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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Molecular analysis of human metapneumovirus detected in patients with lower respiratory tract infection in upper egypt.
Int J Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Introduction. Since 2001, when Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was isolated in the Netherlands, the virus has been detected in several continents. Although reports have confirmed the prevalence of HMPV worldwide, data from Egypt remain limited. HMPV plays an important role in respiratory tract infections in individuals of all ages particularly in children. This study was aimed at estimating the prevalence of HMPV in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory infection in Upper Egypt and characterizing the circulating Egyptian HMPV strains for the first time. Materials and Methods. From 2005 to 2008, respiratory samples from 520 patients were analyzed for the presence of HMPV by real-time RT-PCR. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses were performed on partial fusion gene sequences of HMPV-positive patients. Results. HMPV-positive patients were detected in 2007-2008. The overall infection rate was 4%, while 57% of the patients were children. Sequence analysis demonstrated circulation of subgroup B viruses with predominance of lineage B2. Nucleotide sequence identity within lineage B1 was 98.8%-99.7% and higher than that in lineage B2 (94.3%-100%). Three new amino acid substitutions (T223N, R229K, and D280N) of lineage B2 were observed. Conclusion. HMPV is a major viral pathogen in the Egyptian population especially in children. During 2007-2008, predominantly HMPV B2 circulated in Upper Egypt.
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Quantitative influenza follow-up testing (QIFT)--a novel biomarker for the monitoring of disease activity at the point-of-care.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Influenza infections induce considerable disease burden in young children. Biomarkers for the monitoring of disease activity at the point-of-care (POC) are currently lacking. Recent methodologies for fluorescence-based rapid testing have been developed to provide improved sensitivities with the initial diagnosis. The present study aims to explore the utility of second-generation rapid testing during longitudinal follow-up of influenza patients (Rapid Influenza Follow-up Testing?=?RIFT). Signal/control fluorescent readouts (Quantitative Influenza Follow-up Testing?=?QIFT) are evaluated as a potential biomarker for the monitoring of disease activity at the POC.
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Human metapneumovirus: insights from a ten-year molecular and epidemiological analysis in Germany.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a cause of respiratory tract illness at all ages. In this study the epidemiological and molecular diversity among patients of different ages was investigated. Between 2000-2001 and 2009-2010, HMPV was detected in 3% (138/4,549) of samples from outpatients with influenza-like illness with a new, sensitive real-time RT-PCR assay. Several hundred (797) clinical specimens from hospitalized children below the age of 4 years with acute respiratory illness were investigated and HMPV was detected in 11.9% of them. Investigation of outpatients revealed that HMPV infections occurred in individuals of all ages but were most prevalent in children (0-4 years) and the elderly (>60 years). The most present clinical features of HMPV infections were cough, bronchitis, fever/shivers and pneumonia. About two thirds of HMPV-positive samples were detected in February and March throughout the study period. Molecular characterization of HMPV revealed a complex cyclic pattern of group dominance where HMPV subgroup A and B viruses predominated in general for three consecutive seasons. German HMPV represented all genetic lineages including A1, A2, B1, B2, sub-clusters A2a and A2b. For Germany, not only time-dependent circulation of lineages and sub-clusters was observed but also co-circulation of two or three predominant lineages. Two newly emerging amino acid substitutions (positions 223 and 280) of lineage B2 were detected in seven German HMPV sequences. Our study gives new insights into the molecular epidemiology of HMPV in in- and outpatients over a time period of 10 years for the first time. It is one of only few long-term surveillance studies in Europe, and allows comparative molecular analyses of HMPV circulating worldwide.
