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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Evolution of a novel pathway leading to dolutegravir resistance in a patient harbouring N155H and multiclass drug resistance.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
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Dolutegravir has been recently approved for treatment-naive and -experienced HIV-infected subjects, including integrase inhibitor (INI)-experienced patients. Dolutegravir is a second-generation INI that can overcome many prior raltegravir and elvitegravir failures. Here, we report the evolution of resistance to dolutegravir in a highly treatment-experienced patient harbouring the major N155H mutation consequent to raltegravir treatment failure.
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HIV-1 Group O Integrase Displays Lower Enzymatic Efficiency and Higher Susceptibility to Raltegravir than HIV-1 Group M Subtype B Integrase.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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HIV-1 group O (HIV-O) is a rare HIV-1 variant characterized by a high number of polymorphisms, especially in the integrase coding region. As HIV-O integrase enzymes have not previously been studied, our aim was to assess the impact of HIV-O integrase polymorphisms on enzyme function and susceptibility to integrase inhibitors. Accordingly, we cloned and purified integrase proteins from each of HIV-1 group O clades A and B, an HIV-O divergent strain, and HIV-1 group M (HIV-M, subtype B), used as a reference. To assess enzymatic function of HIV-O integrase, we carried out strand transfer and 3' processing assays with various concentrations of substrate (DNA target and long terminal repeats [LTR], respectively) and characterized these enzymes for susceptibility to integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) in cell-free assays and in tissue culture, in the absence or presence of various concentrations of several INSTIs. The inhibition constant (Ki) and 50% effective concentration (EC50) values were calculated for HIV-O integrases and HIV-O viruses, respectively, and compared with those of HIV-M. The results showed that HIV-O integrase displayed lower activity in strand transfer assays than did HIV-M enzyme, whereas 3' processing activities were similar to those of HIV-M. HIV-O integrases were more susceptible to raltegravir (RAL) in competitive inhibition assays and in tissue culture than were HIV-M enzymes and viruses, respectively. Molecular modeling suggests that two key polymorphic residues that are close to the integrase catalytic site, 74I and 153A, may play a role in these differences.
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HIV-1 group O integrase displays lower susceptibility to raltegravir and has a different mutational pathway for resistance than HIV-1 group M.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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HIV-1 group O (HIV-O) is a rare HIV-1 variant characterized by a high number of polymorphisms, especially in the integrase gene, e.g. positions L74I, S153A, G163Q and T206S. As HIV-O integrase enzymes have not previously been studied, our aim was to assess the impact of HIV-O integrase polymorphisms on susceptibility to integrase inhibitors and emergence of resistance associated mutations. Viruses and Methods: We cloned and purified integrase proteins from each of HIV-1 Group O clades A (HIV-O/A) and B (HIV-O/B), a HIV-O divergent strain (HIV-O/Div), and HIV-1 group M (subtype B, HIV-M/B) and characterized these enzymes for susceptibility to integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) in cell-free assays and in tissue culture, in the absence or presence of varying concentrations of several INSTIs. The inhibition constant (Ki) and IC50 were calculated and compared for HIV-M and HIV-O integrases. Selections for resistance-related mutations were performed using cord blood mononuclear cells and increasing concentration of INSTIs.
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A Significant Reduction in the Frequency of HIV-1 Drug Resistance in Québec from 2001 to 2011 Is Associated with a Decrease in the Monitored Viral Load.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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HIV drug resistance represents a major threat for effective treatment. We assessed the trends in the frequency of drug resistance mutations and the monitored viral load (VL) in treatment-naïve (TN) and treatment-experienced (TE) individuals infected with HIV-1 in Québec, Canada, between 2001 and 2011.
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Distinct resistance patterns to etravirine and rilpivirine in viruses containing nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations at baseline.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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The current in-vitro study examined HIV-1 drug resistance patterns following etravirine (ETR) and rilpivirine (RPV) drug pressure in viruses containing baseline nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutations.
