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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with lifetime and current illicit substance-use disorders and in-site health risk behaviors in a representative sample of Latino prison inmates.
J Atten Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2015
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This study aimed to explore retrospective childhood ADHD symptomatology, psychiatric comorbidity, rates of substance-use disorders (SUD), as well as their association with high-risk health behaviors in prison and adverse health outcomes.
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Deren et al. Respond.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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We agree with the recommendations made by Lopez et al. to address contextual factors influencing the high rates of HIV among Puerto Rican people who inject drugs (PRPWID). We note that a recent publication from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), published after completion of our original article, described progress along the continuum of HIV care for Hispanics,(1) identifying the ongoing health disparities among people who inject drugs (PWID). The CDC report found that among those Hispanics who were HIV-infected, linkage to care and viral suppression were lower among those whose HIV infection was attributed to injection drug use than among those with infection attributed to other risk factors. As shown in our previous article, Puerto Ricans are overrepresented among Hispanic PWID. This further supports the need for coordinated public health efforts to target this vulnerable population to reduce HIV infection (e.g., enhanced access to clean syringes and to drug abuse treatment) and to address disparities along the HIV care continuum. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print November 13, 2014: e1. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302409).
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Prevalence and clinical features of psoriatic arthritis in psoriasis patients in Spain. Limitations of PASE as a screening tool.
Eur J Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Background: Diagnosing and initiating treatment of psoriatric arthritis (PsA) as early as possible is essential to prevent irreversible joint destruction and poor clinical outcomes. Dermatologists are uniquely placed to identify early symptoms of PsA in psoriasis patients but levels of under- and late-diagnosis remain high. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and clinical features of PsA in Spanish psoriatic patients attended by dermatologists and then referred to rheumatologic units for PsA diagnosis confirmation. Methods: a multicenter, non-interventional, cross-sectional trial conducted at 40 hospitals in Spain. Patients were initially screened for PsA by a dermatologist based on clinical evaluation and results from the Psoriatic Arthritis Screening and Evaluation (PASE) Questionnaire. All patients were then evaluated by a blinded rheumatologist for the presence of PsA using Moll and Wright criteria and Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR). Results: Of 375 psoriatic patients enrolled at dermatology units, 28.6% patients scored ?44 in PASE, whereas 32.3% patients screened positive for suspicion of PsA (clinical evaluation and/or PASE). Correlation of suspicion of PsA by dermatologists and PASE score was 0.368 (Pearson correlation coefficient). Following rheumatologic assessment, prevalence of PsA was 22.9% (86/375 patients) according to Moll and Wright and CASPAR criteria. The correlation of diagnosis of PsA between dermatologists and rheumatologists was 0.410 (Kappa Index). Conclusions: Prevalence of PsA in our study was within the range reported in other studies. Our analyses found only a moderate correlation in the diagnosis of PsA between dermatologists and rheumatologists. The screening questionnaire, PASE, showed a moderate predictive value for the diagnosis of PsA.
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Enhancement of Conventional TBNA Outcome After EBUS Training.
J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA) is a well-established technique for the diagnosis and staging of bronchogenic carcinoma. Because of the implementation of the endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA), the C-TBNA is being used less frequently. Despite its proven diagnostic utility some of the pulmonary fellowship programs have chosen to eliminate training for C-TBNA from their curriculum. The objective our study was to compare the outcomes of C-TBNA before and after the implementation of EBUS in our unit.
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Effects of communication media choice on the quality and efficacy of emergency calls assisted by a mobile nursing protocol tool.
Comput Inform Nurs
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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The transition from paper to electronic-based records in the healthcare industry has posed several challenges to conventional medical practices. The introduction of technology in day-to-day medical and nursing practices deserves careful consideration. In this work, we report the results of a controlled experiment to compare nurses' consultation in emergency calls in six different conditions. We studied the effect that the type of communication media (face-to-face, telephone, videoconference) and type of nursing protocol media (paper-based, electronic-based) can have on consultation time, mistakes made, pauses during consultation, eye contact, and efficacy of the consultation. We found that the type of communication media has an effect on consultation time; on average, fewer mistakes were made during telephone-based consultations; for eye contact, there were significantly fewer eye contacts during face-to-face than during videoconference consultations; finally, the type of communication media or protocol media did not have any effect in the efficacy of the consultation.
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[Review of the novelties presented at the 29th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) (II)].
Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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The most relevant data presented at the 29th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), held in October 2013 in Denmark, were summarised at the sixth edition of the Post-ECTRIMS Expert Meeting, held in Madrid in October 2013, resulting in this review, which is being published in three parts. This second part of the Post-ECTRIMS review focuses on diagnostic imaging and differential diagnosis, the clinical and paraclinical monitoring of neurodegeneration, progression and disability, and functional imaging and neural connectivity. It is clear that conventional multiple sclerosis sequences remain essential for the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and disease monitoring, that new MRI techniques help to assess the neurodegenerative process, and that some of the new sequences are more specific to neuroaxonal injury. Very high field magnetic resonance imaging allows better understanding of the lesion load, distribution and heterogeneity of the lesions, and positron emission tomography studies offer new insight into the patho-physiology of the disease. Functional imaging and neural connectivity studies show that there is cortical reorganisation in multiple sclerosis, whose equilibrium with structural damage is responsible for the impairment.
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Addressing the HIV/AIDS Epidemic Among Puerto Rican People Who Inject Drugs: The Need for a Multiregion Approach.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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High levels of HIV risk behaviors and prevalence have been reported among Puerto Rican people who inject drugs (PRPWID) since early in the HIV epidemic. Advances in HIV prevention and treatment have reduced HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States. We examined HIV-related data for PRPWID in Puerto Rico and the US Northeast to assess whether disparities continue. Injection drug use as a risk for HIV is still overrepresented among Puerto Ricans. Lower availability of syringe exchanges, drug abuse treatment, and antiretroviral treatment for PWID in Puerto Rico contribute to higher HIV risk and incidence. These disparities should be addressed by the development of a federally supported Northeast-Puerto Rico collaboration to facilitate and coordinate efforts throughout both regions.
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Calcium nephrolithiasis and bone demineralization: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and medical management.
Curr Opin Urol
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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To establish the relationship between calcium nephrolithiasis, bone densitometry scoring, and bone mineral density (BMD) loss according to bone turnover markers (BTMs) and urinary metabolites.
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Novel ethical dilemmas arising in geriatric clinical practice.
