediated delivery of antigen and the induction of immune responses.
Biomaterials
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The use of well characterized recombinant or purified protein antigens (Ag) for vaccination is of interest for safety reasons and in the case where inactivated pathogens are not available (cancer, allergy). However it requires the addition of adjuvants such as Ag carrier or immune stimulators to potentiate their immunogenicity. In this study, we demonstrated that gas-filled microbubbles (MB) can serve as an efficient Ag delivery system to promote phagocytosis of the model Ag ovalbumin (OVA) without the need of ultrasound application. Once internalized by DC, OVA was processed and presented to both CD4 and CD8 T cells in vitro; such observations were coupled with the capacity of MB to activate DC. In vivo administration of MB-associated OVA in naïve wild-type Balb/c mice resulted in the induction of OVA-specific antibody and T cell responses. Detailed characterization of the generated immune response demonstrated the production of both IgG1 and IgG2a serum antibodies, as well as the secretion of IFN-? and IL-10 by splenocytes. Interestingly, similar results were obtained with human DC in regards of Ag delivery and cell activation. Therefore, the data presented here settle the proof of principle for the further evaluation of MB-based immunomodulation studies.
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Surface assembly of poly(I:C) on PEGylated microspheres to shield from adverse interactions with fibroblasts.
J Control Release
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By expressing an array of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), fibroblasts play an important role in stimulating and modulating the response of the innate immune system. The TLR3 ligand polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid, poly(I:C), a mimic of viral dsRNA, is a vaccine adjuvant candidate to activate professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). However, owing to its ligation with extracellular TLR3 on fibroblasts, subcutaneously administered poly(I:C) bears danger towards autoimmunity. It is thus in the interest of its clinical safety to deliver poly(I:C) in such a way that its activation of professional APCs is as efficacious as possible, whereas its interference with non-immune cells such as fibroblasts is controlled or even avoided. Complementary to our previous work with monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs), here we sought to control the delivery of poly(I:C) surface-assembled on microspheres to human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs). Negatively charged polystyrene (PS) microspheres were equipped with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) corona through electrostatically driven coatings with a series of polycationic poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers, PLL-g-PEG, of varying grafting ratios g from 2.2 up to 22.7. Stable surface assembly of poly(I:C) was achieved by incubation of polymer-coated microspheres with aqueous poly(I:C) solutions. Notably, recognition of both surface-assembled and free poly(I:C) by extracellular TLR3 on HFFs halted their phagocytic activity. Ligation of surface-assembled poly(I:C) with extracellular TLR3 on HFFs could be controlled by tuning the grafting ratio g and thus the chain density of the PEG corona. When assembled on PLL-5.7-PEG-coated microspheres, poly(I:C) was blocked from triggering class I MHC molecule expression on HFFs. Secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 by HFFs after exposure to surface-assembled poly(I:C) was distinctly lower as compared to free poly(I:C). Overall, surface assembly of poly(I:C) may have potential to contribute to the clinical safety of this vaccine adjuvant candidate.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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