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Basis for early and preferential selection of the E138K mutation in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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E138K, a G?A mutation in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT), is preferentially selected by etravirine (ETR) and rilpivirine over other substitutions at position E138 that offer greater drug resistance. We hypothesized that there was a mutational bias for the E138K substitution and designed an allele-specific PCR to monitor the emergence of E138A/G/K/Q/R/V during ETR selection experiments. We also performed competition experiments using mutated viruses and quantified the prevalence of E138 minority species in drug-naive patients. E138K, as well as E138G, consistently emerged first during ETR selection experiments, followed by E138A and E138Q; E138R was never selected. Surprisingly, E138K was identified as a tiny minority in 23% of drug-naive subtype B patients, a result confirmed by ultradeep sequencing (UDS). This result could reflect a low fitness cost of E138K; however, E138K was one of the least fit substitutions at codon E138, even after taking into account the deoxynucleoside triphosphate pools of the cells used in competition experiments. Further UDS analysis revealed other minority species in a pattern consistent with the mutational bias of HIV RT. There was no evidence of APOBEC3-hypermutation in these selection experiments or in patients. Our results confirm the mutational bias of HIV-1 in patients and highlight the importance of G?A mutations in HIV-1 drug resistance evolution.
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Future of phylogeny in HIV prevention.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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The success of the HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 trial has led to revisions in HIV-1 treatment guidelines. Antiretroviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV-1 transmissions at the population level. The design of successful treatment as prevention interventions will be predicated on a comprehensive understanding of the spatial, temporal, and biological dynamics of heterosexual men who have sex with men and intravenous drug user epidemics. Viral phylogenetics can capture the underlying structure of transmission networks based on the genetic interrelatedness of viral sequences and cluster networks that could not be otherwise identified. This article describes the phylogenetic expansion of the Montreal men who have sex with men epidemic over the last decade. High rates of coclustering of primary infections are associated with 1 infection leading to 13 onward transmissions. Phylogeny substantiates the role of primary and recent stage infection in transmission dynamics, underlying the importance of timely diagnosis and immediate antiretroviral therapy initiation to avert transmission cascades.
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The preferential selection of K65R in HIV-1 subtype C is attenuated by nucleotide polymorphisms at thymidine analogue mutation sites.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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We recently reported the preferential selection of the K65R resistance mutation in subtype C HIV-1 compared with subtype B and showed the underlying mechanism to be dependent on subtype C-specific silent nucleotide polymorphisms, i.e. genomic mutations that change the genotype but not the phenotype. The number of clinical reports demonstrating elevated numbers of K65R nevertheless suggests the existence of factors limiting the increased incidence of K65R mutations. Thus, we investigated the contributions of subtype C-specific silent nucleotide polymorphisms at thymidine analogue mutation (TAM) sites 70, 210 and/or 219 that might reduce the previously described preferential selection of K65R in subtype C HIV-1 associated with subtype C-specific nucleotide polymorphisms at sites 64/65.
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Transmission clustering drives the onward spread of the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men in Quebec.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
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Phylodynamic analysis and epidemiologic data identified 3 patterns of spread of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (PHI) among men who have sex with men (2001-2009): 420 unique PHIs, 102 small clusters (2-4 PHIs per cluster, n = 280), and 46 large clusters (5-31 PHIs per cluster, n = 450). Large clusters disproportionately increased from 25.2% of PHIs in 2005 to 39.1% in 2009 (?(2) = 33.9, P < .001). Scalar expansion of large clusters over 11 months (interquartile range, 3.5-25.5 months) correlated with cluster membership size (r(2) = 0.174, F = 4.424, P = .047). PHI cohort data revealed variations in social networks and risk behaviors among the 3 groups, suggesting the need for tailored prevention measures.