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The novel human influenza A(H7N9) virus is naturally adapted to efficient growth in human lung tissue.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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A novel influenza A virus (IAV) of the H7N9 subtype has been isolated from severely diseased patients with pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome and, apparently, from healthy poultry in March 2013 in Eastern China. We evaluated replication, tropism, and cytokine induction of the A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) virus isolated from a fatal human infection and two low-pathogenic avian H7 subtype viruses in a human lung organ culture system mimicking infection of the lower respiratory tract. The A(H7N9) patient isolate replicated similarly well as a seasonal IAV in explanted human lung tissue, whereas avian H7 subtype viruses propagated poorly. Interestingly, the avian H7 strains provoked a strong antiviral type I interferon (IFN-I) response, whereas the A(H7N9) virus induced only low IFN levels. Nevertheless, all viruses analyzed were detected predominantly in type II pneumocytes, indicating that the A(H7N9) virus does not differ in its cellular tropism from other avian or human influenza viruses. Tissue culture-based studies suggested that the low induction of the IFN-? promoter correlated with an efficient suppression by the viral NS1 protein. These findings demonstrate that the zoonotic A(H7N9) virus is unusually well adapted to efficient propagation in human alveolar tissue, which most likely contributes to the severity of lower respiratory tract disease seen in many patients.
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Differential influenza H1N1-specific humoral and cellular response kinetics in kidney transplant patients.
Med. Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Renal transplant recipients (RTR) are considered at high risk for influenza-associated complications due to immunosuppression. The efficacy of standard influenza vaccination in RTRs is unclear. Hence, we evaluated activation of the adaptive immunity by the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 (A(H1N1)pdm09) vaccine in RTRs as compared to healthy controls. To determine cross-reactivity and/or bystander activation, seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine and tetanus/diphteria toxoid (TT/DT) vaccine-specific T cells along with allospecific T cells were quantified before and after A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination. Vaccination-induced alloimmunity was additionally determined by quantifying serum creatinine and proinflammatory protein IP-10. Contrary to healthy controls, RTRs required a booster vaccination to achieve seroconversion (13.3 % day 21; 90 % day 90). In contrast to humoral immunity, sufficient A(H1N1)pdm09-specific T-cell responses were mounted in RTRs already after the first immunization with a magnitude comparable with healthy controls. Interestingly, vaccination simultaneously boosted T cells reacting to seasonal flu but not to TT/DT, suggesting cross-activation. No alloimmune effects were recorded. In conclusion, protective antibody responses required booster vaccination. However, sufficient cellular immunity is established already after the first vaccination, demonstrating differential kinetics of humoral and cellular immunity.
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Towards a personalised approach to managing influenza infections in infants and children - food for thought and a note on oseltamivir.
Infect Disord Drug Targets
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Acute respiratory infections represent common diseases in childhood and a challenge to infection control, public heath, and the clinical management of patients and their families. Children are avid spreaders of respiratory viruses, and seasonal outbreaks of influenza create additional disease burden and healthcare cost. Infants under the age of two and children with chronic conditions are at high risk. The absence of pre-defined risk factors however, does not protect from serious disease. Immunisation rates remain low, and physical interventions are of limited value in young children. Children with influenza may be contagious prior to the onset of symptoms, and school closures have been shown to have a temporary effect at most. The timely detection of influenza in at-risk patients is important to prevent hospital-based transmission and influenza-associated morbidity and mortality. Guidelines issued by professional associations and public health agencies need to be translated into everyday clinical practice. Antiviral therapy should be initiated early and monitored closely, including virologic and clinical outcomes. The duration of treatment and the decision to readmit children to schools and kindergartens should be adjusted to the individual child patient using evidence-based clinical and virologic criteria. This article presents lessons learnt from a quality management program for infants and children with influenza-like illness at the Charite Department of Paediatrics in collaboration with the National Reference Centre for Influenza at the Robert Koch Institute, in Berlin, Germany. The Charité Influenza-Like Disease (ChILD) Cohort was established during the 2009 influenza pandemic and encompasses nearly 4000 disease episodes to date.
