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Pseudocosmospora, a new genus to accommodate Cosmospora vilior and related species.
Mycologia
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Cosmospora sensu Rossman accommodated nectroid fungi with small, reddish, smooth, thin-walled perithecia but recently was found to be polyphyletic and has been segregated into multiple genera. Not all cosmospora-like fungi have been treated systematically. Some of these species include C. vilior and many specimens often labeled "Cosmospora sp." The objectives of this research were to establish the identity of C. vilior through epitypication using a recent collection that agrees with the type specimen in morphology, host and geography and to determine its phylogenetic position within Cosmospora sensu lato and the Nectriaceae. A multilocus phylogeny was constructed based on six loci (ITS, LSU, MCM7, rpb1, tef1, tub) to estimate a phylogeny. Results from the phylogenetic analyses indicated that C. vilior forms a monophyletic group with other cosmospora-like fungi that have an acremonium-like anamorph and that parasitize Eutypa and Eutypella (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Xylariales, Diatrypaceae). The group is phylogenetically distinct from other previously segregated genera. A new genus, Pseudocosmospora, is described to accommodate the type species, P. eutypellae, and nine additional species in this clade.
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Late bacterial endocarditis of an Amplatzer atrial septal device.
Indian Heart J
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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A 59-year-old male with an secundum atrial septal defect status post repair with an Amplatzer occluder in 2001 was admitted with sepsis and MRSA bacteremia. Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE) showed presence of an overlying mobile echogenic structure on the left atrial surface of the device suggestive of a vegetation/infected thrombus. This is only the 3rd case description of late endocarditis involving the Amplatzer ASD closure device in an adult.
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Genera in Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae, and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales) proposed for acceptance or rejection.
IMA Fungus
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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With the recent changes concerning pleomorphic fungi in the new International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), it is necessary to propose the acceptance or protection of sexual morph-typified or asexual morph-typified generic names that do not have priority, or to propose the rejection or suppression of competing names. In addition, sexual morph-typified generic names, where widely used, must be proposed for rejection or suppression in favour of asexual morph-typified names that have priority, or the latter must be proposed for conservation or protection. Some pragmatic criteria used for deciding the acceptance or rejection of generic names include: the number of name changes required when one generic name is used over another, the clarity of the generic concept, their relative frequencies of use in the scientific literature, and a vote of interested mycologists. Here, twelve widely used generic names in three families of Hypocreales are proposed for acceptance, either by conservation or protection, despite their lack of priority of publication, or because they are widely used asexual morph-typified names. Each pair of generic names is evaluated, with a recommendation as to the generic name to be used, and safeguarded, either through conservation or protection. Four generic names typified by a species with a sexual morph as type that are younger than competing generic names typified by a species with an asexual morph type, are proposed for use. Eight older generic names typified by species with an asexual morph as type are proposed for use over younger competing generic names typified by a species with a sexual morph as type. Within Bionectriaceae, Clonostachys is recommended over Bionectria; in Hypocreaceae, Hypomyces is recommended over Cladobotryum, Sphaerostilbella over Gliocladium, and Trichoderma over Hypocrea; and in Nectriaceae, Actinostilbe is recommended over Lanatonectria, Cylindrocladiella over Nectricladiella, Fusarium over Gibberella, Gliocephalotrichum over Leuconectria, Gliocladiopsis over Glionectria, Nalanthamala over Rubrinectria, Nectria over Tubercularia, and Neonectria over Cylindrocarpon.
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Betacarotene supplementation increases ovulation rate without an increment in LH secretion in cyclic goats.