Med Health Care Philos
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The purpose of this study is to determine empirically the state of the art of the medical care, when healthcare personal is confronted with ethical dilemmas related with the care they give to the geriatric population. An observational, longitudinal, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing the correlation between healthcare personnel-patient relationship, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice with geriatric patients. Mexican healthcare personnel with current active practices were asked to write up an ethical dilemma that arose frequently or that had impacted their medical practice. From the narrative input, we were able to draw up a database with 421 dilemmas, and those corresponding to patients 60 years and older were selected (n = 54, 12.8 %). The axiological analysis of the narrative dilemmas of geriatric patients was made using dialectical empiricism. The axiological analysis values found most frequently were classified into three groups: the impact of healthcare, the roles of the physician, and refusal of therapy; the healthcare role of educator, caring for the patients' life and the risk of imminent death where the values found more often. The persistence and universality of certain dilemmas in geriatrics calls for awareness and requires a good training in the ethical discernment of these dilemmas. This would help to improve substantially the care and the life quality of this population.
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Refractive changes in nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular cataracts. Effect of the type and grade.
J Optom
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To determine the effect of main morphological types and grades of age-related cataracts on refractive error.
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Acid sphingomyelinase-ceramide system in steatohepatitis: a novel target regulating multiple pathways.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Steatohepatitis (SH) is an intermediate stage of fatty liver disease and one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide that may progress to cirrhosis and liver cancer. SH encompasses alcoholic and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, the latter being of particular concern due to its association with obesity and insulin resistance and a major cause of liver transplantation. The molecular mechanisms governing the transition from steatosis to SH are not fully understood. Here we discuss emerging data indicating that acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase), a specific mechanism of ceramide generation, is required for the activation of key pathways that regulate steatosis, fibrosis and lipotoxicity, including endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy and lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Moreover, ASMase modulates alterations of methionine cycle and phosphatidylcholine homeostasis, two crucial events involved in SH that regulate methylation reactions, antioxidant defense and membrane integrity. These new findings suggest that targeting ASMase in combination with restoration of methionine metabolism and phosphatidylcholine levels may be of utility in the treatment of SH.
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Near infrared spectral imaging for the analysis of dynamite residues on human handprints.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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This study examines the utility of near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) combined with chemometrics for the detection of dynamite residues on human handprints. Polyvinyl sheets containing dynamite residues were then analysed with the NIR-HSI system. A spectral library was developed by using partial least squares-discriminant analysis model (PLS-DA) to detect and classify the pixels contaminated with the dynamite residues. Values of sensitivity and specificity of 100% were obtained for both calibration and cross validation of dynamite and ammonium nitrate. The results were tested in real human handprints. Seven volunteers deposited their handprints into polyvinyl transparent sheets after the manipulation of a common type of dynamite which was mainly composed by ammonium nitrate. These results highlight the extremely high potential and capability of NIR-HSI combined with chemometrics for the fast and easy identification of explosive residues and additionally, its potential competence to detect the explosive manipulation.
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Dopamine receptor 2 activation inhibits ovarian vascular endothelial growth factor secretion in an ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) animal model: implications for treatment of OHSS with dopamine receptor 2 agonists.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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To explore whether a dopamine receptor 2 agonist (D2-ag) can prevent ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in a rat model by decreasing ovarian vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production.
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Proteins in olive fruit and oil.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.
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Global abundance of planktonic heterotrophic protists in the deep ocean.
ISME J
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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The dark ocean is one of the largest biomes on Earth, with critical roles in organic matter remineralization and global carbon sequestration. Despite its recognized importance, little is known about some key microbial players, such as the community of heterotrophic protists (HP), which are likely the main consumers of prokaryotic biomass. To investigate this microbial component at a global scale, we determined their abundance and biomass in deepwater column samples from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation using a combination of epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. HP were ubiquitously found at all depths investigated down to 4000?m. HP abundances decreased with depth, from an average of 72±19 cells?ml(-1) in mesopelagic waters down to 11±1 cells?ml(-1) in bathypelagic waters, whereas their total biomass decreased from 280±46 to 50±14?pg C?ml(-1). The parameters that better explained the variance of HP abundance were depth and prokaryote abundance, and to lesser extent oxygen concentration. The generally good correlation with prokaryotic abundance suggested active grazing of HP on prokaryotes. On a finer scale, the prokaryote:HP abundance ratio varied at a regional scale, and sites with the highest ratios exhibited a larger contribution of fungi molecular signal. Our study is a step forward towards determining the relationship between HP and their environment, unveiling their importance as players in the dark ocean's microbial food web.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 7 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.168.
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Exercise-referral scheme to promote physical activity among hypertensive patients: design of a cluster randomized trial in the Primary Health Care Units of Mexico's Social Security System.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Although the benefits of physical activity (PA) on to prevent and manage non-communicable diseases are well known, strategies to help increase the levels of PA among different populations are limited. Exercise-referral schemes have emerged as one effective approach to promote PA; however, there is uncertainty about the feasibility and effectiveness of these schemes in settings outside high-income countries. This study will examine the effectiveness of a scheme to refer hypertensive patients identified in Primary Health Care facilities (PHCU) of the Mexican social security institution to a group PA program offered in the same institution.
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Analysis and differentiation of paper samples by capillary electrophoresis and multivariate analysis.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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This work reports an investigation for the analysis of different paper samples using CE with laser-induced detection. Papers from four different manufactures (white-copy paper) and four different paper sources (white and recycled-copy papers, adhesive yellow paper notes and restaurant serviettes) were pulverized by scratching with a surgical scalpel prior to their derivatization with a fluorescent labeling agent, 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid. Methodological conditions were evaluated, specifically the derivatization conditions with the aim to achieve the best S/N signals and the separation conditions in order to obtain optimum values of sensitivity and reproducibility. The best conditions, in terms of fastest, and easiest sample preparation procedure, minimal sample consumption, as well as the use of the simplest and fastest CE-procedure for obtaining the best analytical parameters, were applied to the analysis of the different paper samples. The registered electropherograms were pretreated (normalized and aligned) and subjected to multivariate analysis (principal component analysis). A successful discrimination among paper samples without entanglements was achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this work presents the first approach to achieve a successful differentiation among visually similar white-copy paper samples produced by different manufactures and paper from different paper sources through their direct analysis by CE-LIF and subsequent comparative study of the complete cellulose electropherogram by chemometric tools.
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Long-term effectiveness of glatiramer acetate in clinical practice conditions.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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Glatiramer acetate currently represents one of the main treatments for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However, the information available about its long-term effect in clinical practice is still limited. Thus, this multicenter retrospective cohort study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of glatiramer acetate in this setting. The study population included RRMS patients treated with glatiramer acetate for at least 5years after its marketing authorization and the primary endpoint was long-term clinical effectiveness, defined as absence of disability progression for at least five consecutive years. A total of 149 patients were included into the study, who had received glatiramer acetate for a mean of 6.9±1.4years (5years, n=149; 6years, n=112; 7years, n=63; 8years, n=32; 9years, n=21). More than 85% of patients remained free from disability progression through years 1 to 9 of glatiramer acetate treatment, and 75.2% showed absence of disability progression for at least five consecutive years. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores were maintained, with most patients showing stable/improved EDSS and 92.6% sustaining EDSS <6. Decreased annual relapse rates and increased proportion of relapse-free patients were maintained during the whole glatiramer acetate treatment compared to the year prior to its authorization (p<0.001). The number of gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted lesions also decreased from pre-glatiramer-acetate assessment to last follow-up whilst on glatiramer acetate (p<0.05). In conclusion, administration of glatiramer acetate shows long-term clinical effectiveness for RRMS treatment; its effect under clinical practice conditions slowed disability progression and reduced relapse occurrence for up to 9years.