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Predominance of HA-222D/G polymorphism in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses associated with fatal and severe outcomes recently circulating in Germany.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses cause sporadically very severe disease including fatal clinical outcomes associated with pneumonia, viremia and myocarditis. A mutation characterized by the substitution of aspartic acid (wild-type) to glycine at position 222 within the haemagglutinin gene (HA-D222G) was recorded during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in Germany and other countries with significant frequency in fatal and severe cases. Additionally, A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses exhibiting the polymorphism HA-222D/G/N were detected both in the respiratory tract and in blood. Specimens from mild, fatal and severe cases were collected to study the heterogeneity of HA-222 in A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses circulating in Germany between 2009 and 2011. In order to enable rapid and large scale analysis we designed a pyrosequencing (PSQ) assay. In 2009/2010, the 222D wild-type of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses predominated in fatal and severe outcomes. Moreover, co-circulating virus mutants exhibiting a D222G or D222E substitution (8/6%) as well as HA-222 quasispecies were identified (10%). Both the 222D/G and the 222D/G/N/V/Y polymorphisms were confirmed by TA cloning. PSQ analyses of viruses associated with mild outcomes revealed mainly the wild-type 222D and no D222G change in both seasons. However, an increase of variants with 222D/G polymorphism (60%) was characteristic for A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses causing fatal and severe cases in the season 2010/2011. Pure 222G viruses were not observed. Our results support the hypothesis that the D222G change may result from adaptation of viral receptor specificity to the lower respiratory tract. This could explain why transmission of the 222G variant is less frequent among humans. Thus, amino acid changes at HA position 222 may be the result of viral intra-host evolution leading to the generation of variants with an altered viral tropism.
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A large outbreak of influenza B-associated benign acute childhood myositis in Germany, 2007/2008.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a rare syndrome associated with various viral infections. Bilateral calve pain may lead to inability to walk. During winter 2007/2008, we investigated a nationwide outbreak of influenza-associated BACM (IA-BACM) to identify etiologic (sub)type, describe the course of disease, and explore how well the syndrome is known among physicians.
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Immune response to an adjuvanted influenza A H1N1 vaccine (Pandemrix(®)) in renal transplant recipients.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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In the course of the influenza A H1N1 pandemic, transplanted patients were recommended to receive vaccination. In the present study, we evaluated the immune response to an adjuvanted influenza A H1N1 vaccine (Pandemrix®) in renal allograft recipients.
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Effectiveness of the AS03-adjuvanted vaccine against pandemic influenza virus A/(H1N1) 2009--a comparison of two methods; Germany, 2009/10.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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During the autumn wave of the pandemic influenza virus A/(H1N1) 2009 (pIV) the German population was offered an AS03-adjuvanted vaccine. The authors compared results of two methods calculating the effectiveness of the vaccine (VE). The test-negative case-control method used data from virologic surveillance including influenza-positive and negative patients. An innovative case-series methodology explored data from all nationally reported laboratory-confirmed influenza cases. The proportion of reported cases occurring in vaccinees during an assumed unprotected phase after vaccination was compared with that occurring in vaccinees during their assumed protected phase. The test-negative case-control method included 1,749 pIV cases and 2,087 influenza test-negative individuals of whom 6 (0.3%) and 36 (1.7%), respectively, were vaccinated. The case series method included data from 73,280 cases. VE in the two methods was 79% (95% confidence interval (CI)?=?35-93%; P = 0.007) and 87% (95% CI = 78-92%; P<0.001) for individuals less than 14 years of age and 70% (95% CI = -45%-94%, P = 0.13) and 74% (95% CI = 64-82%; P<0.001) for individuals above the age of 14. Both methods yielded similar VE in both age groups; and VE for the younger age group seemed to be higher.
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Generation and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus A, subtype H5N1.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 in 1997 has since resulted in large outbreaks in poultry and in transmission from poultry to humans, mostly in southeast Asia, but also in several European countries. Effective diagnosis and control measures are essential for the management of HPAIV infections. To develop a rapid diagnostic test, a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against influenza virus A subtype H5 was generated. Eleven mAbs were produced and characterised according to their reactivity by indirect and sandwich ELISA and western blotting against different H5 subtypes representing past and viruses currently circulating. Ten out of 11 mAbs reacted strongly with the haemagglutinin (HA) protein of H5 viruses, whereas one mAb reacted with the M1 protein. Targeted HA protein epitopes seemed to be conformational. One hybridoma clone binds to a linear epitope of the M1 protein. One specific mAb reacts with HPAIV H5 in the immunofluorescence test, and two antibodies neutralised H5 viruses. On the basis of the results, the set of seven mAbs is appropriate for developing diagnostic tests. With the generated mAbs, a sandwich ELISA was developed recognising all H5N1 strains tested but no other influenza viruses. With this ELISA, as little as 0.005 HA units or 0.1 ng/ml H5N1 was detected, surpassing other ELISA tests. The novel reagents have the potential to improve significantly available rapid antigen detection systems.