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Compensation by the E138K mutation in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase for deficits in viral replication capacity and enzyme processivity associated with the M184I/V mutations.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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Recently, several phase 3 clinical trials (ECHO and THRIVE) showed that E138K and M184I were the most frequent mutations to emerge in patients who failed therapy with rilpivirine (RPV) together with two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TDF). To investigate the basis for the copresence of E138K and M184I, we generated recombinant mutated and wild-type (WT) reverse transcriptase (RT) enzymes and HIV-1(NL4-3) infectious clones. Drug susceptibilities were determined in cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs). Structural modeling was performed to analyze any impact on deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) binding. The results of phenotyping showed that viruses containing both the E138K and M184V mutations were more resistant to each of FTC, 3TC, and ETR than viruses containing E138K and M184I. Viruses with E138K displayed only modest resistance to ETR, little resistance to efavirenz (EFV), and no resistance to either FTC or 3TC. E138K restored viral replication capacity (RC) in the presence of M184I/V, and this was confirmed in cell-free RT processivity assays. RT enzymes containing E138K, E138K/184I, or E138K/184V exhibited higher processivity than WT RT at low dNTP concentrations. Steady-state kinetic analysis demonstrated that the E138K mutation resulted in decreased K(m)s for dNTPs. In contrast, M184I/V resulted in an increased K(m) for dNTPs compared to those for WT RT. These results indicate that the E138K mutation compensates for both the deficit in dNTP usage and impairment in replication capacity by M184I/V. Structural modeling shows that the addition of E138K to M184I/V promotes tighter dNTP binding.
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Dates of HIV infection can be estimated for seroprevalent patients by coalescent analysis of serial next-generation sequencing data.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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To reconstruct dates of HIV infection by the coalescent analysis of longitudinal next-generation sequencing (NGS) data.
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Transmission dynamics of the M184V drug resistance mutation in primary HIV infection.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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M184V in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase is among the most common mutations in patients failing antiretroviral therapy but is found only rarely in cases of transmitted drug resistance.
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A template-dependent dislocation mechanism potentiates K65R reverse transcriptase mutation development in subtype C variants of HIV-1.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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Numerous studies have suggested that the K65R reverse transcriptase (RT) mutation develops more readily in subtype C than subtype B HIV-1. We recently showed that this discrepancy lies partly in the subtype C template coding sequence that predisposes RT to pause at the site of K65R mutagenesis. However, the mechanism underlying this observation and the elevated rates of K65R development remained unknown. Here, we report that DNA synthesis performed with subtype C templates consistently produced more K65R-containing transcripts than subtype B templates, regardless of the subtype-origin of the RT enzymes employed. These findings confirm that the mechanism involved is template-specific and RT-independent. In addition, a pattern of DNA synthesis characteristic of site-specific primer/template slippage and dislocation was only observed with the subtype C sequence. Analysis of RNA secondary structure suggested that the latter was unlikely to impact on K65R development between subtypes and that Streisinger strand slippage during DNA synthesis at the homopolymeric nucleotide stretch of the subtype C K65 region might occur, resulting in misalignment of the primer and template. Consequently, slippage would lead to a deletion of the middle adenine of codon K65 and the production of a -1 frameshift mutation, which upon dislocation and realignment of the primer and template, would lead to development of the K65R mutation. These findings provide additional mechanistic evidence for the facilitated development of the K65R mutation in subtype C HIV-1.
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Subtype diversity associated with the development of HIV-1 resistance to integrase inhibitors.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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We used genotypic and phylogenetic analysis to determine integrase diversity among subtypes, and studied natural polymorphisms and mutations implicated in resistance to integrase inhibitors (INI) in treatment-naïve persons (n = 220) and -experienced individuals (n = 24). Phylogenetics revealed 7 and 10% inter-subtype diversity in the integrase and reverse transcriptase (RT)/protease regions, respectively. Integrase sequencing identified a novel A/B recombinant in which all viruses in a male-sex-male (MSM) transmission cluster (n = 12) appeared to possess subtype B in integrase and subtype A in the remainder of the pol region. Natural variations and signature polymorphisms were observed at codon positions 140, 148, 151, 157, and 160 among HIV subtypes. These variations predicted higher genetic barriers to G140S and G140C in subtypes C, CRF02_AG, and A/CRF01_AE, as well as higher genetic barriers toward acquisition of V151I in subtypes CRF02_AG and A/CRF01_AE. The E157Q and E160Q mutational motif was observed in 35% of INI-naïve patients harboring subtype C infections, indicating intra-subtype variations. Thirteen patients failed raltegravir (RAL)-containing regimens within 8 ± 1 months, in association with the major Q148K/R/H and G140A/S (n = 8/24) or N155H (n = 5/24) mutational pathways. Of note, the remaining patients on RAL regimens for 14 ± 3 months harbored no or only minor integrase mutations/polymorphisms (T66I, T97A, H114P, S119P, A124S, G163R, I203M, R263K). These results demonstrate the importance of understanding subtype variability in the development of resistance to INIs.
