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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Do respiratory cycle-related EEG changes or arousals from sleep predict neurobehavioral deficits and response to adenotonsillectomy in children?
J Clin Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with hyperactive behavior, cognitive deficits, psychiatric morbidity, and sleepiness, but objective polysomnographic measures of OSA presence or severity among children scheduled for adenotonsillectomy have not explained why. To assess whether sleep fragmentation might explain neurobehavioral outcomes, we prospectively assessed the predictive value of standard arousals and also respiratory cycle-related EEG changes (RCREC), thought to reflect inspiratory microarousals.
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Predictors of memory performance among Taiwanese postmenopausal women with heart failure.
J. Card. Fail.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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There are no studies describing the nature of memory deficits among women with heart failure (HF).
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Neuropsychological factors and bariatric surgery: a review.
Curr Psychiatry Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Obesity has become a global epidemic with associated physical, psychological, and cognitive deficits that tax the healthcare system and result in a significant economic burden. These costs have necessitated treatment measures to reduce the incidence of obesity as well as comorbidities associated with obesity. We review the current literature in order to describe the pre-surgical psychological and cognitive characteristics of individuals undergoing bariatric surgery and the possible changes in these functions following surgery. We discuss the importance of a pre-surgical evaluation that adequately evaluates cognitive and emotional functioning and what this evaluation should entail. Finally, we discuss recent trends in the types of bariatric surgeries being performed and how these changes may influence subsequent physical, cognitive, and emotional health.
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Periodic leg movements during sleep in children scheduled for adenotonsillectomy: frequency, persistence, and impact.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and potential clinical impact of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), with or without arousals, as recorded incidentally from children before and after adenotonsillectomy (AT).
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Cognitive dysfunction in older adults hospitalized for acute heart failure.
J. Card. Fail.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Few studies have measured cognitive dysfunction in older adults during acute exacerbations of heart failure (HF), even though 25% of patients are readmitted within 30 days. The aims of this study were to examine cognitive dysfunction and acute HF symptoms in older adults hospitalized for HF and to evaluate the relationship between cognitive dysfunction and 30-day rehospitalization rates for acute HF.
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Effects of occupational exposure to chlorpyrifos on neuropsychological function: a prospective longitudinal study.
Neurotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase insecticide, occurs typically in settings where multiple agents are present (e.g., agriculture) and quantitative dose measures may be absent (e.g., pesticide application). Such exposures allow few opportunities to study potential neurobehavioral effects of CPF alone. We studied the relationship between CPF exposure and behavioral function among CPF manufacturing workers, which allowed identification, measurement, and estimation of exposure and important non-exposure variables that potentially could affect study findings.
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A randomized trial of adenotonsillectomy for childhood sleep apnea.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Adenotonsillectomy is commonly performed in children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, yet its usefulness in reducing symptoms and improving cognition, behavior, quality of life, and polysomnographic findings has not been rigorously evaluated. We hypothesized that, in children with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome without prolonged oxyhemoglobin desaturation, early adenotonsillectomy, as compared with watchful waiting with supportive care, would result in improved outcomes.
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Clinical utility of auditory memory testing in a heart failure population.
J Cardiovasc Nurs
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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The self-care regimen necessary in heart failure (HF) is notably complex. A complication to integrating new knowledge and behaviors is that impaired cognition has been frequently reported in patients with HF, which significantly impacts patients health, admission and mortality rates, and instrumental activities of daily living.
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Healthcare resource use among heart failure patients in a randomized pilot study of a cognitive training intervention.
Heart Lung
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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To compare healthcare resource use of patients with heart failure (HF) randomized to the cognitive training intervention and to the health education active control intervention in a randomized controlled pilot study.