Reprod Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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This study aimed to evaluate the effects of betacarotene (BC) supplementation on ovulation rate (OR) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in adult goats during the breeding season. Additionally, total ovarian activity (TOA) comprising the total number of ultrasonographically detectable antral follicles (AF) and corpora lutea (OR) was also assessed. In early October, adult goats [n=22, 3.5 years of age, 7/8 Sannen-Alpine; 26°N, 103°W at 1117m.a.s.l.] were randomly assigned to: (i) BC group (BCG), orally supplemented with 50mg of BC/goat/day [n=10; live weight (LW)=45.9±2.0kg, body condition score (BCS; range: 0-emaciated to 5-obese)=3.0±0.1], and (ii) control group (CONT) [n=12; LW=46.2±2.0kg, BCS=3.0±0.1]. All animals received a basal diet of alfalfa hay, corn silage and corn grain, with free access to water and mineral salts. The whole experimental period spanned 34 days before and 17 days after ovulation. On day 23 of the experiment, estrus was synchronized with progestin-releasing intravaginal sponges; 36h prior to estrus, an intensive blood sampling (every 15min for 6h) was performed to determine mean LH concentrations, pulsatility (LH-PULSE) and area under the curve (LH-AUC) for serial LH concentrations. Afterwards, by the end of the luteal phase (i.e., 17 days after the onset of estrus), an ultrasonographic scanning was performed to evaluate OR and TOA [AF+OR]. The average LW and BCS did not differ (p>0.05) during the experimental period. BC-supplemented goats showed an increase in OR (3.4±0.2 versus 2.8±0.2; p<0.05) and exhibited lower (p<0.05) serum LH concentrations, LH-AUC and LH-PULSE compared to CONT. A positive correlation was recorded between OR and LW (r(2)=0.42, p<0.05) and BCS (r(2)=0.47, p<0.05). In addition, AF (5.0±0.6 versus 3.4±0.6) and TOA (8.4±0.6 versus 6.2±0.6) were greater (p<0.05) in the BC-supplemented group than CONT. Supplementation with BC enhanced ovarian follicular development and ovulation rate in adult female goats under decreased photoperiods through LHRH-independant pathways or direct effects of BC on ovarian function.
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Long-term betacarotene-supplementation enhances serum insulin concentrations without effect on the onset of puberty in the female goat.
Reprod Biol
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2011
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The effect of betacarotene (BC) supplementation on the onset of puberty and serum insulin levels in goats was evaluated in the study. In June, prepuberal goats (n=17; 3 months old; 7/8 Saanen-Alpine; 26° NL) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1/ betacarotene group supplemented daily with 50 mg of BC (n=9; live weight [LW]: 17.3±1.0 kg; body condition score [BCS]: 3.34±0.12) or 2/ control group (CONT; n=8; LW:16.1±1.0 kg; BCS=3.17±0.12). From June to November, an intermittent blood sampling was performed twice per week in both groups to evaluate serum progesterone (P(4)), while monthly samples were intended for insulin (INS) determination. Initial mean LW (16.7±1.0 kg) and BCS (3.31±0.12) were similar (p>0.05) in both groups. Mean serum insulin (1.37 vs. 1.18±0.09 ng/ml), age of puberty (215.7 vs. 226.5±6.6 days) and the percentage of goats reaching puberty (44.4 vs. 25.0±17.0%) did not differ (p>0.05) between BC and CONT group, respectively. However, increase in serum insulin during the second half of the experiment was observed in BC group (p<0.05) which was positively correlated with LW (r=0.95; p<0.05). In addition, as LW (r=-0.89) and serum insulin (r=-0.76) levels increased, the natural photoperiod decreased, revealing negative correlations (p<0.05) between the respective variables. In this study, BC supplementation did not promote precocious puberty and did not affect the percentage of goats reaching activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal axis during the establishment of puberty. Nonetheless, BC supplementation positively affected the release pattern of insulin suggesting a potential role of BC as pancreas-activating molecule.
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Influence of sexually inactive bucks subjected to long photoperiod or testosterone on the induction of estrus in anovulatory goats.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of treating sexually inactive bucks with artificial long photoperiod or testosterone on the induction of estrus in anovulatory grazing goats. A total of 91 multiparous mixed-breed anestrous goats were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) joining with bucks subjected to 2.5 month of artificial long days (16 h of light/day; n=31), (2) joining with testosterone-treated bucks (n=30), and (3) joining with untreated bucks (control; n=30). There were no differences between the light-treated (100%) and testosterone-treated (93%) bucks in their ability to induce estrus in anovulatory does. On the other hand, none of the goats in contact with control bucks exhibited estrus. The interval from start of mating to estrus was shorter in goats with the light-treated bucks (37.9 ± 4.8 h) compared with does in contact with testosterone-treated bucks (58.3 ± 8.7 h). The overall pregnancy rate in goats joined with light-treated, testosterone-treated and control bucks was 84%, 77% and 0%, respectively, with no difference (P>0.05) between the first two groups. Anogenital sniffing, approaches, mounting attempts, and mounts were highest (P<0.01) in light-treated bucks and lowest in control bucks. It was concluded that testosterone-treated bucks and long-day-treated bucks were equally effective in synchronizing estrus in anovulatory goats and resulted in similar levels of fertility. Given that light-treated bucks are unviable in communal production systems of goats raised by resource-poor farmers, the sexual arousal of bucks with testosterone is a practical and reliable method to induce ovulation in anovulatory goats in pastoral goat systems in hot environments.