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Characterization of the E138K resistance mutation in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase conferring susceptibility to etravirine in B and non-B HIV-1 subtypes.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2010
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We have selected for resistance to etravirine (ETR) and efavirenz (EFV) in tissue culture using three subtype B, three subtype C, and two CRF02_AG clinical isolates, grown in cord blood mononuclear cells. Genotypic analysis was performed at baseline and at various weeks of selection. Phenotypic resistance in regard to ETR, EFV, and nevirapine (NVP) was evaluated at weeks 25 to 30 for all ETR-selected viruses and in viral clones that contained specific resistance mutations that were inserted by site-directed mutagenesis into pNL-4.3 and AG plasmids. The results show that ETR selected mutations at positions V90I, K101Q, E138K, V179D/E/F, Y181C, V189I, G190E, H221H/Y, and M230L and that E138K was the first of these to emerge in most instances. The time to the emergence of resistance was longer in the case of ETR (18 weeks) compared to EFV (11 weeks), and no differences in the patterns of emergent mutations could be documented between the B and non-B subtypes. Viral clones containing E138K displayed low-level phenotypic resistance to ETR (3.8-fold) and modestly impaired replication capacity (2-fold) compared to wild-type virus. ETR-selected virus showed a high degree of cross-resistance to NVP but not to EFV. We identified K101Q, E138K, V179E, V189I, G190E, and H221Y as mutations not included among the 17 currently recognized resistance-associated mutations for ETR.
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Role of HIV Subtype Diversity in the Development of Resistance to Antiviral Drugs.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2010
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Despite the fact that over 90% of HIV-1 infected people worldwide harbor non-subtype B variants of HIV-1, knowledge of resistance mutations in non-B HIV-1 and their clinical relevance is limited. Due to historical delays in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on a worldwide basis, the vast majority of reports on drug resistance deal with subtype B infections in developed countries. However, both enzymatic and virological data support the concept that naturally occurring polymorphisms among different nonB subtypes can affect HIV-1 susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), the magnitude of resistance conferred by major mutations, and the propensity to acquire some resistance mutations. Tools need to be optimized to assure accurate measurements of drug susceptibility of non-B subtypes. Furthermore, there is a need to recognize that each subtype may have a distinct resistance profile and that differences in resistance pathways may also impact on cross-resistance and the selection of second-line regimens. It will be essential to pay attention to newer drug combinations in well designed long-term longitudinal studies involving patients infected by viruses of different subtypes.
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Predicting tipranavir and darunavir resistance using genotypic, phenotypic, and virtual phenotypic resistance patterns: an independent cohort analysis of clinical isolates highly resistant to all other protease inhibitors.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2010
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Genotypic interpretation systems (GISs) for darunavir and tipranavir susceptibility are rarely tested by the use of independent data sets. The virtual phenotype (the phenotype determined by Virco [the "Vircotype"]) was used to interpret all genotypes in Québec, Canada, and phenotypes were determined for isolates predicted to be resistant to all protease inhibitors other than darunavir and tipranavir. We used multivariate analyses to predict relative phenotypic susceptibility to darunavir and tipranavir. We compared the performance characteristics of the Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida scoring algorithm, the Stanford HIV database scoring algorithm (with separate analyses of the discrete and numerical scores), the Vircotype, and the darunavir and tipranavir manufacturers scores for prediction of the phenotype. Of the 100 isolates whose phenotypes were determined, 89 and 72 were susceptible to darunavir and tipranavir, respectively. In multivariate analyses, the presence of I84V and V82T and the lack of L10F predicted that the isolates would be more susceptible to darunavir than tipranavir. The presence of I54L, V32I, and I47V predicted that the isolates would be more susceptible to tipranavir. All GISs except the system that provided the Stanford HIV database discrete score performed well in predicting the darunavir resistance phenotype (R(2) = 0.61 to 0.69); the R(2) value for the Stanford HIV database discrete scoring system was 0.38. Other than the system that provided the Vircotype (R(2) = 0.80), all GISs performed poorly in predicting the tipranavir resistance phenotype (R(2) = 0.00 to 0.31). In this independent cohort harboring highly protease inhibitor-resistant HIV isolates, reduced phenotypic susceptibility to darunavir and tipranavir was rare. Generally, GISs predict susceptibility to darunavir substantially better than they predict susceptibility to tipranavir.