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Assessing mild cognitive impairment with amyloid and dopamine terminal molecular imaging.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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We evaluated PET-based classification of neurodegenerative pathology in mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
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The Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial (CHAT): rationale, design, and challenges of a randomized controlled trial evaluating a standard surgical procedure in a pediatric population.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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Each year, over 500,000 adenotonsillectomies (AT), mostly for the treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are performed in the US in children under 15 years of age. No definitive study, however, has been yet conducted that has rigorously evaluated the effectiveness of AT for not only improving sleep disordered breathing, but also for improving clinically relevant outcomes, such as neurocognitive function, behavior, and quality of life. The Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial (CHAT) was designed to assess neuropsychological and health outcomes in children randomized to receive early AT (eAT) as compared to Watchful Waiting with Supportive Care (WWSC). Important secondary goals of the study are to evaluate outcomes in subgroups defined by obesity and race. This paper addresses key elements in the design and implementation of a controlled trial for a widely used "standard practice" surgical intervention in a pediatric population, that include establishment of standardized data collection procedures across sites for a wide variety of data types, establishment of equipoise, and approaches for minimizing unblinding of selected key personnel. The study framework that was established should provide a useful template for other pediatric controlled studies or other studies that evaluate surgical interventions.
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Nurse-Enhanced Memory Intervention in Heart Failure: the MEMOIR study.
J. Card. Fail.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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Many patients with heart failure (HF) have cognitive deficits, including memory loss.
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The impact of depression on dual tasking among patients with high fall risk.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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Depression predicts fall risk among older adults, and this relationship may be partially explained by depression-associated executive dysfunction, relevant to navigating demanding environments. This pilot study examined timed stepping accuracy under simple and complex dual-task conditions, using an instrumented walkway based on the Trail Making Test. Participants were balance-impaired older adults, either with (n = 8; major depressive disorder [MDD]) or without (n = 8; nondepressed [ND]) MDD. After accounting for comfortable gait speed and age, the MDD group was significantly slower than the ND group on the walkway with the highest cognitive demand and demonstrated greater dual-task cost, both of which were correlated with performance on traditional measures of executive functioning. No group differences were observed on the walkway with the least cognitive demand. Balance-impaired older adults with MDD demonstrate increased stepping accuracy time under cognitively demanding conditions, reflecting executive dysfunction and an additional contribution to increased fall risk.
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Transfer-of-learning effect with the tactual performance test using familiar and unfamiliar shapes with American, Lao, and Senegalese children.
Dev Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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The Tactual Performance Test (TPT) and a version of the TPT with unfamiliar geometric designs were presented to American, Lao, and Senegalese children. The nonstandard TPT was designed to evaluate the importance of familiarity of forms in improved performance between successive TPT learning trials. The nonstandard board was more difficult for all the groups, with poorer time-per-block performance across learning trials and poorer TPT memory measures. Irrespective, the transfer-of-learning (ToL) effect for the standard and nonstandard boards was consistent for all the cultural groups. ToL effect is not dependent on familiarity of the TPT forms and is consistent across cultures.
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Auditory memory decrements, without dissimulation, among patients with major depressive disorder.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Questions have been raised about whether poor performance on memory tasks by individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) might be the result of poor or variable effort or disease-related disruption of neural circuits supporting memory functions. The present study examined performance on a measure of task engagement and on an auditory memory task among 45 patients with MDD (M age = 47.82, SD = 19.55) relative to 32 healthy controls (HC; M age = 51.03, SD = 22.09). One-hundred percent of HC and MDD volunteers performed above the threshold for adequate effort on a formal measure of task engagement. The MDD subjects performed significantly more poorly than the HC subjects on an auditory learning and memory test. The present results suggest that auditory memory difficulties do occur among those with MDD and that decrements in performance in this group may be related to factors other than lack of effort.
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Cerebral glucose metabolic features of Parkinson disease and incident dementia: longitudinal study.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
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Longitudinal studies in nondemented Parkinson disease (PD) subjects offer an opportunity to study the earliest regional cerebral subcortical and cortical metabolic changes underlying incident dementia in this disorder.
