JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The genomic substrate for adaptive radiation in African cichlid fish.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cichlid fishes are famous for large, diverse and replicated adaptive radiations in the Great Lakes of East Africa. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying cichlid phenotypic diversity, we sequenced the genomes and transcriptomes of five lineages of African cichlids: the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), an ancestral lineage with low diversity; and four members of the East African lineage: Neolamprologus brichardi/pulcher (older radiation, Lake Tanganyika), Metriaclima zebra (recent radiation, Lake Malawi), Pundamilia nyererei (very recent radiation, Lake Victoria), and Astatotilapia burtoni (riverine species around Lake Tanganyika). We found an excess of gene duplications in the East African lineage compared to tilapia and other teleosts, an abundance of non-coding element divergence, accelerated coding sequence evolution, expression divergence associated with transposable element insertions, and regulation by novel microRNAs. In addition, we analysed sequence data from sixty individuals representing six closely related species from Lake Victoria, and show genome-wide diversifying selection on coding and regulatory variants, some of which were recruited from ancient polymorphisms. We conclude that a number of molecular mechanisms shaped East African cichlid genomes, and that amassing of standing variation during periods of relaxed purifying selection may have been important in facilitating subsequent evolutionary diversification.
Related JoVE Video
Nanoconfined ?-sheets mechanically reinforce the supra-biomolecular network of robust squid Sucker Ring Teeth.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The predatory efficiency of squid and cuttlefish (superorder Decapodiformes) is enhanced by robust Sucker Ring Teeth (SRT) that perform grappling functions during prey capture. Here, we show that SRT are composed entirely of related structural “suckerin” proteins whose modular designs enable the formation of nanoconfined ?-sheet-reinforced polymer networks. Thirty-seven previously undiscovered suckerins were identified from transcriptomes assembled from three distantly related decapodiform cephalopods. Similarity in modular sequence design and exon–intron architecture suggests that suckerins are encoded by a multigene family. Phylogenetic analysis supports this view, revealing that suckerin genes originated in a common ancestor ~350 MYa and indicating that nanoconfined ?-sheet reinforcement is an ancient strategy to create robust bulk biomaterials. X-ray diffraction, nanomechanical, and micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements confirm that the modular design of the suckerins facilitates the formation of ?-sheets of precise nanoscale dimensions and enables their assembly into structurally robust supramolecular networks stabilized by cooperative hydrogen bonding. The suckerin gene family has likely played a key role in the evolutionary success of decapodiform cephalopods and provides a large molecular toolbox for biomimetic materials engineering.
Related JoVE Video
Evolving Hox activity profiles govern diversity in locomotor systems.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The emergence of limb-driven locomotor behaviors was a key event in the evolution of vertebrates and fostered the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life. We show that the generation of limb-projecting lateral motor column (LMC) neurons in mice relies on a transcriptional autoregulatory module initiated via transient activity of multiple genes within the HoxA and HoxC clusters. Repression of this module at thoracic levels restricts expression of LMC determinants, thus dictating LMC position relative to the limbs. This suppression is mediated by a key regulatory domain that is specifically found in the Hoxc9 proteins of appendage-bearing vertebrates. The profile of Hoxc9 expression inversely correlates with LMC position in land vertebrates and likely accounts for the absence of LMC neurons in limbless species such as snakes. Thus, modulation of both Hoxc9 protein function and Hoxc9 gene expression likely contributed to evolutionary transitions between undulatory and ambulatory motor circuit connectivity programs.
Related JoVE Video
A survey of ancient conserved non-coding elements in the PAX6 locus reveals a landscape of interdigitated cis-regulatory archipelagos.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Biological differences between cell types and developmental processes are characterised by differences in gene expression profiles. Gene-distal enhancers are key components of the regulatory networks that specify the tissue-specific expression patterns driving embryonic development and cell fate decisions, and variations in their sequences are a major contributor to genetic disease and disease susceptibility. Despite advances in the methods for discovery of putative cis-regulatory sequences, characterisation of their spatio-temporal enhancer activities in a mammalian model system remains a major bottle-neck. We employed a strategy that combines gnathostome sequence conservation with transgenic mouse and zebrafish reporter assays to survey the genomic locus of the developmental control gene PAX6 for the presence of novel cis-regulatory elements. Sequence comparison between human and the cartilaginous elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii) revealed several ancient gnathostome conserved non-coding elements (agCNEs) dispersed widely throughout the PAX6 locus, extending the range of the known PAX6 cis-regulatory landscape to contain the full upstream PAX6-RCN1 intergenic region. Our data indicates that ancient conserved regulatory sequences can be tested effectively in transgenic zebrafish even when not conserved in zebrafish themselves. The strategy also allows efficient dissection of compound regulatory regions previously assessed in transgenic mice. Remarkable overlap in expression patterns driven by sets of agCNEs indicates that PAX6 resides in a landscape of multiple tissue-specific regulatory archipelagos.
Related JoVE Video
Elephant shark genome provides unique insights into gnathostome evolution.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The emergence of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) from jawless vertebrates was accompanied by major morphological and physiological innovations, such as hinged jaws, paired fins and immunoglobulin-based adaptive immunity. Gnathostomes subsequently diverged into two groups, the cartilaginous fishes and the bony vertebrates. Here we report the whole-genome analysis of a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). We find that the C.?milii genome is the slowest evolving of all known vertebrates, including the 'living fossil' coelacanth, and features extensive synteny conservation with tetrapod genomes, making it a good model for comparative analyses of gnathostome genomes. Our functional studies suggest that the lack of genes encoding secreted calcium-binding phosphoproteins in cartilaginous fishes explains the absence of bone in their endoskeleton. Furthermore, the adaptive immune system of cartilaginous fishes is unusual: it lacks the canonical CD4 co-receptor and most transcription factors, cytokines and cytokine receptors related to the CD4 lineage, despite the presence of polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class?II molecules. It thus presents a new model for understanding the origin of adaptive immunity.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of the Runx Gene Family in a Jawless Vertebrate, the Japanese Lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The cyclostomes (jawless vertebrates), comprising lampreys and hagfishes, are the sister group of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and are hence an important group for the study of vertebrate evolution. In mammals, three Runx genes, Runx1, Runx2 and Runx3, encode transcription factors that are essential for cell proliferation and differentiation in major developmental pathways such as haematopoiesis, skeletogenesis and neurogenesis and are frequently associated with diseases. We describe here the characterization of Runx gene family members from a cyclostome, the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum). The Japanese lamprey contains three Runx genes, RunxA, RunxB, and RunxC. However, phylogenetic and synteny analyses suggest that they are not one-to-one orthologs of gnathostome Runx1, Runx2 and Runx3. The major protein domains and motifs found in gnathostome Runx proteins are highly conserved in the lamprey Runx proteins. Although all gnathostome Runx genes each contain two alternative promoters, P1 (distal) and P2 (proximal), only lamprey RunxB possesses the alternative promoters; lamprey RunxA and RunxC contain only P2 and P1 promoter, respectively. Furthermore, the three lamprey Runx genes give rise to fewer alternative isoforms than the three gnathostome Runx genes. The promoters of the lamprey Runx genes lack the tandem Runx-binding motifs that are highly conserved among the P1 promoters of gnathostome Runx1, Runx2 and Runx3 genes; instead these promoters contain dispersed single Runx-binding motifs. The 3'UTR of lamprey RunxB contains binding sites for miR-27 and miR-130b/301ab, which are conserved in mammalian Runx1 and Runx3, respectively. Overall, the Runx genes in lamprey seem to have experienced a different evolutionary trajectory from that of gnathostome Runx genes which are highly conserved all the way from cartilaginous fishes to mammals.