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Tissue culture drug resistance analysis of a novel HIV-1 protease inhibitor termed PL-100 in non-B HIV-1 subtypes.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
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PL-100 is a novel HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) that maintains activity against viruses that are resistant to other PIs. To further characterize this compound, we used it to select for drug resistance in tissue culture, using two non-B HIV-1 subtypes, viz. subtype C and a CRF01_AE recombinant virus. PL-100 selected for both minor and major PI resistance mutations along either of two distinct pathways. One of these involved the V82A and L90M resistance mutations while the other involved a mutation at position T80I, with other mutations being observed at positions M46I/L, I54M, K55R, L76F, P81S and I85V. The resistance patterns in both subtype C and CRF01_AE were similar and an accumulation of at least three mutations in the flap and active sites were required in each case for high-level resistance to occur, demonstrating that PL-100 has a high genetic barrier against the development of drug resistance.
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Factors affecting template usage in the development of K65R resistance in subtype C variants of HIV type-1.
Antivir. Chem. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
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We have shown that the K65R resistance mutation in HIV type-1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) is selected more rapidly in subtype C than subtype B HIV-1 in biochemical, cell culture and clinical studies. Template-usage experiments demonstrated that subtype C nucleotide coding sequences caused RT to preferentially pause, leading to K65R acquisition. This new study now further establishes the basis for differential occurrence of both K65R and thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) between subtypes.
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Development of an allele-specific PCR for detection of the K65R resistance mutation in patients infected with subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2009
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The selection of drug-resistant variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is an impediment to the efficiency of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. We have developed an allele-specific real-time PCR assay to explore the presence of K65R minority species among treated HIV-1 subtype B and C infections. Thirty HIV-1 subtype C- and 26 subtype B-infected patients lacking K65R as determined by conventional sequencing methods were studied, and viral minority species were found in four HIV-1 subtype C samples.
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Signature nucleotide polymorphisms at positions 64 and 65 in reverse transcriptase favor the selection of the K65R resistance mutation in HIV-1 subtype C.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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Recently, we described a novel nucleotide template-based mechanism that may be the basis for the facilitated acquisition of the K65R resistance mutation in subtype C versus subtype B human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In this article, we evaluated the effects of subtype C-specific silent polymorphisms in cell culture drug-selection experiments using nucleoside and nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. The K65R pathway was selected more frequently in a subtype B virus that contained subtype C nucleotide polymorphisms at both positions 64 and 65 than in a wild-type NL4-3 subtype B virus. This is the first demonstration of the significance of silent nucleotide polymorphisms in the development of drug resistance.
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Multidrug-resistant variants of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) can exist in cells as defective quasispecies and be rescued by superinfection with other defective HIV-1 variants.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2009
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A tissue culture cell line infected with multidrug-resistant (MDR) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) produced only noninfectious particles because of a lethal mutation in env. The defective MDR provirus was rescued by superinfection with either wild-type HIV-1 or a second replication-defective virus lethally mutated in capsid. Drug-resistance phenotyping revealed that the MDR viruses dominated if even single reverse-transcriptase inhibitors were present, reflecting linkage of the various drug resistance mutations on a single viral nucleic acid backbone. These results are most likely attributable to recombination during second rounds of infection and suggest that defective HIV-1 variants may nonetheless constitute part of the HIV-1 reservoir.