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Calcium nephrolithiasis induced by topiramate.
Arch. Esp. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Topiramate is an approved drug to treat seizures, but its indications have been extended to other diseases of the nervous system and as an adjuvant to chronic pain. We present four cases of topiramate-induced nephrolithiasis from 2006-2012 in women whose treatment was prescribed for pain control and as a mood stabilizer at doses of 250-300 mg/day. In two cases, the lithiasis was caused by calcium phosphate (patite) and in the other two cases by oxalate and calcium phosphate. The most common metabolic alteration was an alkaline pH, followed by hypocitraturia. The drug was discontinued in two patient; it was reduced in one and was maintained in the fourth. An increase in fluid and potassium citrate intake was prescribed. In patients starting treatment with topiramate, an adequate control and prevention of nephrolithiasis should be performed due to the risk of mixed tubular acidosis and hypocitraturia. to the risk of mixed tubular acidosis and hypocitraturia.
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Oxidative stress markers in predicting response to treatment with ferric carboxymaltose in nondialysis chronic kidney disease patients.
Clin. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Nearly half of all non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients respond to iron therapy. Factors affecting anemia response to iron therapy are not well characterized. Oxidative stress (OS) is a recognized factor for anemia in CKD and promotes erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) resistance; however, the influence in predicting response to intravenous (IV) iron has not been evaluated.
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Fundamentals on new capillaries inspired by photonic crystal fibers as optofluidic separation systems in CE.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Two prototypes of microstructured capillaries (MSCs) were designed, manufactured, and used to carry out different experiments. MSC-1 consisted of six holes of ?28 ?m id whereas MSC-2 consisted of 85 holes of ?7.7 ?m id. A fundamental study on the hydrodynamic injection through a commercial CE equipment was conducted. Experimental times to flush specific volumes were approximately three times larger than the theoretical values. Then, the detection of starch was carried out by using the MSCs and conventional capillaries, and the electropherograms were compared on the basis of analytical parameters employed in CE. An improvement in peak asymmetry was obtained for the MSC-1 compared to the conventional capillaries. S/N was one order of magnitude increased with the MSC, improving ten times the sensitivity. Considering this advantage, the separation and detection of nitrostarch was performed as a first application of the MSC-1. Minimal sample amounts of nitrostarch (1.7 ?g) were detected. Results present a real interest in forensics since this substance had not been previously detected through CE, leading to new investigations in the design of new capillaries capable of enhancing CE performance.
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Phenolic composition of vinegars over an accelerated aging process using different wood species (acacia, cherry, chestnut, and oak): effect of wood toasting.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Wood shavings are widely employed in vinegar making to reduce aging time. Accordingly, this study aims to evaluate the effects of using shavings from different wood species (acacia, cherry, chestnut, and oak) and of toasting on the release of phenolic compounds into vinegar during the aging process. The study involved aging vinegars using previously toasted shavings and untoasted ones, at 0.5% and 1% (w/v), and collecting samples at 15 and 30 days. The phenolic compounds were analyzed by LC-DAD during the aging process. As a result, wood markers naringenin and kaempferol (cherry), robinetin and fustin (acacia), and isovanillin (oak) were identified for the first time in vinegars. The results also showed that toasting wood shavings decreases the concentration of most flavonoid wood markers (e.g., (+)-taxifolin, naringenin, and fustin) in vinegar, but that it is essential for the highest releases of aldehyde compounds (syringaldehyde, protocatechualdehyde, and vanillin). Remarkably, 15 days was sufficient to obtain the highest increases of most polyphenol compounds in the vinegar. Statistical analysis (linear discriminant analysis) proved that the phenolic compounds identified in vinegars are useful for discriminating vinegars regarding the wood species of the shavings used to accelerate aging.
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Detection of residues from explosive manipulation by near infrared hyperspectral imaging: a promising forensic tool.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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In this study near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) is used to provide a fast, non-contact, non-invasive and non-destructive method for the analysis of explosive residues on human handprints. Volunteers manipulated individually each of these explosives and after deposited their handprints on plastic sheets. For this purpose, classical explosives, potentially used as part of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) as ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite were studied. A partial-least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was built to detect and classify the presence of explosive residues in handprints. High levels of sensitivity and specificity for the PLS-DA classification model created to identify ammonium nitrate, blackpowder, single- and double-base smokeless gunpowders and dynamite residues were obtained, allowing the development of a preliminary library and facilitating the direct and in situ detection of explosives by NIR-HSI. Consequently, this technique is showed as a promising forensic tool for the detection of explosive residues and other related samples.
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Determination of fungicides in white grape bagasse by pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (GC TQ-MS) were used for the rapid determination of 11 fungicides (metalaxyl, cyprodinil, procymidone, iprovalicarb, myclobutanyl, kresoxim-methyl, benalaxyl, fenhexamide, tebuconazole, iprodione and dimethomorph) in white grape bagasse. The extractions were optimized on real non-spiked samples by means of experimental design and the optimal conditions were selected to achieve the method validation. The PLE procedure showed much higher efficiency than UAE for the target fungicides. Under the selected extraction conditions, PLE showed satisfactory linearity, repeatability and reproducibility. Recoveries for the majority of studied fungicides were higher than 80% with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 12%. Limits of detection (LODs) for GC TQ-MS were very low, at the sub ngg(-1) for the majority of the target fungicides, well below the European maximum residue limits (MRLs) for wine and table grapes, and vine leaves. Eighteen white grape bagasse samples were analyzed and nine out of eleven targets were detected in the samples. Seven of them were detected in more than 50% of the samples and most samples contained at least four of the target analytes. The most frequently found compounds were tebuconazole and dimethomorph with concentrations between 1.6-130 and 2.0-1788ngg(-1), respectively. Some samples showed high levels of many of the studied fungicides (high ngg(-1), even ?gg(-1) for cyprodinil, fenhexamide, iprodione and dimethomorph), but all of them below the European maximum residue limits (MRLs) for wine grapes.
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A comparison of radio-frequency biomotion sensors and actigraphy versus polysomnography for the assessment of sleep in normal subjects.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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This paper aims to compare the absolute performance of three noncontact sleep measurement devices for measuring sleep parameters in normal subjects against polysomnography and to assess their relative performance.