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Assessment of mild dementia with amyloid and dopamine terminal positron emission tomography.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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We assessed the relationship between consensus clinical diagnostic classification and neurochemical positron emission tomography imaging of striatal vesicular monoamine transporters and cerebrocortical deposition of a?-amyloid in mild dementia. Seventy-five subjects with mild dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination score?18) underwent a conventional clinical evaluation followed by 11C-dihydrotetrabenazine positron emission tomography imaging of striatal vesicular monoamine transporters and 11C-Pittsburgh compound-B positron emission tomography imaging of cerebrocortical a?-amyloid deposition. Clinical classifications were assigned by consensus of an experienced clinician panel. Neuroimaging classifications were assigned as Alzheimers disease, frontotemporal dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies on the basis of the combined 11C-dihydrotetrabenazine and 11C-Pittsburgh compound-B results. Thirty-six subjects were classified clinically as having Alzheimers disease, 25 as having frontotemporal dementia and 14 as having dementia with Lewy bodies. Forty-seven subjects were classified by positron emission tomography neuroimaging as having Alzheimers disease, 15 as having dementia with Lewy bodies and 13 as having frontotemporal dementia. There was only moderate agreement between clinical consensus and neuroimaging classifications across all dementia subtypes, with discordant classifications in ?35% of subjects (Cohens ?=0.39). Discordant classifications were least frequent in clinical consensus Alzheimers disease (17%), followed by dementia with Lewy bodies (29%) and were most common in frontotemporal dementia (64%). Accurate clinical classification of mild neurodegenerative dementia is challenging. Though additional post-mortem correlations are required, positron emission tomography imaging likely distinguishes subgroups corresponding to neurochemically defined pathologies. Use of these positron emission tomography imaging methods may augment clinical classifications and allow selection of more uniform subject groups in disease-modifying therapeutic trials and other prospective research involving subjects in the early stages of dementia.
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Impact of chronic hypercortisolemia on affective processing.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2011
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Cushing syndrome (CS) is the classic condition of cortisol dysregulation, and cortisol dysregulation is the prototypic finding in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that subjects with active CS would show dysfunction in frontal and limbic structures relevant to affective networks, and also manifest poorer facial affect identification accuracy, a finding reported in MDD. Twenty-one patients with confirmed CS (20 ACTH-dependent and 1 ACTH-independent) were compared to 21 healthy control subjects. Identification of affective facial expressions (Facial Emotion Perception Test) was conducted in a 3 Tesla GE fMRI scanner using BOLD fMRI signal. The impact of disease (illness duration, current hormone elevation and degree of disruption of circadian rhythm), performance, and comorbid conditions secondary to hypercortisolemia were evaluated. CS patients made more errors in categorizing facial expressions and had less activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, a region important in emotion processing. CS patients showed higher activation in frontal, medial, and subcortical regions relative to controls. Two regions of elevated activation in CS, left middle frontal and lateral posterior/pulvinar areas, were positively correlated with accuracy in emotion identification in the CS group, reflecting compensatory recruitment. In addition, within the CS group, greater activation in left dorsal anterior cingulate was related to greater severity of hormone dysregulation. In conclusion, cortisol dysregulation in CS patients is associated with problems in accuracy of affective discrimination and altered activation of brain structures relevant to emotion perception, processing and regulation, similar to the performance decrements and brain regions shown to be dysfunctional in MDD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Anxiety and Depression.
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Incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, not dementia in the United States.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Estimates of incident dementia, and cognitive impairment, not dementia (CIND) (or the related mild cognitive impairment) are important for public health and clinical care policy. In this paper, we report US national incidence rates for dementia and CIND.
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Common variants at MS4A4/MS4A6E, CD2AP, CD33 and EPHA1 are associated with late-onset Alzheimers disease.