Related JoVE Video
Runx family genes in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Runx family genes encode transcription factors that play key roles in hematopoiesis, skeletogenesis and neurogenesis and are often implicated in diseases. We describe here the cloning and characterization of Runx1, Runx2, Runx3 and Runxb genes in the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), a member of Chondrichthyes, the oldest living group of jawed vertebrates. Through the use of alternative promoters and/or alternative splicing, each of the elephant shark Runx genes expresses multiple isoforms similar to their orthologs in human and other bony vertebrates. The expression profiles of elephant shark Runx genes are similar to those of mammalian Runx genes. The syntenic blocks of genes at the elephant shark Runx gene loci are highly conserved in human, but represented by shorter conserved blocks in zebrafish indicating a higher degree of rearrangements in this teleost fish. Analysis of promoter regions revealed conservation of binding sites for transcription factors, including two tandem binding sites for Runx that are totally conserved in the distal promoter regions of elephant shark Runx1-3. Several conserved noncoding elements (CNEs), which are putative cis-regulatory elements, and miRNA binding sites were identified in the elephant shark and human Runx gene loci. Some of these CNEs and miRNA binding sites are absent in teleost fishes such as zebrafish and fugu. In summary, our analysis reveals that the genomic organization and expression profiles of Runx genes were already complex in the common ancestor of jawed vertebrates.
Related JoVE Video
Recurrent gene loss correlates with the evolution of stomach phenotypes in gnathostome history.
Proc. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The stomach, a hallmark of gnathostome evolution, represents a unique anatomical innovation characterized by the presence of acid- and pepsin-secreting glands. However, the occurrence of these glands in gnathostome species is not universal; in the nineteenth century the French zoologist Cuvier first noted that some teleosts lacked a stomach. Strikingly, Holocephali (chimaeras), dipnoids (lungfish) and monotremes (egg-laying mammals) also lack acid secretion and a gastric cellular phenotype. Here, we test the hypothesis that loss of the gastric phenotype is correlated with the loss of key gastric genes. We investigated species from all the main gnathostome lineages and show the specific contribution of gene loss to the widespread distribution of the agastric condition. We establish that the stomach loss correlates with the persistent and complete absence of the gastric function gene kit-H(+)/K(+)-ATPase (Atp4A and Atp4B) and pepsinogens (Pga, Pgc, Cym)-in the analysed species. We also find that in gastric species the pepsinogen gene complement varies significantly (e.g. two to four in teleosts and tens in some mammals) with multiple events of pseudogenization identified in various lineages. We propose that relaxation of purifying selection in pepsinogen genes and possibly proton pump genes in response to dietary changes led to the numerous independent events of stomach loss in gnathostome history. Significantly, the absence of the gastric genes predicts that reinvention of the stomach in agastric lineages would be highly improbable, in line with Dollos principle.
Related JoVE Video
Elevated free thyroxine and non-suppressed thyrotropin.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A young man was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism 10 years prior to current presentation after a random health screening revealed an elevated free thyroxine (fT4) of 36.9 pmol/L. During that time, he saw multiple physicians and was treated with carbimazole intermittently. His repeat thyroid function tests showed persistently elevated fT4 ranging 25-35.7 pmol/L and non-suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations of 6.78-22.1 mIU/L. He had a smooth, firm and non-tender goitre. At our institution, laboratory interference was first excluded by serial dilution study (TSH) and retesting of TSH and fT4 on alternate assay, which gave reproducible results. His normal ?-subunit and sex hormone binding globulin, partially suppressed TSH by high dose triiodothyronine (T3), and positive TSH response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation were consistent with resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome. The diagnosis was confirmed by direct sequencing of thyroid hormone receptor-? gene, revealing a heterozygous R320 L mutation that causes reduced T3 affinity and reduced corepressor dissociation.
Related JoVE Video
Evidence for at least six Hox clusters in the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum).
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cyclostomes, comprising jawless vertebrates such as lampreys and hagfishes, are the sister group of living jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and hence an important group for understanding the origin and diversity of vertebrates. In vertebrates and other metazoans, Hox genes determine cell fate along the anteroposterior axis of embryos and are implicated in driving morphological diversity. Invertebrates contain a single Hox cluster (either intact or fragmented), whereas elephant shark, coelacanth, and tetrapods contain four Hox clusters owing to two rounds of whole-genome duplication ("1R" and "2R") during early vertebrate evolution. By contrast, most teleost fishes contain up to eight Hox clusters because of an additional "teleost-specific" genome duplication event. By sequencing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and the whole genome, here we provide evidence for at least six Hox clusters in the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum). This suggests that the lamprey lineage has experienced an additional genome duplication after 1R and 2R. The relative age of lamprey and human paralogs supports this hypothesis. Compared with gnathostome Hox clusters, lamprey Hox clusters are unusually large. Several conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) were predicted in the Hox clusters of lamprey, elephant shark, and human. Transgenic zebrafish assay indicated the potential of CNEs to function as enhancers. Interestingly, CNEs in individual lamprey Hox clusters are frequently conserved in multiple Hox clusters in elephant shark and human, implying a many-to-many orthology relationship between lamprey and gnathostome Hox clusters. Such a relationship suggests that the first two rounds of genome duplication may have occurred independently in the lamprey and gnathostome lineages.