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Development of a multi-preservative method based on solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for cosmetic analysis.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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A simple methodology based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of different classes of preservatives including benzoates, bronidox, 2-phenoxyethanol, parabens, BHA, BHT and triclosan in cosmetic products. In situ acetylation and subsequent organic modifier addition have been successfully implemented in the SPME process as an effective extractive strategy for matrix effect compensation and chromatographic performance improvement. Main factors affecting SPME procedure such as fiber coating, sampling mode, extraction temperature and salt addition (NaCl) were evaluated by means of a 3×2(3-1) factorial experimental design. The optimal experimental conditions were established as follows: direct solid-phase microextraction (SPME) at 40°C and addition of NaCl (20%, w/v), using a DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber coating. Due to the complexity of the studied matrices, method performance was evaluated in a representative variety of both rinse-off and leave-on samples, demonstrating to have a broad linear range (R(2)>0.9964). In general, quantitative recoveries (>85% in most cases) and satisfactory precision (RSD<13% for most of compounds) were obtained, with limits of detection (LODs) well below the maximum authorized concentrations established by the European legislation. One of the most important achievements of this work was the use of external calibration with cosmetic-matched standards to accurately quantify the target analytes. The validated methodology was successfully applied to the analysis of different types of cosmetic formulations including body milks, moisturizing creams, deodorants, sunscreen, bath gel, dental cream and make-up products amongst others, demonstrating to be a reliable multi-preservative methododology for routine control.
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Recent non-chemical approaches to estimate the shooting distance.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Shooting distance estimation offers useful information for the reconstruction of firearm related incidents. The muzzle to target distance is usually estimated by examining the bullet entrance hole and the gunshot residue pattern. To visualize the pattern the forensic analyst usually uses presumptive tests based on color chemical reactions that are applied using long and tedious proceedings. Due to the drawbacks of the chemical tests recent developments for shooting distance estimation not based on color chemical tests were described in the literature. The present review covers the approaches for shooting distance estimation published in the last 10 years considering two types of target, clothing and skin.
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Bioactive compounds derived from the yeast metabolism of aromatic amino acids during alcoholic fermentation.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Metabolites resulting from nitrogen metabolism in yeast are currently found in some fermented beverages such as wine and beer. Their study has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Some metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids are bioactive compounds that can behave as hormones or even mimic their role in humans and may also act as regulators in yeast. Although the metabolic pathways for their formation are well known, the physiological significance is still far from being understood. The understanding of this relevance will be a key element in managing the production of these compounds under controlled conditions, to offer fermented food with specific enrichment in these compounds or even to use the yeast as nutritional complements.
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Effect of experimental parameters in the pressurized solvent extraction of polyphenolic compounds from white grape marc.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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A method based on pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) to determine main polyphenolic compounds in the grape marc obtained as a byproduct of the white winemaking process has been developed. As response variables in the optimisation process include main individual polyphenols, as well as spectrophotometric indexes. The optimised PSE procedure implies the use of 1 g of sample, without preliminary clean-up step, sea sand as dispersant, temperature of 105 °C, methanol (63%) in water as solvent, and 5 min of extraction time (2 static cycles). The performance of the proposed method has been assessed in terms of recovery (91-105%), linearity (R(2)>0.995) and precision. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of bagasse samples collected from 12 wineries located in Galicia (NW Spain). Data of the in vitro antioxidant activities of the PSE extracts are also discussed.
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Anions in pre- and post-blast consumer fireworks by capillary electrophoresis.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Consumer fireworks are a heterogeneous group of pyrotechnic items widely used by citizens around the world. There are a wide number of forensic cases related to consumer fireworks that require knowing their chemical composition and variety of designs to conduct accurate and comprehensive analyses. In this research paper, a selection of six consumer firework types (firecracker, rocket, pyrotechnic fountain, pyrotechnic battery, sparkler, and smoke bomb) is physically described and their anionic compositions are determined. Preblast (fuses and charges) samples and postblast residues of the different consumer fireworks were analyzed by CE in order to determine their anionic composition. Different types of chemical compositions in fuses and pyrotechnic charges were determined, although they were not related to any type of item. Additionally, several discrepancies were found between the analytical results and the declared item compositions. Regarding postblast residues, a huge variety of anions were identified and attributed to some unconsumed starting materials and different chemical reactions occurring during combustion.
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ASMase regulates autophagy and lysosomal membrane permeabilization and its inhibition prevents early stage non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) is activated in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the contribution of ASMase to NASH is poorly understood and limited to hepatic steatosis and glucose metabolism. Here we examined the role of ASMase in high fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH.
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Chronobiology of death in heart failure.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed)
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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In the general population, heart events occur more often during early morning, on Mondays, and during winter. However, the chronobiology of death in heart failure has not been analyzed. The aim of this study was to determine the circadian, day of the week, and seasonal variability of all-cause mortality in chronic heart failure.
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Confocal Raman spectroscopy to trace lipstick with their smudges on different surfaces.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Lipsticks are very popular cosmetic products that can be transferred by contact to different surfaces, being important forensic evidence with an intricate analysis if they are found in a crime scene. This study evaluates the use of confocal Raman microscopy at 780 nm excitation wavelength for the nondestructive identification of 49 lipsticks of different brands and colors, overcoming the lipstick fluorescence problem reported by previous works using other laser wavelengths. Although the lipsticks samples showed some fluorescence, this effect was not so intense to completely overwhelm the Raman spectra. Lipsticks smudges on twelve different surfaces commonly stained with these samples were also analyzed. In the case of the surfaces, some of them provided several bands to the smudge spectra compromising the identification of the lipstick. For these samples spectral subtraction of the interfering bands from the surface was performed. Finally, five different red lipsticks with very similar color were measured on different surfaces to evaluate the lipstick traceability with their smudges even on interfering surfaces. Although previous spectral subtraction was needed in some cases, all the smudged were linked to their corresponding lipsticks even when they are smeared on the interfering surfaces. As a consequence, confocal Raman microscopy using the 780 nm excitation laser is presented as a nondestructive powerful tool for the identification of these tricky samples.
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Process and outcome for international reliability in sleep scoring.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The aim was to evaluate the inter-rater reliability in scoring sleep stages in two sleep labs in Berlin Germany and Beijing China.
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Oral health status in older adults with social security in Mexico City: Latent class analysis.
J Clin Exp Dent
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City.
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Identification of halogenated photoproducts generated after ultraviolet-irradiation of parabens and benzoates in water containing chlorine by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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This work presents a new solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-based approach to investigate the formation of halogenated by-products generated by the UV-induced photodegradation of parabens and their congener benzoates in water containing chlorine. Degradation of parent species, and further identification of their transformation by-products were monitored by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In order to improve detectability, SPME was applied as a preconcentration step after UV-irradiation of target preservatives. Experiments performed with dechlorinated water, ultrapure water, and tap water showed that under UV-light, the presence of even low levels of free chlorine, increases the photodegradation rate of target preservatives, enhancing the formation of halogenated photoproducts. Monobrominated, dibrominated and bromochlorinated hydroxybenzoates were identified, and the transformation of benzoates into halogenated parabens was also confirmed. Bromination is expected to occur when free chlorine is present, due to the presence of traces of bromide in water samples. Five halogenated phenols (mainly brominated) were detected as breakdown photoproducts from both families of target preservatives. On the basis of the appearance of the aforementioned by-products, a tentative transformation pathway, consistent with the photoformation-photodecay kinetics of the by-products, is proposed herein for the first time.