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombinant reverse transcriptase enzymes containing the G190A and Y181C resistance mutations remain sensitive to etravirine.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2009
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Etravirine (ETR) is a second-generation nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NNRTI) active against common human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug-resistant strains. This study was designed to determine the extent to which each of the Y181C or G190A mutations in RT might confer resistance to ETR and other members of the NNRTI family of drugs. Recombinant HIV-1 RT enzymes containing either the Y181C or the G190A mutation, or both mutations in tandem, were purified. Both RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase assays were performed in order to determine the extent to which each of these mutations might confer resistance in cell-free biochemical assays against each of ETR, efavirenz, and nevirapine. Both the biochemical and the cell-based phenotypic assays confirmed the susceptibility of G190A-containing enzymes and viruses to ETR. The results of this study indicate that the G190A mutation is not associated with resistance to ETR.
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Nucleoside and nucleotide analogs select in culture for different patterns of drug resistance in human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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Recent findings suggest bidirectional antagonisms between the K65R mutation and thymidine analogue mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected, treatment-experienced patients, yet little is known about HIV-2 in this regard. This study addressed the effects of innate polymorphisms in HIV-2 on emergent resistance to nucleoside/nucleotide analogues. Emergent drug resistance profiles in HIV-2 subtypes A (n = 3) and B (n = 1) were compared to those of HIV-1 subtypes B and C. Drug resistance was evaluated with cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and MT2 cells, using selective pressure with tenofovir (TFV), zidovudine (ZDV), stavudine (d4T), didanosine (ddI), abacavir (ABC), lamivudine (3TC), emtricitabine (FTC), or various dual-drug combinations. Resistance was evaluated using conventional and ultrasensitive sequencing approaches. In agreement with our previous findings, dual-drug combinations of TFV, ddI, ABC, d4T, ZDV, and 3TC preferentially selected for K65R in HIV-1 subtype C isolates. In HIV-1 subtype B, TFV-3TC and ZDV-3TC selected for M184I and D67N, respectively. In contrast, selections with all four HIV-2 cultures favored the development of M184I in dual-drug combinations that included either 3TC or FTC. Since HIV-2 cultures did not develop K65R, an ultrasensitive allele-specific real-time PCR assay was developed to distinguish the presence of 65R from wild-type K65 after 16 cycles with a discriminatory ability of 0.1% against a population of wild-type virus. These results underscore potential differences in emergent drug resistance pathways in HIV-1 and HIV-2 and show that polymorphisms may influence the development of the resistance pathways that are likely to emerge.
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Isolation of drug-resistant mutant HIV variants using tissue culture drug selection.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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The life cycle of HIV-1 can be affected in different manners by the various classes of antiviral agents. Genetic heterogeneity is a characteristic of this virus, which contributes significantly to the ability of the virus to generate mutations which overcome the efficacy of the drug therapy. The selection of drug resistant mutants in vitro can be readily accomplished by maintaining the virus in a state of sub-optimal growth, regulated by slowly increasing the amount of drug pressure applied. This technique is thought to mimic the consequences of drug therapy in patients. Therefore, in this way, novel compounds can be assessed for their selection profile in order to preview the likelihood of emergence of HIV-1 drug resistance in future clinical trials. In addition, combinations of drugs can be investigated in the same manner.
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The K65R mutation in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: genetic barriers, resistance profile and clinical implications.