Related JoVE Video
Seipin differentially regulates lipogenesis and adipogenesis through a conserved core sequence and an evolutionarily acquired C-terminus.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Homozygous mutations in BSCL2 (Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy)/seipin cause CGL2 (congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2). Recent data suggest that seipin regulates LD (lipid droplet) dynamics and adipocyte differentiation, but whether these roles are mechanistically linked remains unclear. To understand how seipin regulates these processes, we investigated the evolutionary changes of seipin orthologues, and studied individual domains in regulating lipid accumulation in non-adipocytes and adipocytes. Mammalian seipins comprise at least two distinct functional domains, a conserved core sequence and an evolutionarily acquired C-terminus. Despite its requirement for adipocyte formation, seipin overexpression inhibited oleate-induced LD formation and accumulation in nonadipocytes, which was mediated by the core sequence. In contrast, seipin overexpression did not inhibit LD accumulation during adipocyte differentiation or the adipogenic process in 3T3-L1 cells. However, adipogenesis and LD accumulation were impaired in 3T3-L1 cells expressing a seipin mutant lacking the C-terminus. Furthermore, expression of the same mutant without the C-terminus failed to rescue the adipogenic defects in seipin-knockdown cells, demonstrating the importance of the C-terminus for seipins function in adipocyte development. We propose that seipin is involved in lipid homoeostasis by restricting lipogenesis and LD accumulation in non-adipocytes, while promoting adipogenesis to accommodate excess energy storage.
Related JoVE Video
The African coelacanth genome provides insights into tetrapod evolution.
Chris T Amemiya, Jessica Alföldi, Alison P Lee, Shaohua Fan, Hervé Philippe, Iain MacCallum, Ingo Braasch, Tereza Manousaki, Igor Schneider, Nicolas Rohner, Chris Organ, Domitille Chalopin, Jeramiah J Smith, Mark Robinson, Rosemary A Dorrington, Marco Gerdol, Bronwen Aken, Maria Assunta Biscotti, Marco Barucca, Denis Baurain, Aaron M Berlin, Gregory L Blatch, Francesco Buonocore, Thorsten Burmester, Michael S Campbell, Adriana Canapa, John P Cannon, Alan Christoffels, Gianluca De Moro, Adrienne L Edkins, Lin Fan, Anna Maria Fausto, Nathalie Feiner, Mariko Forconi, Junaid Gamieldien, Sante Gnerre, Andreas Gnirke, Jared V Goldstone, Wilfried Haerty, Mark E Hahn, Uljana Hesse, Steve Hoffmann, Jeremy Johnson, Sibel I Karchner, Shigehiro Kuraku, Marcia Lara, Joshua Z Levin, Gary W Litman, Evan Mauceli, Tsutomu Miyake, M Gail Mueller, David R Nelson, Anne Nitsche, Ettore Olmo, Tatsuya Ota, Alberto Pallavicini, Sumir Panji, Barbara Picone, Chris P Ponting, Sonja J Prohaska, Dariusz Przybylski, Nil Ratan Saha, Vydianathan Ravi, Filipe J Ribeiro, Tatjana Sauka-Spengler, Giuseppe Scapigliati, Stephen M J Searle, Ted Sharpe, Oleg Simakov, Peter F Stadler, John J Stegeman, Kenta Sumiyama, Diana Tabbaa, Hakim Tafer, Jason Turner-Maier, Peter Van Heusden, Simon White, Louise Williams, Mark Yandell, Henner Brinkmann, Jean-Nicolas Volff, Clifford J Tabin, Neil Shubin, Manfred Schartl, David B Jaffe, John H Postlethwait, Byrappa Venkatesh, Federica Di Palma, Eric S Lander, Axel Meyer, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The discovery of a living coelacanth specimen in 1938 was remarkable, as this lineage of lobe-finned fish was thought to have become extinct 70 million years ago. The modern coelacanth looks remarkably similar to many of its ancient relatives, and its evolutionary proximity to our own fish ancestors provides a glimpse of the fish that first walked on land. Here we report the genome sequence of the African coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. Through a phylogenomic analysis, we conclude that the lungfish, and not the coelacanth, is the closest living relative of tetrapods. Coelacanth protein-coding genes are significantly more slowly evolving than those of tetrapods, unlike other genomic features. Analyses of changes in genes and regulatory elements during the vertebrate adaptation to land highlight genes involved in immunity, nitrogen excretion and the development of fins, tail, ear, eye, brain and olfaction. Functional assays of enhancers involved in the fin-to-limb transition and in the emergence of extra-embryonic tissues show the importance of the coelacanth genome as a blueprint for understanding tetrapod evolution.
Related JoVE Video
Sequencing of Pax6 loci from the elephant shark reveals a family of Pax6 genes in vertebrate genomes, forged by ancient duplications and divergences.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pax6 is a developmental control gene essential for eye development throughout the animal kingdom. In addition, Pax6 plays key roles in other parts of the CNS, olfactory system, and pancreas. In mammals a single Pax6 gene encoding multiple isoforms delivers these pleiotropic functions. Here we provide evidence that the genomes of many other vertebrate species contain multiple Pax6 loci. We sequenced Pax6-containing BACs from the cartilaginous elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii) and found two distinct Pax6 loci. Pax6.1 is highly similar to mammalian Pax6, while Pax6.2 encodes a paired-less Pax6. Using synteny relationships, we identify homologs of this novel paired-less Pax6.2 gene in lizard and in frog, as well as in zebrafish and in other teleosts. In zebrafish two full-length Pax6 duplicates were known previously, originating from the fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD) and expressed in divergent patterns due to paralog-specific loss of cis-elements. We show that teleosts other than zebrafish also maintain duplicate full-length Pax6 loci, but differences in gene and regulatory domain structure suggest that these Pax6 paralogs originate from a more ancient duplication event and are hence renamed as Pax6.3. Sequence comparisons between mammalian and elephant shark Pax6.1 loci highlight the presence of short- and long-range conserved noncoding elements (CNEs). Functional analysis demonstrates the ancient role of long-range enhancers for Pax6 transcription. We show that the paired-less Pax6.2 ortholog in zebrafish is expressed specifically in the developing retina. Transgenic analysis of elephant shark and zebrafish Pax6.2 CNEs with homology to the mouse NRE/P? internal promoter revealed highly specific retinal expression. Finally, morpholino depletion of zebrafish Pax6.2 resulted in a "small eye" phenotype, supporting a role in retinal development. In summary, our study reveals that the pleiotropic functions of Pax6 in vertebrates are served by a divergent family of Pax6 genes, forged by ancient duplication events and by independent, lineage-specific gene losses.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of Wnt signaling skeletal development genes in the cartilaginous fish, elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii).
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Jawed vertebrates (Gnasthostomes) are broadly separated into cartilaginous fishes (Chondricthyes) and bony vertebrates (Osteichthyes). Cartilaginous fishes are divided into chimaeras (e.g. ratfish, rabbit fish and elephant shark) and elasmobranchs (e.g. sharks, rays and skates). Both cartilaginous fish and bony vertebrates are believed to have a common armoured bony ancestor (Class Placodermi), however cartilaginous fish are believed to have lost bone. This study has identified and investigated genes involved in skeletal development in vertebrates, in the cartilaginous fish, elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). Ctnnb1 (?-catenin), Sfrp (secreted frizzled protein) and a single Sost or Sostdc1 gene (sclerostin or sclerostin domain-containing protein 1) were identified in the elephant shark genome and found to be expressed in a number of tissues, including cartilage. ?-catenin was also localized in several elephant shark tissues. The expression of these genes, which belong to the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, is required for normal bone formation in mammals. These findings in the cartilaginous skeleton of elephant shark support the hypothesis that the common ancestor of cartilaginous fishes and bony vertebrates had the potential for making bone.