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Development of a multianalyte method based on micro-matrix-solid-phase dispersion for the analysis of fragrance allergens and preservatives in personal care products.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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An effective, simple and low cost sample preparation method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been developed for the rapid simultaneous determination of 38 cosmetic ingredients, 25 fragrance allergens and 13 preservatives. All target substances are frequently used in cosmetics and personal care products and they are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements according to the EU Cosmetic Directive. The extraction procedure was optimized on real non-spiked rinse-off and leave-on cosmetic products by means of experimental designs. The final miniaturized process required the use of only 0.1g of sample and 1 mL of organic solvent, obtaining a final extract ready for analysis. The micro-MSPD method was validated showing satisfactory performance by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS analysis. The use of GC coupled to triple quadrupole mass detection allowed to reach very low detection limits (low ng g(-1)) improving, at the same time, method selectivity. In an attempt to improve the chromatographic analysis of preservatives, the inclusion of a derivatization step was also assessed. The proposed method was applied to a broad range of cosmetics and personal care products (shampoos, body milk, moisturizing milk, toothpaste, hand creams, gloss lipstick, sunblock, deodorants and liquid soaps among others), demonstrating the extended use of these substances. The concentration levels were ranging from the sub parts per million to the parts per mill. The number of target fragrance allergens per samples was quite high (up to 16). Several fragrances (linalool, farnesol, hexylcinnamal, and benzyl benzoate) have been detected at levels >0.1% (1,000 ?g g(-1)). As regards preservatives, phenoxyethanol was the most frequently found additive reaching quite high concentration (>1,500 ?g g(-1)) in five cosmetic products. BHT was detected in eight samples, in two of them (a baby care product and a lipstick) at high concentrations (>1,000 ?g g(-1)). Methyl paraben was also found at high levels (>1,700 ?g g(-1)) in three leave-on samples. Finally, triclosan was found at the maximum concentration limit (0.3%) laid down by the European regulation in two deodorant samples, and the total paraben concentration was close to the maximum concentration permitted (0.8%) in one leave-on sample (body milk).
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Effects of the strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) purée elaboration process on non-anthocyanin phenolic composition and antioxidant activity.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Strawberries are harvested in a short period of time frequently involving fruit surplus. This paper studies the impact of the strawberry purée elaboration process on the chemical composition of the final products. Thirty-two phenolic compounds were studied by Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector (LC-DAD) and Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). An LC-DAD method was set up and validated and the non-anthocyanin phenolic profile was quantified at the different steps of production, for three elaboration processes and two harvests (2011 and 2012). We have tentatively identified apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-3-O-glucuronide, malonyl caffeoylquinic acid, trans-resveratrol glucoside and caffeoylglucaric isomer. (+)-Catechin and HHDP-galloylglucose were the most abundant phenolic compounds. The most abundant flavonol was kaempferol-3-glucoside. The purée maintains the fruit's non-anthocyanin phenolic composition and in vitro antioxidant activity as determined by ORAC and DPPH methods. This fact suggests that strawberry purée could be considered a valuable ingredient for producing food derivatives.
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Dopamine receptor 2 activation inhibits ovarian vascular endothelial growth factor secretion in vitro: implications for treatment of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome with dopamine receptor 2 agonists.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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To ascertain whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by luteinized granulosa cells (GCs) is modulated by the dopaminergic system in a dose-dependent fashion and how this is related to the differential efficacy of dopamine receptor 2 (D2)-agonists (D2-ag) in preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS).
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Depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults in Mexico City.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Determine the structure of depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults through the person-centered approach of latent class analysis (LCA).
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Electrophoretic fingerprinting of benzodiazepine tablets in spike drinks.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the reports of drug-facilitated crimes. The list of drugs associated with these crimes is extensive and benzodiazepines constitute one of the groups of substances more commonly used. The sedative properties, which characterize benzodiazepines, are enhanced when such drugs are combined with alcohol, being more attractive for committing these types of crimes. In this work, a capillary electrophoresis method was applied to the analysis of 63 different samples of club drinks spiked with benzodiazepine tablets. The resulting electropherograms were processed and analyzed with the chemometric multivariate techniques: principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA) classification. The PCA results allowed a clear differentiation of each drug class in a 3D plot. In addition, the SIMCA classification model (5% significance level) showed that eight out of nine test samples were automatically assigned by software to their proper sample class. The conflicting sample was correctly classified in the Coomans' plot (95% confidence). This novel approach based on the comparison of electrophoretic profiles of spiked drinks by chemometric tools allows determining the benzodiazepine used for drink spiking without the use of drug standards. Moreover, it provides an opportunity for the forensic laboratories to incorporate the identification capability provided by the electrophoretic fingerprinting of benzodiazepine solutions in existing or new databases.
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Raman identification of drug of abuse particles collected with colored and transparent tapes.
Sci. Justice
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Raman microscopy is a useful tool for the analysis of drug particles collected with adhesive tapes. In this work, first, the spectra of thirty drugs of abuse, degradation products, metabolites, and common cutting agent standards were recorded and the Raman bands observed were summarized providing the forensic analyst useful information for the identification of drug evidence. Then, the collection of different drug particles by a fingerprint lifting tape commonly used to remove and store fingerprints and fibers, and a white and green packaging tape, followed by the subsequent identification of the drugs by confocal Raman spectroscopy was performed. The particles were analyzed on top of the tapes, trapped between glass slides and the tapes, trapped in the tape folded over itself in the case of the transparent tape, and after folding and unfolding the tape in the case of the colored tape. The results obtained by the different approaches show that both tapes did not compromise the drugs spectra. However, the use of transparent tape is preferred because this tape allows the previous visual detection of the particles. Finally, several drug and sugar particles were spread over a clean table and inside a pocket, and the particles were collected with transparent tape and then properly identified. Although good results were obtained in both cases, the amount of fibers and other substances present in the collection area made the previous detection of the particles difficult and increases the analysis time.