HIV Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
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Resistance to antiviral therapy is the limiting factor in the successful management of HIV. In general, the K65R mutation is rarely selected (1.7-4%) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), abacavir (ABC), didanosine (ddI), and stavudine (d4T), as compared with the high incidence (>40%) of thymidine analog mutations associated with zidovudine and d4T. The high barrier to the development of K65R may reflect a combination of factors, including the high potency of K65R-selecting drugs, including recommended TDF/emtricitabine and ABC/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) combinations; the partial (low-intermediate level) profile of cross-resistance conferred by K65R to TDF, ABC and 3TC; the favorable viral fitness constraint imposed by K65R and the 3TC/emtricitabine-associated M184V mutations; the bidirectional antagonism between the K65R and thymidine analog mutation pathways; and unique RNA structural considerations in the region surrounding codon 65. Nevertheless, surprisingly high levels of treatment failures and K65R resistance may be associated with triple nucleoside analog regimens. The use of TDF + ABC, TDF + ddI and ABC + d4T in combination with 3TC or emtricitabine should be avoided. This selection of K65R may be reduced by the inclusion of zidovudine in two-four nucleoside reverse-transcriptase regimens. Clinical studies have demonstrated an increased frequency of K65R in association with suboptimal d4T and ddI regimens, as well as nevirapine and its resistance mutations Y181C and G190A. The potential for the development of the K65R mutation in subtype C is particularly problematic wherein a signature KKK nucleotide motif, at codons 64, 65 and 66 in reverse transcriptase, appear to lead to template pausing, facilitating the selection of K65R. Optimizing regimens may attenuate the emergence of K65R, leading to better long-term treatment management in different geographic settings. TDF-based regimens are the leading candidates for first- and second-line therapy, microbicides and chemoprophylaxis strategies.
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Apricitabine does not select additional drug resistance mutations in tissue culture in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants containing K65R, M184V, or M184V plus thymidine analogue mutations.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 containing the reverse transcriptase mutation M184V or K65R or mutations M41L, M184V, and T215Y did not accumulate additional resistance mutations in the reverse transcriptase when increasing amounts of apricitabine drug pressure were applied. The original mutations were maintained by the presence of apricitabine but were lost when cultured without drug pressure.
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Template usage is responsible for the preferential acquisition of the K65R reverse transcriptase mutation in subtype C variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2009
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We propose that a nucleotide template-based mechanism facilitates the acquisition of the K65R mutation in subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Different patterns of DNA synthesis were observed using DNA templates from viruses of subtype B or C origin. When subtype C reverse transcriptase (RT) was employed to synthesize DNA from subtype C DNA templates, preferential pausing was seen at the nucleotide position responsible for the AAG-to-AGG K65R mutation. This did not occur when the subtype B RT and template were used. Template factors can therefore increase the probability of K65R development in subtype C HIV-1.
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Effects of the K65R and K65R/M184V reverse transcriptase mutations in subtype C HIV on enzyme function and drug resistance.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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We investigated the effects of mutations K65R and K65R plus M184V on enzymatic function and mechanisms of drug resistance in subtype C reverse transcriptase (RT).
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Detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 M184V and K103N minority variants in patients with primary HIV infection.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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We used an allele-specific real-time PCR assay to explore the presence of K103N and M184V minority species among primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and their potential influence in HIV transmission. Thirty randomly chosen antiretroviral drug-naive patients lacking both the K103N and the M184V mutations as determined by conventional sequencing methods were studied, and K103N and M184V viral minority species were found in three (10%) and four (11%) patients, respectively.
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Detectable signals of episodic risk effects on acute HIV transmission: strategies for analyzing transmission systems using genetic data.
Epidemics
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Episodic high-risk sexual behavior is common and can have a profound effect on HIV transmission. In a model of HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM), changing the frequency, duration and contact rates of high-risk episodes can take endemic prevalence from zero to 50% and more than double transmissions during acute HIV infection (AHI). Undirected test and treat could be inefficient in the presence of strong episodic risk effects. Partner services approaches that use a variety of control options will be likely to have better effects under these conditions, but the question remains: What data will reveal if a population is experiencing episodic risk effects? HIV sequence data from Montreal reveals genetic clusters whose size distribution stabilizes over time and reflects the size distribution of acute infection outbreaks (AIOs). Surveillance provides complementary behavioral data. In order to use both types of data efficiently, it is essential to examine aspects of models that affect both the episodic risk effects and the shape of transmission trees. As a demonstration, we use a deterministic compartmental model of episodic risk to explore the determinants of the fraction of transmissions during acute HIV infection (AHI) at the endemic equilibrium. We use a corresponding individual-based model to observe AIO size distributions and patterns of transmission within AIO. Episodic risk parameters determining whether AHI transmission trees had longer chains, more clustered transmissions from single individuals, or different mixes of these were explored. Encouragingly for parameter estimation, AIO size distributions reflected the frequency of transmissions from acute infection across divergent parameter sets. Our results show that episodic risk dynamics influence both the size and duration of acute infection outbreaks, thus providing a possible link between genetic cluster size distributions and episodic risk dynamics.