Related JoVE Video
Conservation of all three p53 family members and Mdm2 and Mdm4 in the cartilaginous fish.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Analysis of the genome of the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), a member of the cartilaginous fishes (Class Chondrichthyes), reveals that it encodes all three members of the p53 gene family, p53, p63 and p73, each with clear homology to the equivalent gene in bony vertebrates (Class Osteichthyes). Thus, the gene duplication events that lead to the presence of three family members in the vertebrates dates to before the Silurian era. It also encodes Mdm2 and Mdm4 genes but does not encode the p19(Arf) gene. Detailed comparison of the amino acid sequences of these proteins in the vertebrates reveals that they are evolving at highly distinctive rates, and this variation occurs not only between the three family members but extends to distinct domains in each protein.
Related JoVE Video
Integration of the genetic map and genome assembly of fugu facilitates insights into distinct features of genome evolution in teleosts and mammals.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The compact genome of fugu (Takifugu rubripes) has been used widely as a reference genome for understanding the evolution of vertebrate genomes. However, the fragmented nature of the fugu genome assembly has restricted its use for comparisons of genome architecture in vertebrates. To extend the contiguity of the assembly to the chromosomal level, we have generated a comprehensive genetic map of fugu and anchored the scaffolds of the assembly to the 22 chromosomes of fugu. The map consists of 1,220 microsatellite markers that provide anchor points to 697 scaffolds covering 86% of the genome assembly (http://www.fugu-sg.org/). The integrated genome map revealed a higher recombination rate in fugu compared with other vertebrates and a wide variation in the recombination rate between sexes and across chromosomes of fugu. We used the extended assembly to explore recent rearrangement events in the lineages of fugu, Tetraodon, and medaka and compared them with rearrangements in three mammalian (human, mouse, and opossum) lineages. Between the two pufferfishes, fugu has experienced fewer chromosomal rearrangements than Tetraodon. The gene order is more highly conserved in the three teleosts than in mammals largely due to a lower rate of interchromosomal rearrangements in the teleosts. These results provide new insights into the distinct patterns of genome evolution between teleosts and mammals. The consolidated genome map and the genetic map of fugu are valuable resources for comparative genomics of vertebrates and for elucidating the genetic basis of the phenotypic diversity of ~25 species of Takifugu that evolved within the last 5 My.
Related JoVE Video
Emergence and evolution of the glycoprotein hormone and neurotrophin gene families in vertebrates.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The three vertebrate pituitary glycoprotein hormones (GPH) are heterodimers of a common ? and a specific ? subunit. In human, they are located on different chromosomes but in a similar genomic environment. We took advantage of the availability of genomic and EST data from two cartilaginous fish species as well as from two lamprey species to identify their repertoire of neurotrophin, lin7 and KCNA gene family members which are in the close environment of gph?. Gph? and gph? are absent outside vertebrates but are related to two genes present in both protostomes and deuterostomes that were named gpa2 and gpb5. Genomic organization and functional characteristics of their protein products suggested that gph? and gph? might have been generated concomitantly by a duplication of gpa2 and gpb5 just prior to the radiation of vertebrates. To have a better insight into this process we used new genomic resources and tools to characterize the ancestral environment before the duplication occurred.
Related JoVE Video
Mouse transgenesis identifies conserved functional enhancers and cis-regulatory motif in the vertebrate LIM homeobox gene Lhx2 locus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The vertebrate Lhx2 is a member of the LIM homeobox family of transcription factors. It is essential for the normal development of the forebrain, eye, olfactory system and liver as well for the differentiation of lymphoid cells. However, despite the highly restricted spatio-temporal expression pattern of Lhx2, nothing is known about its transcriptional regulation. In mammals and chicken, Crb2, Dennd1a and Lhx2 constitute a conserved linkage block, while the intervening Dennd1a is lost in the fugu Lhx2 locus. To identify functional enhancers of Lhx2, we predicted conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) in the human, mouse and fugu Crb2-Lhx2 loci and assayed their function in transgenic mouse at E11.5. Four of the eight CNE constructs tested functioned as tissue-specific enhancers in specific regions of the central nervous system and the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), recapitulating partial and overlapping expression patterns of Lhx2 and Crb2 genes. There was considerable overlap in the expression domains of the CNEs, which suggests that the CNEs are either redundant enhancers or regulating different genes in the locus. Using a large set of CNEs (810 CNEs) associated with transcription factor-encoding genes that express predominantly in the central nervous system, we predicted four over-represented 8-mer motifs that are likely to be associated with expression in the central nervous system. Mutation of one of them in a CNE that drove reporter expression in the neural tube and DRG abolished expression in both domains indicating that this motif is essential for expression in these domains. The failure of the four functional enhancers to recapitulate the complete expression pattern of Lhx2 at E11.5 indicates that there must be other Lhx2 enhancers that are either located outside the region investigated or divergent in mammals and fishes. Other approaches such as sequence comparison between multiple mammals are required to identify and characterize such enhancers.
Related JoVE Video
Enforced expression of Simian virus 40 large T-antigen leads to testicular germ cell tumors in zebrafish.
Zebrafish
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common malignancy in young men. However, there are few in vivo animal models that have been developed to study this disease. We have used the pufferfish (fugu) lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (flck) promoter, which has been shown to enforce high-level expression in the testes of transgenic mice, to express Simian virus 40 large T-antigen in zebrafish testes. Zebrafish that express T-antigen develop TGCTs after a long latency of >1 year. Although overt TGCTs are only evident in 20% of the fish, occult TGCTs can be detected in 90% of the transgenic fish by 36 month of age. The TGCTs resemble the human disease in terms of morphology and gene expression pattern, and can be transplanted to healthy wild-type recipient fish. In addition, enforced expression of the zebrafish stem cell leukemia (scl) gene in the zebrafish testes also generated TGCTs in transgenic fish. These results demonstrate the feasibility of studying TGCTs in a model organism.