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Simultaneous Deletion of p21Cip1/Waf1 and Caspase-3 Accelerates Proliferation and Partially Rescues the Differentiation Defects of Caspase-3 Deficient Hematopoietic Stem Cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Specialized blood cells are generated through the entire life of an organism by differentiation of a small number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). There are strictly regulated mechanisms assuring a constant and controlled production of mature blood cells. Although such mechanisms are not completely understood, some factors regulating cell cycle and differentiation have been identified. We have previously shown that Caspase-3 is an important regulator of HSC homeostasis and cytokine responsiveness. p21cip1/waf1 is a known cell cycle regulator, however its role in stem cell homeostasis seems to be limited. Several reports indicate interactions between p21cip1/waf1 and Caspase-3 in a cell type dependent manner. Here we studied the impact of simultaneous depletion of both factors on HSC homeostasis. Depletion of both Caspase-3 and p21cip1/waf1 resulted in an even more pronounced increase in the frequency of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. In addition, simultaneous deletion of both genes revealed a further increase of cell proliferation compared to single knock-outs and WT control mice, while apoptosis or self-renewal ability were not affected in any of the genotypes. Upon transplantation, p21cip1/waf1-/- bone marrow did not reveal significant alterations in engraftment of lethally irradiated mice, while Caspase-3 deficient HSPC displayed a significant reduction of blood cell production. However, when both p21cip1/waf1 and Caspase-3 were eliminated this differentiation defect caused by Caspase-3 deficiency was abrogated.
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The gene expression response of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to IL-4 is specific, depends on ZAP-70 status and is differentially affected by an NF?B inhibitor.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Interleukin 4 (IL-4), an essential mediator of B cell development, plays a role in survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. To obtain new insights into the function of the IL-4 pathway in CLL, we analyzed the gene expression response to IL-4 in CLL and in normal B cells (NBC) by oligonucleotide microarrays, resulting in the identification of 232 non-redundant entities in CLL and 146 in NBC (95 common, 283 altogether), of which 189 were well-defined genes in CLL and 123 in NBC (83 common, 229 altogether) (p<0.05, 2-fold cut-off). To the best of our knowledge, most of them were novel IL-4 targets for CLL (98%), B cells of any source (83%), or any cell type (70%). Responses were significantly higher for 54 and 11 genes in CLL and NBC compared to each other, respectively. In CLL, ZAP-70 status had an impact on IL-4 response, since different sets of IL-4 targets correlated positively or negatively with baseline expression of ZAP-70. In addition, the NF?B inhibitor 6-Amino-4-(4-phenoxyphenethylamino)quinazoline, which reversed the anti-apoptotic effect of IL-4, preferentially blocked the response of genes positively correlated with ZAP-70 (e.g. CCR2, SUSD2), but enhanced the response of genes negatively correlated with ZAP-70 (e.g. AUH, BCL6, LY75, NFIL3). Dissection of the gene expression response to IL-4 in CLL and NBC contributes to the understanding of the anti-apoptotic response. Initial evidence of a connection between ZAP-70 and NF?B supports further exploration of targeting NF?B in the context of the assessment of inhibition of the IL-4 pathway as a therapeutic strategy in CLL, especially in patients expressing bad prognostic markers.
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Synergy between sphingosine 1-phosphate and lipopolysaccharide signaling promotes an inflammatory, angiogenic and osteogenic response in human aortic valve interstitial cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Given that the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate is involved in cardiovascular pathophysiology, and since lipid accumulation and inflammation are hallmarks of calcific aortic stenosis, the role of sphingosine 1-phosphate on the pro-inflammatory/pro-osteogenic pathways in human interstitial cells from aortic and pulmonary valves was investigated. Real-time PCR showed sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor expression in aortic valve interstitial cells. Exposure of cells to sphingosine 1-phosphate induced pro-inflammatory responses characterized by interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 up-regulations, as observed by ELISA and Western blot. Strikingly, cell treatment with sphingosine 1-phosphate plus lipopolysaccharide resulted in the synergistic induction of cyclooxygenase-2, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1, as well as the secretion of prostaglandin E2, the soluble form of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor-A. Remarkably, the synergistic effect was significantly higher in aortic valve interstitial cells from stenotic than control valves, and was drastically lower in cells from pulmonary valves, which rarely undergo stenosis. siRNA and pharmacological analysis revealed the involvement of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors 1/3 and Toll-like receptor-4, and downstream signaling through p38/MAPK, protein kinase C, and NF-?B. As regards pro-osteogenic pathways, sphingosine 1-phosphate induced calcium deposition and the expression of the calcification markers bone morphogenetic protein-2 and alkaline phosphatase, and enhanced the effect of lipopolysaccharide, an effect that was partially blocked by inhibition of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors 3/2 signaling. In conclusion, the interplay between sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling leads to a cooperative up-regulation of inflammatory, angiogenic, and osteogenic pathways in aortic valve interstitial cells that seems relevant to the pathogenesis of aortic stenosis and may allow the inception of new therapeutic approaches.
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Glutathione and mitochondria.
Front Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Glutathione (GSH) is the main non-protein thiol in cells whose functions are dependent on the redox-active thiol of its cysteine moiety that serves as a cofactor for a number of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. While synthesized exclusively in the cytosol from its constituent amino acids, GSH is distributed in different compartments, including mitochondria where its concentration in the matrix equals that of the cytosol. This feature and its negative charge at physiological pH imply the existence of specific carriers to import GSH from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix, where it plays a key role in defense against respiration-induced reactive oxygen species and in the detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides and electrophiles. Moreover, as mitochondria play a central strategic role in the activation and mode of cell death, mitochondrial GSH has been shown to critically regulate the level of sensitization to secondary hits that induce mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and release of proteins confined in the intermembrane space that once in the cytosol engage the molecular machinery of cell death. In this review, we summarize recent data on the regulation of mitochondrial GSH and its role in cell death and prevalent human diseases, such as cancer, fatty liver disease, and Alzheimer's disease.
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Review of the novelties presented at the 28th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) (III).
Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2013
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The most significant data presented at the 28th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), held in France in October 2012, have been summarised in the fifth edition of the Post-ECTRIMS Experts Meeting, held in Madrid in October 2012. This led to the drafting of this review, which has been published in three parts. This third part of the Post-ECTRIMS review presents the findings from the latest studies conducted with disease-modifying treatments, more specifically with glatiramer acetate, laquinimod, ponesimod, BG-12, teriflunomide, daclizumab, natalizumab and secukinumab (AIN457). Likewise, we also address the reasons that justify the search for innovative treatments for multiple sclerosis, with antigen-specific therapy, cell therapy and therapy aimed at promoting remyelination being highlighted among other future therapeutic strategies. Access to new pharmacological agents and the complexity of the therapy of multiple sclerosis in the future will require new design strategies and directions in clinical trials, including the use of surrogate markers, new statistical applications, superiority, inferiority or equivalence clinical trials and adaptable designs.
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Review of the novelties presented at the 28th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) (I).