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The use of melatonin and progestagen-eCG to initiate reproductive activity in prepuberal Awassi ewe lambs.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of administering hormonal treatments (melatonin and progestagen/equine chronic gonadotropin (eCG)) on advancing puberty in Awassi ewe lambs. Fifty-one 6-month-old ewe lambs of similar body weights (around 28 kg) were randomly assigned into four treatment groups; control (CON; n?=?14), melatonin (MEL; n?=?13), melatonin plus progestagen-eCG (MELPP; n?=?11), and progestagen-eCG (PP; n?=?13). Ewe lambs in the PP and MELPP groups were fitted with intravaginal progestagen sponges containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days; 400 IU eCG were administered to each of these ewe lambs on the day of sponge removal. Ewe lambs in the MEL and MELPP groups received subcutaneous melatonin implants (Regulin®, 18 mg melatonin) 36 days before sponge insertion. Hormonal treatment had no effect on ewe lamb body weight change. Estrous behavior was greater (p?
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The effect of flushing and stimulus of estrogenized does on reproductive performance of anovulatory-range goats.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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This study was conducted to determine whether flushing or the stimulus of estrogenized goats is necessary to achieve a high reproductive response in anestrous goats on rangeland. Does were feed-supplemented on rangeland (flushed, n = 20). Other group was exposed to estrogenized does during the mating period (stimulated, n = 20). A third group was both supplemented and stimulated (stimulated-flushed, n = 20) and other group grazed on rangeland only (control, n = 18). More goats in the stimulated and stimulated-flushed groups showed estrus during the first 5 days of joining (45% and 60%, respectively) than the control and flushed groups (11% and 5%, respectively; P < 0.05). Flushing did not improve prolificacy and reduced (P < 0.05) kidding rates (40% and 35% for the flushed and stimulated-flushed groups, respectively) compared to 67% and 55% for the control and stimulated groups, respectively. This experiment demonstrates potential shortcomings of use of flushing in range goats with inadequate nutrition during gestation.
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Patterns of spatial variation of assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores: a global perspective.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2010
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Assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores were examined for large scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends of species richness and taxonomic distinctiveness. Seventy-two sites distributed around the globe were evaluated following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). There were no clear patterns of standardized estimators of species richness along latitudinal gradients or among Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs); however, a strong latitudinal gradient in taxonomic composition (i.e., proportion of different taxonomic groups in a given sample) was observed. Environmental variables related to natural influences were strongly related to the distribution patterns of the assemblages on the LME scale, particularly photoperiod, sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall. In contrast, no environmental variables directly associated with human influences (with the exception of the inorganic pollution index) were related to assemblage patterns among LMEs. Correlations of the natural assemblages with either latitudinal gradients or environmental variables were equally strong suggesting that neither neutral models nor models based solely on environmental variables sufficiently explain spatial variation of these assemblages at a global scale. Despite the data shortcomings in this study (e.g., unbalanced sample distribution), we show the importance of generating biological global databases for the use in large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages to stimulate continued sampling and analyses.
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Clinical prediction rule for stratifying risk of pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampin, is a worldwide problem.
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Relative roles of photoperiodic and nutritional cues in modulating ovarian activity in goats.
Reprod Biol
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2009
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The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of nutrition and its interaction with the photoperiod on the ovarian activity of Criollo goats. In early February (22 degrees NL, anestrous season) goats were randomly assigned to the two experimental groups: high (HN; n=10) and low (LN; n=10) nutrition goats. The HN group was fed in mixed prairies with grass and clover (17.3-/+7.5% of crude protein, CP; 66.3-/+5.7% dry organic matter, DOM) and received 150 g of concentrate (12% CP) per goat and day. The LN group received only corn stubble (6.2-/+0.7% CP, 53.7-/+1.9% DOM). Serum progesterone (P(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) concentrations were measured (RIA) at three selected periods of seasonal anestrous: early (8-24(th) March), mid (13(th) April - 3(rd) May) and late (26(th) May - 14(th) June) anestrous. Body weight, body condition and body condition index were determined at the beginning of the study and every 14 days. Body weight was positively correlated with serum T(3) (r=0.704; p<0.05). The percentage of cycling does during the three examined periods was higher (p<0.05) in the HN group than in the LN group (80 vs. 30%, 80 vs. 20%, and 60 vs. 10%, respectively). The high nutrition level increased reproductive activity of Criollo goats during all three periods of the anestrous season including deep anestrous.