Related JoVE Video
Ancient vertebrate conserved noncoding elements have been evolving rapidly in teleost fishes.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vertebrate genomes contain thousands of conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) that often function as tissue-specific enhancers. In this study, we have identified CNEs in human, dog, chicken, Xenopus, and four teleost fishes (zebrafish, stickleback, medaka, and fugu) using elephant shark, a cartilaginous vertebrate, as the base genome and investigated the evolution of these ancient vertebrate CNEs (aCNEs) in bony vertebrate lineages. Our analysis shows that aCNEs have been evolving at different rates in different bony vertebrate lineages. Although 78-83% of CNEs have diverged beyond recognition ("lost") in different teleost fishes, only 24% and 40% have been lost in the chicken and mammalian lineages, respectively. Relative rate tests of substitution rates in CNEs revealed that the teleost fish CNEs have been evolving at a significantly higher rate than those in other bony vertebrates. In the ray-finned fish lineage, 68% of aCNEs were lost before the divergence of the four teleosts. This implicates the "fish-specific" whole-genome duplication in the accelerated evolution and the loss of a large number of both copies of duplicated CNEs in teleost fishes. The aCNEs are rich in tissue-specific enhancers and thus many of them are likely to be evolutionarily constrained cis-regulatory elements. The rapid evolution of aCNEs might have affected the expression patterns driven by them. Transgenic zebrafish assay of some human CNE enhancers that have been lost in teleosts has indicated instances of conservation or changes in trans-acting factors between mammals and fishes.
Related JoVE Video
Evolutionary origin and phylogeny of the modern holocephalans (Chondrichthyes: Chimaeriformes): a mitogenomic perspective.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With our increasing ability for generating whole-genome sequences, comparative analysis of whole genomes has become a powerful tool for understanding the structure, function, and evolutionary history of human and other vertebrate genomes. By virtue of their position basal to bony vertebrates, cartilaginous fishes (class Chondrichthyes) are a valuable outgroup in comparative studies of vertebrates. Recently, a holocephalan cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii (Subclass Holocephali: Order Chimaeriformes), has been proposed as a model genome, and low-coverage sequence of its genome has been generated. Despite such an increasing interest, the evolutionary history of the modern holocephalans-a previously successful and diverse group but represented by only 39 extant species-and their relationship with elasmobranchs and other jawed vertebrates has been poorly documented largely owing to a lack of well-preserved fossil materials after the end-Permian about 250 Ma. In this study, we assembled the whole mitogenome sequences for eight representatives from all the three families of the modern holocephalans and investigated their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history. Unambiguously aligned sequences from these holocephalans together with 17 other vertebrates (9,409 nt positions excluding entire third codon positions) were subjected to partitioned maximum likelihood analysis. The resulting tree strongly supported a single origin of the modern holocephalans and their sister-group relationship with elasmobranchs. The mitogenomic tree recovered the most basal callorhinchids within the chimaeriforms, which is sister to a clade comprising the remaining two families (rhinochimaerids and chimaerids). The timetree derived from a relaxed molecular clock Bayesian method suggests that the holocephalans originated in the Silurian about 420 Ma, having survived from the end-Permian (250 Ma) mass extinction and undergoing familial diversifications during the late Jurassic to early Cretaceous (170-120 Ma). This postulated evolutionary scenario agrees well with that based on the paleontological observations.
Related JoVE Video
Regulation of protocadherin gene expression by multiple neuron-restrictive silencer elements scattered in the gene cluster.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The clustered protocadherins are a subfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that play an important role in development of the nervous systems in vertebrates. The clustered protocadherin genes exhibit complex expression patterns in the central nervous system. In this study, we have investigated the molecular mechanism underlying neuronal expression of protocadherin genes using the protocadherin gene cluster in fugu as a model. By in silico prediction, we identified multiple neuron-restrictive silencer elements (NRSEs) scattered in the fugu protocadherin cluster and demonstrated that these elements bind specifically to NRSF/REST in vitro and in vivo. By using a transgenic Xenopus approach, we show that these NRSEs regulate neuronal specificity of protocadherin promoters by suppressing their activity in non-neuronal tissues. We provide evidence that protocadherin genes that do not contain an NRSE in their 5 intergenic region are regulated by NRSEs in the regulatory region of their neighboring genes. We also show that protocadherin clusters in other vertebrates such as elephant shark, zebrafish, coelacanth, lizard, mouse and human, contain different sets of multiple NRSEs. Taken together, our data suggest that the neuronal specificity of protocadherin cluster genes in vertebrates is regulated by the NRSE-NRSF/REST system.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of a hypoxia-response element in the Epo locus of the pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes.
Mar Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Animals respond to hypoxia by increasing synthesis of the glycoprotein hormone erythropoietin (Epo) which in turn stimulates the production of red blood cells. The gene encoding Epo has been recently cloned in teleost fishes such as the pufferfish Takifugu rubripes (fugu) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). It has been shown that the transcription levels of Epo in teleost fishes increase in response to anemia or hypoxia in a manner similar to its human ortholog. However, the cis-regulatory element(s) mediating the hypoxia response of Epo gene in fishes has not been identified. In the present study, using the human hepatoma cell line (Hep3B), we have identified and characterized a hypoxia response element (HRE) in the fugu Epo locus. The sequence of the fugu HRE (ACGTGCTG) is identical to that of the HRE in the human EPO locus. However, unlike the HRE in the mammalian Epo locus, which is located in the 3 region of the gene, the fugu HRE is located in the 5 flanking region and on the opposite strand of DNA. This HRE is conserved in other teleosts such as Tetraodon and zebrafish in a similar location. A 365-bp fragment containing the fugu HRE was able to drive GFP expression in the liver of transgenic zebrafish. However, we could not ascertain if the expression of transgene is induced by hypoxia in vivo due to the low and variable levels of GFP expression in transgenic zebrafish. Our investigations also revealed that the Epo locus has experienced extensive rearrangements during vertebrate evolution.
Related JoVE Video
Parathyroid hormone gene family in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii).
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The development of bone was a major step in the evolution of vertebrates. A bony skeleton provided structural support and a calcium reservoir essential for the movement from an aquatic to a terrestrial environment. Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest living group of jawed vertebrates. In this study we have identified three members of the parathyroid hormone (Pth) gene family in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). The three genes include two Pth genes, designated as Pth1 and Pth2, and a Pthrp gene. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that elephant shark Pth2 is an ancient gene whose orthologue is lost in bony vertebrates. The Pth1 and Pth2 genes have the same structure as the Pth gene in bony vertebrates, whereas the structure of the Pthrp gene is more complex in tetrapods compared with elephant shark. The three elephant shark genes showed distinct patterns of expression, with Pth2 being expressed only in the brain and spleen. This contrasts with localization of the corresponding proteins, which showed considerable overlap in their distribution. There were conserved sites of localization for Pthrp between elephant shark and mammals, including tissues such as kidney, skin, skeletal and cardiac muscle, pancreas, and cartilage. The elephant shark Pth1(1-34) and Pthrp(1-34) peptides were able to stimulate cAMP accumulation in mammalian UMR106.01 cells. However, Pth2(1-34) peptide did not show such PTH-like biologic activity. The presence of Pth and Pthrp genes in the elephant shark indicates that these genes played fundamental roles before their recruitment to bone development in bony jawed vertebrates.