Rev Neurol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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The most relevant data presented at the 28th edition of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), held in October 2012 in France, have been summarized in the fifth edition of the Post-ECTRIMS Expert Meeting held in Madrid in October 2012. The present review summarizes the views and results of the meeting and is being published in three parts. This first part of the Post-ECTRIMS review addresses the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS), which has increased at the global level, largely due to the increased incidence in women because the risk of developing the disease is increased in females, with minimal concurrent effect on the progression of MS. Sexual dimorphism is evident in MS, and all evidence points to an interaction between hormonal, genetic, and environmental factors. The paediatric population represents an ideal group to study susceptibility factors to the disease, which is why collaborative studies designed to increase the patient samples are being considered, given its low prevalence. In this review, inflammatory and neurodegenerative phenomena involved in the pathogenesis of the disease and that have a cause-and-effect or shared relationship with the disease are being discussed. Current hypotheses suggest a phenomenon of compartmentalization, presumably inaccessible to current immunomodulatory therapy. Among the possible mechanisms involved in these processes of inflammation and demyelination, the role of Th17 cells, mitochondrial dysfunction, early disruption of astrocytic processes, and chronic hypoxia are discussed.
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Quality of dry-cured ham compared with quality of dry-cured shoulder.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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The physicochemical and sensory properties of 30 dry-cured hams and 30 dry-cured shoulders were analyzed to determine the relationships between them. The variables used to characterize both products were: compositional parameters, instrumental texture, amino acid and fatty acid composition, and sensory profile. Despite being products from the same animal and composed mainly of fat, lean, and bone, their morphological differences determine the conditions of the processing time, which produced differences between products in most of the parameters evaluated. Dry-cured shoulders showed lower moisture content and greater instrumental hardness due to their morphology and muscular structure. Besides, these samples showed lower amino acid content according to the shorter ripening time. For the same reason, the dry-cured hams showed higher moisture content, lower instrumental hardness, and higher amino acid content. However, the differences in the muscular structure did not affect the sensory characteristics, which were more related with some compositional parameters, such as chloride, moisture, and amino acid content and with the length of the curing process.
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[STI and HIV prevention in female sex workers at border communities in Central America].
Salud Publica Mex
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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To analyze access to STI and HIV prevention services for female sex workers in border communities of Central America.
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A study to visualize and determine the sequencing of intersecting ink lines.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Determining the sequencing of intersecting ink lines is one of the current problems for forensic document examiners. The way two inks will distribute and interact with each other and the paper at the crossing is a dynamic process that can be affected by many variables. Thus, the main purpose of this manuscript is to visualize and have a more comprehensive understanding of this process as well as study a methodology for determining the correct order of intersecting ink lines. For this, overlapping layers of different types of inks from writing instruments and printers were cross-sectioned and examined with a microscope. Results from pen/pen crossings showed that liquid-liquid and gel-gel intersections tended to form a double layer but oil-oil intersections usually formed mixtures. Additionally, oil-liquid and oil-gel intersections tended to form a double layer whenever the oil ink was on top and liquid-gel intersections tended to form a double layer for almost all crossings with exception of the ones involving a gel pen ink from one manufacturer. Results from pen/printer crossings showed the formation of a double layer only when the printer ink was on top of the pen ink. On the other permutation, the pen ink tended to penetrate through the printer ink producing the mixture of both inks. The inks drying time was found to be an important factor affecting the interaction between two inks in a crossing, particularly crossings involving gel pen inks. On the contrary, the type of paper and the writing pressure showed no significant influence on the inks distribution at the crossing. The methodology developed was reproducible with overlapping layers but there were many experimental difficulties during the validation process of intersections representing real crossings. Moreover, interpretation was dependent on the operators eye which was a limiting factor.
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[Health status and wellness among older adult beneficiaries of the ISSSTE and IMSS in Southwest Mexico City].
Rev. Invest. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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To explore the conditions of health and wellness in older adults beneficiaries to ISSSTE and IMSS of the Southwest Mexico City.
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Delta-like ligand 4 regulates vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-driven luteal angiogenesis through induction of a tip/stalk phenotype in proliferating endothelial cells.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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To explore whether the Dll4/Notch-1 signaling pathway modulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-dependent luteal angiogenesis and related function, by inducing a tip/stalk phenotype in endothelial cells (ECs).
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Frailty among community-dwelling elderly Mexican people: Prevalence and association with sociodemographic characteristics, health state and the use of health services.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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To estimate the prevalence of frailty phenotypes and their association with the sociodemographic characteristics, health state and the use of health services in the last 6 months among community-dwelling elderly in Mexico City.
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Study of the volatile compounds and odor-active compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham extracted by SPME.
Food Sci Technol Int
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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The volatile compounds and the most odor-active compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham were investigated by extracting them using a solid phase microextraction technique with a 2?cm Carboxen/PDMS/DVB fiber. The detection frequency method was applied to estimate the potential contribution of each compound to the odor of hams. Twenty-one volatile compounds were tentatively identified for the first time in dry-cured ham by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and eight in dry-cured Iberian ham. Gas chromatography-olfactometry allowed the identification for the first time of six compounds not previously reported as odorants of Iberian ham, and also two odorants were newly identified in dry-cured ham. According to the detection frequency method, the most odor active compounds found were 3-methylbutanoic acid (dirty sock-like smelling), hexanal (cut grass-like odor), 3-methylbutanal (sweaty and bitter almond-like odor), 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (toasted nuts-like odor) and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like odor).
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ASMase is required for chronic alcohol induced hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial cholesterol loading.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) is poorly understood. Here, we examined the role of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) in alcohol induced hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a key mechanism of ALD.
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Peanut allergens: an overview.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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Peanut is recognized as a potent food allergen producing one of the most frequent food allergies. This fact has originated the publication of an elevated number of scientific reports dealing with peanut allergens and, especially, the prevalence of peanut allergy. For this reason, the information available on peanut allergens is increasing and the debate about peanut allergy is always renewed. This article reviews the information currently available on peanut allergens and on the techniques used for their chemical characterization. Moreover, a general overview on the current biotechnological approaches used to reduce or eliminate peanut allergens is also provided.
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Value of EQ-5D in Mexican city older population with and without dementia (SADEM study).
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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The EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) is a brief, multi-attribute, preference-based health status measurement. The objective of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of EQ-5D in older adults with and without dementia in Mexico City.
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Accuracy of definitive casts using 4 implant-level impression techniques in a scenario of multi-implant system with different implant angulations and subgingival alignment levels.
Implant Dent
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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To evaluate the effect of various implant-level impression techniques on the accuracy of definitive casts for a multiple internal connection implant system with different implant angulations and subgingival depths.
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Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites.