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Antibody response after a single dose of an AS03-adjuvanted split-virion influenza A (H1N1) vaccine in heart transplant recipients.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Influenza A (H1N1) has emerged as a considerable threat for recipients of organ transplants. Vaccination against the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus has generally been advocated. There is limited experience with AS03-adjuvanted A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccines in immunosuppressed patients.
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Prevalence of antibodies to 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in German adult population in pre- and post-pandemic period.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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In order to detect levels of pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies in different age groups and to measure age-specific infection rates of the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic in Germany, we conducted a seroprevalence study based on samples from an ongoing nationwide representative health survey.
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Avian influenza virus risk assessment in falconry.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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There is a continuing threat of human infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV). In this regard falconers might be a potential risk group because they have close contact to their hunting birds (raptors such as falcons and hawks) as well as their avian prey such as gulls and ducks. Both (hunting birds and prey birds) seem to be highly susceptible to some AIV strains, especially H5N1. We therefore conducted a field study to investigate AIV infections in falconers, their falconry birds as well as prey birds.
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Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) outbreak among 15 school-aged HIV-1-infected children.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2010
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Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are considered to be at increased risk for 2009 H1N1 influenza-related complications. We performed an observational study after an outbreak of 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection among a group of 15 HIV-1-infected school-aged children in Germany in October 2009. Clinical course, kinetics of viral shedding, and antibody response among children with CD4 cell counts >350 cells/?L and 2009 H1N1 influenza virus coinfection did not appear to differ from that among healthy children. Oseltamivir shortened the duration of viral shedding.
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Shedding and transmission of novel influenza virus A/H1N1 infection in households--Germany, 2009.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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Essential epidemiologic and virologic parameters must be measured to provide evidence for policy/public health recommendations and mathematical modeling concerning novel influenza A/H1N1 virus (NIV) infections. Therefore, from April through August of 2009, the authors collected nasopharyngeal specimens and information on antiviral medication and symptoms from households with NIV infection on a daily basis in Germany. Specimens were analyzed quantitatively by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In 36 households with 83 household contacts, 15 household contacts became laboratory-confirmed secondary cases of NIV. Among 47 contacts without antiviral prophylaxis, 12 became cases (secondary attack rate of 26%), and 1 (8%) of these was asymptomatic. The mean and median serial interval were 2.6 and 3 days, respectively (range: 1-3 days). On average, the authors detected viral RNA copies for 6.6 illness days (treated in time = 5.7 days, not treated in time = 7.1 days; P = 0.06), but they estimated that most patients cease to excrete viable virus by the fifth illness day. Shedding profiles were consistent with the number and severity of symptoms. Compared with other nasopharyngeal specimen types, nasal wash was the most sensitive. These results support the notion that epidemiologic and virologic characteristics of NIV are in many aspects similar to those of seasonal influenza.