Related JoVE Video
Functional conservation of a forebrain enhancer from the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii ) in zebrafish and mice.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The phylogenetic position of the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii ) is particularly relevant to study the evolution of genes and gene regulation in vertebrates. Here we examine the evolution of Dlx homeobox gene regulation during vertebrate embryonic development with a particular focus on the forebrain. We first identified the elephant shark sequence orthologous to the URE2 cis -regulatory element of the mouse Dlx1/Dlx2 locus (herein named CmURE2). We then conducted a comparative study of the sequence and enhancer activity of CmURE2 with that of orthologous regulatory sequences from zebrafish and mouse.
Related JoVE Video
Elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii) provides insights into the evolution of Hox gene clusters in gnathostomes.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have sequenced and analyzed Hox gene clusters from elephant shark, a holocephalian cartilaginous fish. Elephant shark possesses 4 Hox clusters with 45 Hox genes that include orthologs for a higher number of ancient gnathostome Hox genes than the 4 clusters in tetrapods and the supernumerary clusters in teleost fishes. Phylogenetic analysis of elephant shark Hox genes from 7 paralogous groups that contain all of the 4 members indicated an ((AB)(CD)) topology for the order of Hox cluster duplication, providing support for the 2R hypothesis (i.e., 2 rounds of whole-genome duplication during the early evolution of vertebrates). Comparisons of noncoding sequences of the elephant shark and human Hox clusters have identified a large number of conserved noncoding elements (CNEs), which represent putative cis-regulatory elements that may be involved in the regulation of Hox genes. Interestingly, in fugu more than 50% of these ancient CNEs have diverged beyond recognition in the duplicated (HoxA, HoxB, and HoxD) as well as the singleton (HoxC) Hox clusters. Furthermore, the b-paralogs of the duplicated fugu Hox clusters are virtually devoid of unique ancient CNEs. In contrast to fugu Hox clusters, elephant shark and human Hox clusters have lost fewer ancient CNEs. If these ancient CNEs are indeed enhancers directing tissue-specific expression of Hox genes, divergence of their sequences in vertebrate lineages might have led to altered expression patterns and presumably the functions of their associated Hox genes.
Related JoVE Video
Neuropeptide Y-family peptides and receptors in the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii confirm gene duplications before the gnathostome radiation.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe here the repertoire of neuropeptide Y (NPY) peptides and receptors in the elephant shark Callorhinchus milii, belonging to the chondrichthyans that diverged from the rest of the gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) lineage about 450 million years ago and the first chondrichthyan with a genome project. We have identified two peptide genes that are orthologous to NPY and PYY (peptide YY) in other vertebrates, and seven receptor genes orthologous to the Y1, Y2, Y4, Y5, Y6, Y7 and Y8 subtypes found in tetrapods and teleost fishes. The repertoire of peptides and receptors seems to reflect the ancestral configuration in the predecessor of all gnathostomes, whereas other lineages such as mammals and teleosts have lost one or more receptor genes or have acquired 1-2 additional peptide genes. Both the peptides and receptors showed broad and overlapping mRNA expression which may explain why some receptor gene losses could take place in some lineages, but leaves open the question why all the known ancestral receptors have been retained in the elephant shark.
Related JoVE Video
Large number of ultraconserved elements were already present in the jawed vertebrate ancestor.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stephen (2008) identified 13,736 ultraconserved elements (UCEs) in placental mammals and investigated their evolution in opossum, chicken, frog, and fugu. They found that there was a massive expansion of UCEs during tetrapod evolution and the substitution rate in UCEs showed a significant decline in tetrapods compared with fugu, suggesting they were exapted in tetrapods. They considered it unlikely that these elements are ancient but evolved at a higher rate in teleost fishes. In this study, we investigated the evolution of UCEs in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark and show that nearly half the UCEs were present in the jawed vertebrate ancestor. The substitution rate in UCEs is higher in fugu than in elephant shark, and approximately one-third of ancient UCEs have diverged beyond recognition in teleost fishes. These data indicate that UCEs have evolved at a higher rate in teleost fishes, which may have implications for their vast diversity and evolutionary success.
Related JoVE Video
Identification and comparative analysis of the protocadherin cluster in a reptile, the green anole lizard.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The vertebrate protocadherins are a subfamily of cell adhesion molecules that are predominantly expressed in the nervous system and are believed to play an important role in establishing the complex neural network during animal development. Genes encoding these molecules are organized into a cluster in the genome. Comparative analysis of the protocadherin subcluster organization and gene arrangements in different vertebrates has provided interesting insights into the history of vertebrate genome evolution. Among tetrapods, protocadherin clusters have been fully characterized only in mammals. In this study, we report the identification and comparative analysis of the protocadherin cluster in a reptile, the green anole lizard (Anolis carolinensis).
Related JoVE Video
Evolution of genetic networks underlying the emergence of thymopoiesis in vertebrates.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
About 500 million years ago, a new type of adaptive immune defense emerged in basal jawed vertebrates, accompanied by morphological innovations, including the thymus. Did these evolutionary novelties arise de novo or from elaboration of ancient genetic networks? We reconstructed the genetic changes underlying thymopoiesis by comparative genome and expression analyses in chordates and basal vertebrates. The derived models of genetic networks were experimentally verified in bony fishes. Ancestral networks defining circumscribed regions of the pharyngeal epithelium of jawless vertebrates expanded in cartilaginous fishes to incorporate novel genes, notably those encoding chemokines. Correspondingly, novel networks evolved in lymphocytes of jawed vertebrates to control the expression of additional chemokine receptors. These complementary changes enabled unprecedented Delta/Notch signaling between pharyngeal epithelium and lymphoid cells that was exploited for specification to the T cell lineage. Our results provide a framework elucidating the evolution of key features of the adaptive immune system in jawed vertebrates.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of the neurohypophysial hormone gene loci in elephant shark and the Japanese lamprey: origin of the vertebrate neurohypophysial hormone genes.
BMC Evol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vasopressin and oxytocin are mammalian neurohypophysial hormones with distinct functions. Vasopressin is involved mainly in osmoregulation and oxytocin is involved primarily in parturition and lactation. Jawed vertebrates contain at least one homolog each of vasopressin and oxytocin, whereas only a vasopressin-family hormone, vasotocin, has been identified in jawless vertebrates. The genes encoding vasopressin and oxytocin are closely linked tail-to-tail in eutherian mammals whereas their homologs in chicken, Xenopus and coelacanth (vasotocin and mesotocin) are linked tail-to-head. In contrast, their pufferfish homologs, vasotocin and isotocin, are located on the same strand of DNA with isotocin located upstream of vasotocin and separated by five genes. These differences in the arrangement of the two genes in different bony vertebrate lineages raise questions about their origin and ancestral arrangement. To trace the origin of these genes, we have sequenced BAC clones from the neurohypophysial gene loci in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), and in a jawless vertebrate, the Japanese lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum). We have also analyzed the neurohypophysial hormone gene locus in an invertebrate chordate, the amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae).