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Discrimination of non-explosive and explosive samples through nitrocellulose fingerprints obtained by capillary electrophoresis.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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This work is focused on a novel procedure to discriminate nitrocellulose-based samples with non-explosive and explosive properties. The nitrocellulose study has been scarcely approached in the literature due to its special polymeric properties such as its high molar mass and complex chemical and structural characteristics. These properties require the nitrocellulose analysis to be performed by using a few organic solvents and in consequence, they limit the number of adequate analytical techniques for its study. In terms of identification of pre-blast explosives, mass spectrometry is one of the most preferred technique because it allows to obtain structural information. However, it has never been used to analyze polymeric nitrocellulose. In this study, the differentiation of non-explosive and explosive samples through nitrocellulose fingerprints obtained by capillary electrophoresis was investigated. A batch of 30 different smokeless gunpowders and 23 different everyday products were pulverized, derivatized with a fluorescent agent and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Since this methodology is specific to d-glucopyranose derivatives (cellulosic and related compounds), and paper samples could be easily found in explosion scenes, 11 different paper samples were also included in the study as potential interference samples. In order to discriminate among samples, multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogy) was applied to the obtained electrophoretic profiles. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first study that achieve a successful discrimination between non-explosive and explosive nitrocellulose-based samples, as well as potential cellulose interference samples, and posterior classification of unknown samples into their corresponding groups using CE-LIF and chemometric tools.
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Anti-inflammatory activity of Cymbopogon citratus leaves infusion via proteasome and nuclear factor-?B pathway inhibition: contribution of chlorogenic acid.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf leaves infusion is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, however little is known about their bioactive compounds.
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Late-life depressive symptoms: prediction models of change.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Depression is a well-recognised problem in the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with predictors of change in depressive symptoms, both in subjects with and without baseline significant depressive symptoms.
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Effect of ferric carboxymaltose on serum phosphate and C-terminal FGF23 levels in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients: post-hoc analysis of a prospective study.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Some parenteral iron therapies have been found to be associated with hypophosphatemia. The mechanism of the decrease in serum phosphate is unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of IV ferric carboxymaltose(FCM) on phosphate metabolism and FGF23 levels in patients with chronic kidney disease(CKD).
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Analysis of macroscopic gunshot residues by Raman spectroscopy to assess the weapon memory effect.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Gunshot residues (GSR) are valuable evidence which provide the forensic analyst with useful information about a crime scene when proper analytical methods are used. Nowadays, the method of choice for analyzing GSR is scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). However, SEM/EDX presents limitations when the GSR identification of "non-toxic" ammunition types is performed. To overcome this drawback, Raman spectroscopy has been recently proposed as a complementary technique to SEM/EDX. However, for the time being, it can only be used in a limited number of casework (e.g. examining the macroscopic GSR produced at short distance over victims clothes) and further research to know when this technique could support SEM-EDX results is required. In the present work, the memory effect of the weapon, which plays an important role to link the GSR found and the ammunition fired, is studied. Twenty shots were fired at close distance (~30 cm) at paper targets using the same weapon with two different types of ammunition. The first, third, ninth, and twentieth shots were fired with the first ammunition and the shots among them using the second ammunition. The macroscopic GSR produced by the first ammunition were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. First, the spectra obtained were visually differentiated by taking into account the band at about 1342 cm(-1). This first approach shown that in the first shot were no GSR particles from the second ammunition, but 1.5-7.5% of analyzed particles corresponded to the second ammunition in the third, ninth, and twentieth shots. Additionally, the same differentiation was then performed by discriminant analysis using the spectral range from 1800 to 800 cm(-1). Although using this second approach only one GSR was identified as the second ammunition, was remarkable that after the shots with different ammunition the GSR obtained shows greater variability. The results obtained suggest that the memory effect of the weapon has not a significant influence when the organic analysis of macroscopic GSR on targets by Raman spectroscopy is performed.
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Rapid determination of scopolamine in evidence of recreational and predatory use.
Sci. Justice
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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In recent years, scopolamine has become a drug of common use for recreational and predatory purposes and several ways of administration have been devised. A method for the rapid analysis of suspicious samples was developed, using a portable capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. The method allows the separation of scopolamine from atropine which has a similar structure and is present along with scopolamine in some samples. The method was demonstrated to be useful for the fast analysis of several types of evidential items which have recently been reported to have been abused with fatal consequences or employed for criminal purposes. An infusion of Datura stramonium L., in which scopolamine and atropine naturally coexist, was analyzed for being frequently consumed for recreational purposes. A spiked moisturizing cream and six spiked alcoholic beverages were also analyzed. In spite of the complexity of the specimens, the sample pre-treatment methods developed were simple and fast.
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Caregiver burden of Mexican dementia patients: The role of dysexecutive syndrome, sleep disorders, schooling and caregiver depression.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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AIMS: As a result of the accelerated growth of the elderly population, reconfiguration of families and member roles, and the increase of mental disorders, it is necessary to investigate the effects of this set of factors on the caregivers of patients with dementia in Mexico. Mental disorders of individuals have a negative impact on their physical and emotional quality of life, leading to greater dependence and making the caring experience a heavy burden. Several studies (none in Mexico) have used either the characteristics of the patient or caregiver to determine the burden, but few studies have included both profiles within a single study. The objective of the present study was to analyze the characteristics of the patients and caregivers associated with caregiver burden. METHODS: A multicenter study was carried out in six health institutions located in Mexico City, including 175 patients (and their caregivers) diagnosed with different types of dementia. We used the Spanish Caregiver Burden Screen. Descriptive analysis and logistic regressions were used to estimate the effect of the covariates on the caregiver burden. RESULTS: The results showed that patient variables have a greater impact on caregiver burden than caregiver-associated variables. Dysexecutive syndrome, sleep disorders, schooling and caregiver depression are associated with a higher level of caregiver burden. CONCLUSIONS: Caregiver burden is a complex phenomenon. The results of the present study showed the need to implement multifactorial interventions targeting the caregiver to reduce the burden, strengthen the skills for patient management to avoid depression, improve patient health, and diminish functional dependence and future hospitalization. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2013; ??: ??-??.
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Factors associated with help-seeking behaviors in Mexican older individuals with depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Depression in the older individuals is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, such as high health service utilization rates, low pharmacological compliance, and synergistic interactions with other comorbidities. Moreover, the help-seeking process, which usually starts with the feeling "that something is wrong" and ends with appropriate medical care, is influenced by several factors. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the pathway of help seeking among older adults with depressive symptoms.
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Dynamite analysis by Raman spectroscopy as a unique analytical tool.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Apart from powerful explosives, dynamites are complex samples with an intricate analysis. These mixtures of compounds of diverse chemical nature present a challenge to the analyst, and as a result, several analytical techniques need to be applied currently for their analysis. Taking into account that presently there are almost no methods for dynamite analysis in the literature, it is crucial to develop analytical methods that could be applied for the analysis of these samples. This study introduces the use of Raman spectroscopy to analyze dynamites. Two different dynamites made up of ethylene glycol dinitrate and ammonium nitrate, among other minor components, were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. First, confocal Raman spectroscopy allowed the identification of different components easily distinguished by eye (ammonium nitrate, ethylene glycol dinitrate, and sawdust). Then, Raman mapping was used to show the distribution of the main components throughout the dynamite mass. Finally, several minor components were identified after flocculation (nitrocellulose) or precipitation (sawdust, CaCO3, and flour). The results obtained demonstrate the huge potential of this technique for the analysis of such a complex and tricky sample.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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