Adam C Naj, Gyungah Jun, Gary W Beecham, Li-San Wang, Badri Narayan Vardarajan, Jacqueline Buros, Paul J Gallins, Joseph D Buxbaum, Gail P Jarvik, Paul K Crane, Eric B Larson, Thomas D Bird, Bradley F Boeve, Neill R Graff-Radford, Philip L De Jager, Denis Evans, Julie A Schneider, Minerva M Carrasquillo, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Steven G Younkin, Carlos Cruchaga, John S K Kauwe, Petra Nowotny, Patricia Kramer, John Hardy, Matthew J Huentelman, Amanda J Myers, Michael M Barmada, F Yesim Demirci, Clinton T Baldwin, Robert C Green, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Peter St George-Hyslop, Steven E Arnold, Robert Barber, Thomas Beach, Eileen H Bigio, James D Bowen, Adam Boxer, James R Burke, Nigel J Cairns, Chris S Carlson, Regina M Carney, Steven L Carroll, Helena C Chui, David G Clark, Jason Corneveaux, Carl W Cotman, Jeffrey L Cummings, Charles DeCarli, Steven T DeKosky, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Malcolm Dick, Dennis W Dickson, William G Ellis, Kelley M Faber, Kenneth B Fallon, Martin R Farlow, Steven Ferris, Matthew P Frosch, Douglas R Galasko, Mary Ganguli, Marla Gearing, Daniel H Geschwind, Bernardino Ghetti, John R Gilbert, Sid Gilman, Bruno Giordani, Jonathan D Glass, John H Growdon, Ronald L Hamilton, Lindy E Harrell, Elizabeth Head, Lawrence S Honig, Christine M Hulette, Bradley T Hyman, Gregory A Jicha, Lee-Way Jin, Nancy Johnson, Jason Karlawish, Anna Karydas, Jeffrey A Kaye, Ronald Kim, Edward H Koo, Neil W Kowall, James J Lah, Allan I Levey, Andrew P Lieberman, Oscar L Lopez, Wendy J Mack, Daniel C Marson, Frank Martiniuk, Deborah C Mash, Eliezer Masliah, Wayne C McCormick, Susan M McCurry, Andrew N McDavid, Ann C McKee, Marsel Mesulam, Bruce L Miller, Carol A Miller, Joshua W Miller, Joseph E Parisi, Daniel P Perl, Elaine Peskind, Ronald C Petersen, Wayne W Poon, Joseph F Quinn, Ruchita A Rajbhandary, Murray Raskind, Barry Reisberg, John M Ringman, Erik D Roberson, Roger N Rosenberg, Mary Sano, Lon S Schneider, William Seeley, Michael L Shelanski, Michael A Slifer, Charles D Smith, Joshua A Sonnen, Salvatore Spina, Robert A Stern, Rudolph E Tanzi, John Q Trojanowski, Juan C Troncoso, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Harry V Vinters, Jean Paul Vonsattel, Sandra Weintraub, Kathleen A Welsh-Bohmer, Jennifer Williamson, Randall L Woltjer, Laura B Cantwell, Beth A Dombroski, Duane Beekly, Kathryn L Lunetta, Eden R Martin, M Ilyas Kamboh, Andrew J Saykin, Eric M Reiman, David A Bennett, John C Morris, Thomas J Montine, Alison M Goate, Deborah Blacker, Debby W Tsuang, Hakon Hakonarson, Walter A Kukull, Tatiana M Foroud, Jonathan L Haines, Richard Mayeux, Margaret A Pericak-Vance, Lindsay A Farrer, Gerard D Schellenberg.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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The Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC) performed a genome-wide association study of late-onset Alzheimer disease using a three-stage design consisting of a discovery stage (stage 1) and two replication stages (stages 2 and 3). Both joint analysis and meta-analysis approaches were used. We obtained genome-wide significant results at MS4A4A (rs4938933; stages 1 and 2, meta-analysis P (P(M)) = 1.7 × 10(-9), joint analysis P (P(J)) = 1.7 × 10(-9); stages 1, 2 and 3, P(M) = 8.2 × 10(-12)), CD2AP (rs9349407; stages 1, 2 and 3, P(M) = 8.6 × 10(-9)), EPHA1 (rs11767557; stages 1, 2 and 3, P(M) = 6.0 × 10(-10)) and CD33 (rs3865444; stages 1, 2 and 3, P(M) = 1.6 × 10(-9)). We also replicated previous associations at CR1 (rs6701713; P(M) = 4.6 × 10(-10), P(J) = 5.2 × 10(-11)), CLU (rs1532278; P(M) = 8.3 × 10(-8), P(J) = 1.9 × 10(-8)), BIN1 (rs7561528; P(M) = 4.0 × 10(-14), P(J) = 5.2 × 10(-14)) and PICALM (rs561655; P(M) = 7.0 × 10(-11), P(J) = 1.0 × 10(-10)), but not at EXOC3L2, to late-onset Alzheimers disease susceptibility.