Related JoVE Video
Into the blue: gene duplication and loss underlie color vision adaptations in a deep-sea chimaera, the elephant shark Callorhinchus milii.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The cartilaginous fishes reside at the base of the gnathostome lineage as the oldest extant group of jawed vertebrates. Recently, the genome of the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, a chimaerid holocephalan, has been sequenced and therefore becomes the first cartilaginous fish to be analyzed in this way. The chimaeras have been largely neglected and very little is known about the visual systems of these fishes. By searching the elephant shark genome, we have identified gene fragments encoding a rod visual pigment, Rh1, and three cone visual pigments, the middle wavelength-sensitive or Rh2 pigment, and two isoforms of the long wavelength-sensitive or LWS pigment, LWS1 and LWS2, but no evidence for the two short wavelength-sensitive cone classes, SWS1 and SWS2. Expression of these genes in the retina was confirmed by RT-PCR. Full-length coding sequences were used for in vitro expression and gave the following peak absorbances: Rh1 496 nm, Rh2 442 nm, LWS1 499 nm, and LWS2 548 nm. Unusually, therefore, for a deep-sea fish, the elephant shark possesses cone pigments and the potential for trichromacy. Compared with other vertebrates, the elephant shark Rh2 and LWS1 pigments are the shortest wavelength-shifted pigments of their respective classes known to date. The mechanisms for this are discussed and we provide experimental evidence that the elephant shark LWS1 pigment uses a novel tuning mechanism to achieve the short wavelength shift to 499 nm, which inactivates the chloride-binding site. Our findings have important implications for the present knowledge of color vision evolution in early vertebrates.
Related JoVE Video
Phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships and developmental expression patterns of the zebrafish twist gene family.
Dev. Genes Evol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Four members of the twist gene family (twist1a, 1b, 2, and 3) are found in the zebrafish, and they are thought to have arisen through three rounds of gene duplication, two of which occurred prior to the tetrapod-fish split. Phylogenetic analysis groups most of the vertebrate Twist1 peptides into clade I, except for the Twist1b proteins of the acanthopterygian fish (medaka, pufferfish, stickleback), which clustered within clade III. Paralogies and orthologies among the zebrafish, medaka, and human twist genes were determined using comparative synteny analysis of the chromosomal regions flanking these genes. Comparative nucleotide substitution analyses also revealed a faster rate of nucleotide mutation/substitution in the acanthopterygian twist1b compared to the zebrafish twist1b, thus accounting for their anomalous phylogenetic clustering. We also observed minimal expression overlap among the four twist genes, suggesting that despite their significant peptide similarity, their regulatory controls have diverged considerably, with minimal functional redundancy between them.
Related JoVE Video
Evolution and functional characterisation of melanopsins in a deep-sea chimaera (elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii).
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Non-visual photoreception in mammals is primarily mediated by two splice variants that derive from a single melanopsin (OPN4M) gene, whose expression is restricted to a subset of retinal ganglion cells. Physiologically, this sensory system regulates the photoentrainment of many biological rhythms, such as sleep via the melatonin endocrine system and pupil constriction. By contrast, melanopsin exists as two distinct lineages in non-mammals, opn4m and opn4x, and is broadly expressed in a wide range of tissue types, including the eye, brain, pineal gland and skin. Despite these findings, the evolution and function of melanopsin in early vertebrates are largely unknown. We, therefore, investigated the complement of opn4 classes present in the genome of a model deep-sea cartilaginous species, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), as a representative vertebrate that resides at the base of the gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) lineage. We reveal that three melanopsin genes, opn4m1, opn4m2 and opn4x, are expressed in multiple tissues of the elephant shark. The two opn4m genes are likely to have arisen as a result of a lineage-specific duplication, whereas "long" and "short" splice variants are generated from a single opn4x gene. By using a heterologous expression system, we suggest that these genes encode functional photopigments that exhibit both "invertebrate-like" bistable and classical "vertebrate-like" monostable biochemical characteristics. We discuss the evolution and function of these melanopsin pigments within the context of the diverse photic and ecological environments inhabited by this chimaerid holocephalan, as well as the origin of non-visual sensory systems in early vertebrates.
Related JoVE Video
Sequencing and analysis of full-length cDNAs, 5-ESTs and 3-ESTs from a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii).
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cartilaginous fishes are the most ancient group of living jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) and are, therefore, an important reference group for understanding the evolution of vertebrates. The elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), a holocephalan cartilaginous fish, has been identified as a model cartilaginous fish genome because of its compact genome (?910 Mb) and a genome project has been initiated to obtain its whole genome sequence. In this study, we have generated and sequenced full-length enriched cDNA libraries of the elephant shark using the oligo-capping method and Sanger sequencing. A total of 6,778 full-length protein-coding cDNA and 10,701 full-length noncoding cDNA were sequenced from six tissues (gills, intestine, kidney, liver, spleen, and testis) of the elephant shark. Analysis of their polyadenylation signals showed that polyadenylation usage in elephant shark is similar to that in mammals. Furthermore, both coding and noncoding transcripts of the elephant shark use the same proportion of canonical polyadenylation sites. Besides BLASTX searches, protein-coding transcripts were annotated by Gene Ontology, InterPro domain, and KEGG pathway analyses. By comparing elephant shark genes to bony vertebrate genes, we identified several ancient genes present in elephant shark but differentially lost in tetrapods or teleosts. Only ?6% of elephant shark noncoding cDNA showed similarity to known noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). The rest are either highly divergent ncRNAs or novel ncRNAs. In addition to full-length transcripts, 30,375 5-ESTs and 41,317 3-ESTs were sequenced and annotated. The clones and transcripts generated in this study are valuable resources for annotating transcription start sites, exon-intron boundaries, and UTRs of genes in the elephant shark genome, and for the functional characterization of protein sequences. These resources will also be useful for annotating genes in other cartilaginous fishes whose genomes have been targeted for whole genome sequencing.