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Genotypic and phenotypic resistance of pandemic A/H1N1 influenza viruses circulating in Germany.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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In response to the rapid global spread of an antigenically novel A/H1N1 influenza virus in 2009, the World Heath Organization (WHO) recommended surveillance and monitoring for antiviral resistance of influenza viruses. We designed and evaluated pyrosequencing (PSQ)-based genotypic assays for high-throughput analysis of the susceptibility of pandemic A/H1N1 influenza viruses to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors. A total of 1570 samples circulating in Germany between April 2009 and April 2010 were tested for determination of molecular markers of resistance to the NA inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir, and 635 of them were evaluated by phenotypic fluorescence-based assay with MUNANA substrate. Eight (0.5%) viruses were resistant to oseltamivir due to the H274Y NA substitution (N2 numbering). Six of these oseltamivir-resistant cases were treatment-related; four of them were selected in immunocompromised patients, two in patients suffered from chronic diseases. The two remaining oseltamivir-resistant viruses seem to have evolved in the absence of drug treatment and were isolated from immunocompetent healthy patients. All tested A/H1N1 pandemic viruses were sensitive to zanamivir. In addition, analysis of 1011 pandemic A/H1N1 virus samples by a PSQ-based assay according to the WHO protocol revealed the presence of mutation S31N in the M2 protein that conferred resistance to M2 ion channel inhibitors. Our data demonstrate a low incidence of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic A/H1N1 influenza variants isolated under drug selection pressure as well as community-acquired or naturally evolving viruses.
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Diagnostic approach for the differentiation of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1)v virus from recent human influenza viruses by real-time PCR.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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The current spread of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)v virus necessitates an intensified surveillance of influenza virus infections worldwide. So far, in many laboratories routine diagnostics were limited to generic influenza virus detection only. To provide interested laboratories with real-time PCR assays for type and subtype identification, we present a bundle of PCR assays with which any human influenza A and B virus can be easily identified, including assays for the detection of the pandemic A(H1N1)v virus.
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Differentiation of influenza B virus lineages Yamagata and Victoria by real-time PCR.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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Since the 1970s, influenza B viruses have diverged into two antigenically distinct virus lineages called the Yamagata and Victoria lineages. We present the first real-time PCR assay for virus lineage differentiation to supplement classical antigenic analyses. The assay was successfully applied to 310 primary samples collected in Germany from 2007 to 2009.
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Seasonal influenza risk in hospital healthcare workers is more strongly associated with household than occupational exposures: results from a prospective cohort study in Berlin, Germany, 2006/07.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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Influenza immunisation for healthcare workers is encouraged to protect their often vulnerable patients but also due to a perceived higher risk for influenza. We aimed to compare the risk of influenza infection in healthcare workers in acute hospital care with that in non-healthcare workers over the same season.
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Human adenoviruses in respiratory infections: sequencing of the hexon hypervariable region reveals high sequence variability.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
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In respiratory infections, human adenoviruses (hAdV) of species B1 and C are frequently detected, but severe or even fatal disease outbreaks are predominantly caused by only few serotypes. The molecular typing of hAdV hexon sequences can help to speed up the discrimination of serotypes, thus improving on-time epidemiological examinations and patient care.
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Genetic variability of group A human respiratory syncytial virus strains circulating in Germany from 1998 to 2007.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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The variability between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) strains is one of the features of RSV infections that might contribute to the ability of the virus to infect people repeatedly and cause yearly outbreaks. To study the molecular epidemiology of RSV, more than 1,400 RSV isolates from human nasopharyngeal aspirates or nasal or throat swabs from patients with respiratory illness were identified and differentiated by TaqMan reverse transcription-PCR into groups A and B. RSV group A was dominant in seven out of nine epidemic seasons. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RSV group A genotypes GA2 and GA5 circulated from 1998 to 2007. Genotype GA7 was present in only two seasons (1999 to 2000 and 2002 to 2003). Comparison of the synonymous mutation/nonsynonymous mutation ratios showed greater evidence for selection pressure for genotype GA2 (1.18) than for GA5 (4.34). Partial protein sequences were predicted to encode G proteins of 298 amino acids in length and in a few cases of G proteins of 297 amino acids in length. Amino acid analysis also revealed genotype-specific amino acid substitutions: two substitutions for genotype GA2, seven for GA5, and three for GA7. Two to four putative, genotype-specific N-linked glycosylation sites were determined. Predicted O-glycosylation sites included 22 to 34 residues. This study provides for the first time data on the circulation pattern of RSV group A genotypes and their molecular characterization in Germany during nine consecutive epidemic seasons.