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In vitro and structural evaluation of PL-100 as a potential second-generation HIV-1 protease inhibitor.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
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HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) are key components of HIV therapy. PL-100 is a novel lysine sulphonamide that demonstrates potent antiviral activity against multiresistant HIV-1 strains as well as a higher genetic barrier for development of resistance mutations compared with first-generation PIs. In the present study, we compared the antiviral activity of PL-100 against HIV-1 subtype B with that of darunavir.
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The Impact of HIV Genetic Polymorphisms and Subtype Differences on the Occurrence of Resistance to Antiretroviral Drugs.
Mol Biol Int
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The vast majority of reports on drug resistance deal with subtype B infections in developed countries, and this is largely due to historical delays in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on a worldwide basis. This notwithstanding the concept that naturally occurring polymorphisms among different non-B subtypes can affect HIV-1 susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) is supported by both enzymatic and virological data. These findings suggest that such polymorphisms can affect both the magnitude of resistance conferred by some major mutations as well as the propensity to acquire certain resistance mutations, even though such differences are sometimes difficult to demonstrate in phenotypic assays. It is mandatory that tools are optimized to assure accurate measurements of drug susceptibility in non-B subtypes and to recognize that each subtype may have a distinct resistance profile and that differences in resistance pathways may also impact on cross-resistance and the choice of regimens to be used in second-line therapy. Although responsiveness to first-line therapy should not theoretically be affected by considerations of viral subtype and drug resistance, well-designed long-term longitudinal studies involving patients infected by viruses of different subtypes should be carried out.
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Subunit-selective mutational analysis and tissue culture evaluations of the interactions of the E138K and M184I mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
J. Virol.
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The emergence of HIV-1 drug resistance remains a major obstacle in antiviral therapy. M184I/V and E138K are signature mutations of clinical relevance in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) for the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) lamivudine (3TC) and emtricitabine (FTC) and the second-generation (new) nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) rilpivirine (RPV), respectively, and the E138K mutation has also been shown to be selected by etravirine in cell culture. The E138K mutation was recently shown to compensate for the low enzyme processivity and viral fitness associated with the M184I/V mutations through enhanced deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) usage, while the M184I/V mutations compensated for defects in polymerization rates associated with the E138K mutations under conditions of high dNTP concentrations. The M184I mutation was also shown to enhance resistance to RPV and ETR when present together with the E138K mutation. These mutual compensatory effects might also enhance transmission rates of viruses containing these two mutations. Therefore, we performed tissue culture studies to investigate the evolutionary dynamics of these viruses. Through experiments in which E138K-containing viruses were selected with 3TC-FTC and in which M184I/V viruses were selected with ETR, we demonstrated that ETR was able to select for the E138K mutation in viruses containing the M184I/V mutations and that the M184I/V mutations consistently emerged when E138K viruses were selected with 3TC-FTC. We also performed biochemical subunit-selective mutational analyses to investigate the impact of the E138K mutation on RT function and interactions with the M184I mutation. We now show that the E138K mutation decreased rates of polymerization, impaired RNase H activity, and conferred ETR resistance through the p51 subunit of RT, while an enhancement of dNTP usage as a result of the simultaneous presence of both mutations E138K and M184I occurred via both subunits.
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The role of polymorphisms at position 89 in the HIV-1 protease gene in the development of drug resistance to HIV-1 protease inhibitors.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
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Relatively little is known about the development of resistance to protease inhibitors (PIs) in non-B subtypes. In subtype B viruses, L89 is commonly found at position 89 in the HIV protease (PR) gene, whereas M89 is commonly observed as a polymorphism in other subtypes. We compared the frequencies of substitutions at position 89 in PR in tissue culture selections and in clinical databases of PI-naive and PI-experienced populations.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.