Related JoVE Video
Basal vertebrates clarify the evolutionary history of ciliopathy-associated genes Tmem138 and Tmem216.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recently, Lee et al. (Lee JH, Silhavy JL, Lee JE, et al. (30 co-authors). 2012. Evolutionarily assembled cis-regulatory module at a human ciliopathy locus. Science (335:966-969.) demonstrated that mutation in either of the transmembrane protein encoding genes, TMEM138 or TMEM216, causes phenotypically indistinguishable ciliopathy. Furthermore, on the basis of the observation that their orthologs are linked in a head-to-tail configuration in other mammals and Anolis, but present on different scaffolds or chromosomes in Xenopus tropicalis and zebrafish, the authors concluded that the two genes were joined by chromosomal rearrangement at the evolutionary amphibian-to-reptile transition to form a functional module. We have sequenced these gene loci in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark, and found that the two genes together with a related gene (Tmem80) constitute a tandem cluster. This suggests that the two genes were already linked in the vertebrate ancestor and then rearranged independently in Xenopus and zebrafish. Analyses of the coelacanth and lamprey genomes support this hypothesis. Our study highlights the importance of basal vertebrates as critical reference genomes.
Related JoVE Video
The fishes of Genome 10K.
Mar Genomics
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Genome 10K project aims to sequence the genomes of 10,000 vertebrates, representing approximately one genome for each vertebrate genus. Since fishes (cartilaginous fishes, ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned fishes) represent more than 50% of extant vertebrates, it is planned to target 4,000 fish genomes. At present, nearly 60 fish genomes are being sequenced at various public funded labs, and under a Genome 10K and BGI pilot project. An additional 100 fishes have been identified for sequencing in the next phase of Genome 10K project.
Related JoVE Video
The fifth neurohypophysial hormone receptor is structurally related to the V2-type receptor but functionally similar to V1-type receptors.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The neurohypophysial peptides of the vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) families regulate salt and water homeostasis and reproduction through distinct G protein-coupled receptors. The current thinking is that there are four neurohypophysial hormone receptors (V1aR, V1bR, V2R, and OTR) in vertebrates, and their evolutionary history is still debated. We report the identification of a fifth neurohypophysial hormone receptor (V2bR) from the holocephalan elephant fish. This receptor is similar to conventional V2R (V2aR) in sequence, but induced Ca(2+) signaling in response to vasotocin (VT), the non-mammalian VP ortholog; such signaling is typical of V1-type receptors. In addition, V1aR, V1bR and OTR were also isolated from the elephant fish. Further screening revealed that orthologous V2bRs are widely distributed throughout the jawed vertebrates, and that the V2bR family is subdivided into two subfamilies: the fish specific type-1, and a type-2 that is characteristically found in tetrapods. Analysis suggested that the mammalian V2bR may have lost its function. Based on molecular phylogenetic, synteny and functional analyses, we propose a new evolutionary history for the neurohypophysial hormone receptors in vertebrates as follows: the first duplication generated V1aR/V1bR/OTR and V2aR/V2bR lineages; after divergence from the V2bR lineage, the V2aRs evolved to use cAMP as a second messenger, while the V2bRs retained the original Ca(2+) signaling system. Future studies on the role of V2bR in the brain, heart, kidney and reproductive organs, in which it is highly expressed, will open a new research field in VP/VT physiology and evolution.
Related JoVE Video
A trans-species missense SNP in Amhr2 is associated with sex determination in the tiger pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes (fugu).
PLoS Genet.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heterogametic sex chromosomes have evolved independently in various lineages of vertebrates. Such sex chromosome pairs often contain nonrecombining regions, with one of the chromosomes harboring a master sex-determining (SD) gene. It is hypothesized that these sex chromosomes evolved from a pair of autosomes that diverged after acquiring the SD gene. By linkage and association mapping of the SD locus in fugu (Takifugu rubripes), we show that a SNP (C/G) in the anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type II (Amhr2) gene is the only polymorphism associated with phenotypic sex. This SNP changes an amino acid (His/Asp384) in the kinase domain. While females are homozygous (His/His384), males are heterozygous. Sex in fugu is most likely determined by a combination of the two alleles of Amhr2. Consistent with this model, the medaka hotei mutant carrying a substitution in the kinase domain of Amhr2 causes a female phenotype. The association of the Amhr2 SNP with phenotypic sex is conserved in two other species of Takifugu but not in Tetraodon. The fugu SD locus shows no sign of recombination suppression between X and Y chromosomes. Thus, fugu sex chromosomes represent an unusual example of proto-sex chromosomes. Such undifferentiated X-Y chromosomes may be more common in vertebrates than previously thought.
Related JoVE Video
Evolution of the Cdk-activator Speedy/RINGO in vertebrates.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Successful completion of the cell cycle relies on the precise activation and inactivation of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) whose activity is mainly regulated by binding to cyclins. Recently, a new family of Cdk regulators termed Speedy/RINGO has been discovered, which can bind and activate Cdks but shares no apparent amino acid sequence homology with cyclins. All Speedy proteins share a conserved domain of approximately 140 amino acids called "Speedy Box", which is essential for Cdk binding. Speedy/RINGO proteins display an important role in oocyte maturation in Xenopus. Interestingly, a common feature of all Speedy genes is their predominant expression in testis suggesting that meiotic functions may be the most important physiological feature of Speedy genes. Speedy homologs have been reported in mammals and can be traced back to the most primitive clade of chordates (Ciona intestinalis). Here, we investigated the evolution of the Speedy genes and have identified a number of new Speedy/RINGO proteins. Through extensive analysis of numerous species, we discovered diverse evolutionary histories: the number of Speedy genes varies considerably among species, with evidence of substantial gains and losses. Despite the interspecies variation, Speedy is conserved among most species examined. Our results provide a complete picture of the Speedy gene family and its evolution.
Related JoVE Video
An ancient genomic regulatory block conserved across bilaterians and its dismantling in tetrapods by retrogene replacement.
Genome Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Developmental genes are regulated by complex, distantly located cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), often forming genomic regulatory blocks (GRBs) that are conserved among vertebrates and among insects. We have investigated GRBs associated with Iroquois homeobox genes in 39 metazoans. Despite 600 million years of independent evolution, Iroquois genes are linked to ankyrin-repeat-containing Sowah genes in nearly all studied bilaterians. We show that Iroquois-specific CRMs populate the Sowah locus, suggesting that regulatory constraints underlie the maintenance of the Iroquois-Sowah syntenic block. Surprisingly, tetrapod Sowah orthologs are intronless and not associated with Iroquois; however, teleost and elephant shark data demonstrate that this is a derived feature, and that many Iroquois-CRMs were ancestrally located within Sowah introns. Retroposition, gene, and genome duplication have allowed selective elimination of Sowah exons from the Iroquois regulatory landscape while keeping associated CRMs, resulting in large associated gene deserts. These results highlight the importance of CRMs in imposing constraints to genome architecture, even across large phylogenetic distances, and of gene duplication-mediated genetic redundancy to disentangle these constraints, increasing genomic plasticity.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.