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Oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus A (H1N1), Europe, 2007-08 season.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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In Europe, the 2007-08 winter season was dominated by influenza virus A (H1N1) circulation through week 7, followed by influenza B virus from week 8 onward. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses A (H1N1) (ORVs) with H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase emerged independently of drug use. By country, the proportion of ORVs ranged from 0% to 68%, with the highest proportion in Norway. The average weighted prevalence of ORVs across Europe increased gradually over time, from near 0 in week 40 of 2007 to 56% in week 19 of 2008 (mean 20%). Neuraminidase genes of ORVs possessing the H275Y substitution formed a homogeneous subgroup closely related to, but distinguishable from, those of oseltamivir-sensitive influenza viruses A (H1N1). Minor variants of ORVs emerged independently, indicating multiclonal ORVs. Overall, the clinical effect of ORVs in Europe, measured by influenza-like illness or acute respiratory infection, was unremarkable and consistent with normal seasonal activity.
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Protective measures and H5N1-seroprevalence among personnel tasked with bird collection during an outbreak of avian influenza A/H5N1 in wild birds, Ruegen, Germany, 2006.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2009
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In Germany, the first outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 occurred among wild birds on the island of Ruegen between February and April 2006. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of recommended protective measures and to measure H5N1-seroprevalence among personnel tasked with bird collection.
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Comparison of shedding characteristics of seasonal influenza virus (sub)types and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09; Germany, 2007-2011.
PLoS ONE
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Influenza viral shedding studies provide fundamental information for preventive strategies and modelling exercises. We conducted a prospective household study to investigate viral shedding in seasonal and pandemic influenza between 2007 and 2011 in Berlin and Munich, Germany.
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Early detection of influenza A and B infection in infants and children using conventional and fluorescence-based rapid testing.
J. Clin. Virol.
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The appropriate management of infants and children with influenza depends on the accurate and timely diagnosis, ideally at the point of care (POC).
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Preventable and non-preventable risk factors for influenza transmission and hygiene behavior in German influenza households, pandemic season (H1N1) 2009/2010.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
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To date, little is known about the role of behavioral risk factors for influenza transmission as well as hygiene behavior in the household setting during the influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009. In a household-based study conducted during 2008/2009, we identified several behavioral risk factors for influenza transmission; 30% of index patients and 30% of household contacts reported increased hand cleaning frequency in the week after symptom onset of the index patient. We conducted another household-based study during the pandemic season 2009/2010.
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Prospective hospital-based case-control study to assess the effectiveness of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination and risk factors for hospitalization in 2009-2010 using matched hospital and test-negative controls.
BMC Infect. Dis.
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We performed a case-control study to estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE) for prevention of hospitalization due to pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) and to identify risk factors for pH1N1 and acute respiratory infection (ARI) in 10 hospitals in Berlin from December 2009 to April 2010.
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Virus load kinetics and resistance development during oseltamivir treatment in infants and children infected with Influenza A(H1N1) 2009 and Influenza B viruses.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
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Infants and small children are the most effective transmitters of influenza, while bearing a high risk of hospitalization and adverse disease outcomes. This study aims to investigate virus load kinetics and resistance development during oseltamivir therapy in infants and children infected with influenza A(H1N1) 2009 and influenza B viruses.
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Lessons from a one-year hospital-based surveillance of acute respiratory infections in Berlin- comparing case definitions to monitor influenza.
BMC Public Health
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Surveillance of severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) in sentinel hospitals is recommended to estimate the burden of severe influenza-cases. Therefore, we monitored patients admitted with respiratory infections (RI) in 9 Berlin hospitals from 7.12.2009 to 12.12.2010 according to different case definitions (CD) and determined the proportion of cases with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1). We compared the sensitivity and specificity of CD for capturing pandemic pH1N1 cases.
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The role of facemasks and hand hygiene in the prevention of influenza transmission in households: results from a cluster randomised trial; Berlin, Germany, 2009-2011.
BMC Infect. Dis.
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Previous controlled studies on the effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) - namely the use of facemasks and intensified hand hygiene - in preventing household transmission of influenza have not produced definitive results. We aimed to investigate efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of NPI in households with influenza index patients.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.