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A pilot study of the neuropsychological benefits of computerized cognitive rehabilitation in Ugandan children with HIV.
Neuropsychology
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2010
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Because antiretroviral treatment (ART) fails to improve neurocognitive impairment in children with HIV, we completed a pilot study evaluating the feasibility and cognitive benefit of computerized cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CCRT) in Ugandan children with HIV.
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Comparing fludeoxyglucose F18-PET assessment of regional cerebral glucose metabolism and [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine-PET in evaluation of early dementia and mild cognitive impairment.
Arch. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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To compare assessment of regional cerebral metabolic changes with [(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ)-positron emission tomography (PET) measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (K(1)) and fludeoxyglucose F18 (FDG)-PET measurement of regional cerebral glucose uptake (CMR(glc)) in a clinically representative sample of subjects with mild dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
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Neuropsychological assessment of African children: evidence for a universal brain/behavior omnibus within a coconstructivist paradigm.
Prog. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2009
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Cross-cultural neuropsychology with African and American children provides evidence of consistent deficit patterns in attention, working memory, and learning in children at risk from disease affecting brain function by means of similar pathophysiologic mechanisms (e.g., cerebral malaria (CM) and sickle-cell disease (SCD); HIV in African and American children). These brain-behavior disease processes are also modified in a consistent manner cross-culturally by quality of developmental milieu and caregiving. We then present findings from the pioneering use of computerized cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CCRT) with Ugandan children surviving CM and with HIV. This neuropsychological evidence that CCRT enhances positive brain plasticity in a consistent manner across cultures supports the "coconstructive" paradigm (Li, 2003), since plasticity across the life span is the hallmark of this approach. Coconstructivism is a holistic multi-dimensional approach that emphasizes reciprocal biocultural influences across the life span. It also emphasizes the reciprocal interaction of culture and the genome in shaping brain/mind at multiple levels: neurobiological, cognitively, behavioral, and sociocultural (Li, 2003). Cross-cultural neuropsychology in healthy and diseased brains, brain imaging technologies, and genomic research can triangulate the manner in which a universal brain/behavior omnibus drives plasticity across the life span. As such, the further scientific characterization of the brain/behavior omnibus can provide the vital lynchpin between biology and culture in Lis coconstructive paradigm, revolutionizing our understanding of intelligence and culture.
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Immediate neuropsychological and behavioral benefits of computerized cognitive rehabilitation in Ugandan pediatric cerebral malaria survivors.
J Dev Behav Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
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Our earlier studies on Ugandan children surviving cerebral malaria showed cognitive deficits mainly in attention and memory. We now present the first study in sub-Saharan Africa to investigate the feasibility and potential benefits of computerized cognitive rehabilitation training on neuropsychological and behavioral functioning of children surviving cerebral malaria.
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Reliability of the Luganda version of the Child Behaviour Checklist in measuring behavioural problems after cerebral malaria.
Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2009
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No measure of childhood behaviour has been validated in Uganda despite the documented risks to behaviour. Cerebral malaria in children poses a great risk to their behaviour, however behavioural outcomes after cerebral malaria have not been described in children. This study examined the reliability of the Luganda version of the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and described the behavioural outcomes of cerebral malaria in Ugandan children.
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Neuropsychiatric symptoms and executive functioning in patients with mild cognitive impairment: relationship to caregiver burden.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
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Caregivers of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) need similar levels of support services as Alzheimers disease (AD) caregivers, but it is unclear if this translates to increased caregiver burden.
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Prevalence of cognitive impairment in older adults with heart failure.
J Am Geriatr Soc
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To determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment in older adults with heart failure (HF).
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Validity of a brief computerized cognitive screening test in dementia.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol
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While preliminary evidence supports the criterion validity of the CogState computerized brief battery in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD), definitive validation studies examining a wider range of dementia-related disorders relative to conventional neuropsychological techniques are necessary.
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Determinants of subjective memory complaints in community-dwelling adults with mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury.
Brain Inj
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This study sought to determine to what extent chronic stress, depression and neurobehavioural consequences explained post-TBI subjective memory complaints (SMC).
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Fall risk-relevant functional mobility outcomes in dementia following dyadic tai chi exercise.
West J Nurs Res
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Whether persons with dementia benefit from fall prevention exercise is unclear. Applying the Positive Emotion-Motivated Tai Chi protocol, preliminary findings concerning adherence and effects of a dyadic Tai Chi exercise program on persons with Alzheimers disease (AD) are reported. Using pre/posttest design, 22 community-dwelling AD-caregiver dyads participated in the program. Fall-risk-relevant functional mobility was measured using Unipedal Stance Time (UST) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) tests. Results showed that 19/22 (86.4%) AD patients completed the 16-week program and final assessment; 16/19 dyads (84.2%) completed the prescribed home program as reported by caregivers. UST adjusted mean improved from 4.0 to 5.1 (Week 4, p < .05) and 5.6 (Week 16, p < .05); TUG improved from 13.2 to 11.6 (Week 4, p < .05) and 11.6 (Week 16, p > .05) post intervention. Retaining dementia patients in an exercise intervention remains challenging. The dyadic Tai Chi approach appears to succeed in keeping AD-caregiver dyads exercising and safe.
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Esophageal pressures, polysomnography, and neurobehavioral outcomes of adenotonsillectomy in children.
Chest
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Esophageal pressure monitoring during polysomnography in children offers a gold-standard, “preferred” assessment for work of breathing, but is not commonly used in part because prospective data on incremental clinical utility are scarce. We compared a standard pediatric apnea/hypopnea index to quantitative esophageal pressures as predictors of apnea-related neurobehavioral morbidity and treatment response.
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Changes in neuropsychological and behavioral functioning in children with and without obstructive sleep apnea following Tonsillectomy.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc
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The most common treatment for sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is adenotonsillectomy (AT). Following AT, SDB resolves in most cases, and gains in cognitive and behavior scores are consistently reported, although persistent neuropsychological deficits or further declines also have been noted. This study presents results of the comprehensive 1-year follow-up neuropsychological examinations for children in the Washtenaw County Adenotonsillectomy Cohort I (95% return rate). After adjusting for normal developmental and practice-effect related changes in control children, significant improvements 1 year following AT were noted in polysomnography and sleepiness, as well as parental reports of behavior, although cognitive outcomes were mixed. Children undergoing AT with and without polysomnography-confirmed obstructive sleep apnea improved across a range of academic achievement measures, a measure of delayed visual recall, short-term attention/working memory, and executive functioning, along with parental ratings of behavior. On the other hand, measures of verbal abstraction ability, arithmetic calculations, visual and verbal learning, verbal delayed recall, sustained attention, and another measure of visual delayed recall demonstrated declines in ability, while other measures did not improve over time. These findings call into question the expectation that AT resolves most or all behavioral and cognitive difficulties in children with clinical, office-based diagnoses of SDB.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.