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Estrus induction in anestrous mixed-breed goats using the "female-to-female effect".
Trop Anim Health Prod
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A trial was conducted during the anestrous period in female goats to determine: (a) whether estrus can be induced in anestrous goats by administration of equine chorionic gonadotropic hormone (eCG) and PGF2? under pen conditions and (b) whether these sexually active female goats can elicit sexual arousal in sexually inactive bucks. One hundred and fifteen pluriparous, nonlactating mixed-breed female goats were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1) administration of a single dose of 240 IU of eCG, 50 ?g PGF2? i.m., and 25 mg progesterone (P4) (eCG; n=30); (2) administration of P4 and exposure to female goats treated with eCG-PGF2? (P4; n=39); (3) administration of 0.5 ml saline and P4 (Sal; n=23); and (4) P4 plus exposure to female goats treated with saline (Con; n=23). After hormone administration, all goats were put together with adult sexually inactive bucks for 15 days. The percentage of goats in estrus during these 15 days was similar in eCG-treated animals and untreated animals exposed to the eCG animals (97 and 95%). Pregnancy rate was also similar (63 vs. 64%) between these two groups. eCG-treated goats exhibited estrus earlier (P<0.05) than the treated goats in contact with the eCG goats. Furthermore, eCG-treated goats had larger litters (1.9 ± 0.2 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1, P<0.05) than the untreated goats in contact with the eCG goats. These results show that fertile estrus can be induced in anestrous female goats by exposing them to female goats induced to estrus with eCG. This female-female interaction triggers the stimulation cycle leading to the sexual arousal of bucks.
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Dairy goat production systems: status quo, perspectives and challenges.
Trop Anim Health Prod
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Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the worlds dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the worlds goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation.
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Effect of nutritional supplementation upon pregnancy rates of goats under semiarid rangelands and exposed to the male effect.
Trop Anim Health Prod
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The aim of this study was to evaluate possible effects of improved protein and energy diet upon reproductive outcomes of adult goats under marginal rangeland grazing conditions and exposed to the male effect during the anoestrous-dry season. Adult goats (Nubian × Criollo, nonpregnant, nonlactating, n = 160, 22° 50 N, 100° 59 W, 1,653 m) were randomly divided in two experimental groups: Control (CG; n = 80) and Supplemented (SG; n = 80). Both CG and SG goats were kept together during the day for ranging a semiarid rangeland while separated accordingly at night. SG goats were individually supplemented [400 g kg(-1) day(-1); 14% CP and 2.92 Mcal DE kg(-1)] during a 30-day period. Thereafter, both the CG [35.5 ± 0.94 kg LW, 1.95 ± 0.06 U, body condition score (BCS)] and the SG [39.5 ± 0.94 kg LW, 2.29 ± 0.06 BCS] were exposed to adult males (Nubian, n = 4, two per group) of proven libido and fertility and kept together at night (1700-0900) during a 42-day experimental breeding period. At the beginning of the breeding period, both LW (P < 0.001) and BCS (P < 0.001) were higher in the SG, which was also reflected in higher pregnancy rate (92.5 vs. 76.3%, P < 0.01). Nonetheless, both CG and SG depicted an increased abortion rate (52.5 vs. 41.9% P > 0.05), respectively. Results suggest that nutritional supplementation and the male effect were able to successfully invoke neurophysiological pathways to increase ovarian activity and to promote a uterine milieu prone to the establishment of pregnancy during the anoestrus season. However, the increased abortion rates observed in the study occurred irrespective of the nutritional regime offered during the premating stage. Therefore, there is a need to align the last third of gestation to the onset of the grazing season in order to increase reproductive and economic efficiency in those rangeland-based marginal goat production systems.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.