RIG-I is a cytosolic sensor critically involved in the activation of the innate immune response to RNA virus infection. In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of a RIG-I agonist on the replication of two emerging arthropod-borne viral pathogens, dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV), for which no therapeutic options currently exist. We demonstrate that when a low, noncytotoxic dose of an optimized 5'triphosphorylated RNA (5'pppRNA) molecule was administered, RIG-I stimulation generated a robust antiviral response against these two viruses. Strikingly, 5'pppRNA treatment before or after challenge with DENV or CHIKV provided protection against infection. In primary human monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells, the RIG-I agonist blocked both primary infection and antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV infection. The protective response against DENV and CHIKV induced by 5'pppRNA was dependent on an intact RIG-I/MAVS/TBK1/IRF3 axis and was largely independent of the type I IFN response. Altogether, this in vitro analysis of the antiviral efficacy of 5'pppRNA highlights the therapeutic potential of RIG-I agonists against emerging viruses such as DENV and CHIKV.
Many primary cancers including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are resistant to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-induced oncolysis due to overexpression of the antiapoptotic and antiautophagic members of the B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of CLL cell death induced as a consequence of VSV infection in the presence of BCL-2 inhibitors, obatoclax, and ABT-737 in primary ex vivo CLL patient samples. Microarray analysis of primary CD19? CD5? CLL cells treated with obatoclax and VSV revealed changes in expression of genes regulating apoptosis, the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and cellular metabolism. A combined therapeutic effect was observed for VSV and BCL-2 inhibitors in cells from untreated patients and from patients unresponsive to standard of care therapy. In addition, combination treatment induced several markers of autophagy--LC3-II accumulation, p62 degradation, and staining of autophagic vacuoles. Inhibition of early stage autophagy using 3-methyladenine (3-MA) led to increased apoptosis in CLL samples. Mechanistically, a combination of BCL-2 inhibitors and VSV disrupted inhibitory interactions of Beclin-1 with BCL-2 and myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1), thus biasing cells toward autophagy. We propose a mechanism in which changes in cellular metabolism, coupled with pharmacologic disruption of the BCL-2-Beclin-1 interactions, facilitate induction of apoptosis and autophagy to mediate the cytolytic effect of VSV.
Recombinant simian virus 40 (rSV40)-derived vectors are particularly useful for gene delivery to bone marrow progenitor cells and their differentiated derivatives, certain types of epithelial cells (e.g., hepatocytes), and central nervous system neurons and microglia. They integrate rapidly into cellular DNA to provide long-term gene expression in vitro and in vivo in both resting and dividing cells. Techniques used to produce, purify, and quantitate these vectors are simple, give reproducible results, and may be used to generate vectors that are deleted only for large T antigen (Tag), or for all SV40-coding sequences capable of carrying up to 5 kb of foreign DNA. Viruses are purified by centrifugation using discontinuous sucrose or cesium chloride (CsCl) gradients. Resulting vectors are replication-incompetent and contain no detectable wild-type SV40 revertants. Viruses are titered by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), described here. qPCR measures the number of rSV40 genomes in purified viral stocks using primers specific for the rSV40, coupled with SYBR Green detection of PCR products. Sample purity is assessed using qPCR via melt (dissociation) curve analysis. The only specialized equipment necessary is a quantitative real-time PCR machine.
Recombinant simian virus 40 (rSV40)-derived vectors are particularly useful for gene delivery to bone marrow progenitor cells and their differentiated derivatives, certain types of epithelial cells (e.g., hepatocytes), and central nervous system neurons and microglia. They integrate rapidly into cellular DNA to provide long-term gene expression in vitro and in vivo in both resting and dividing cells. Here we describe a protocol for production and purification of these vectors. These procedures require only packaging cells (e.g., COS-7) and circular vector genome DNA. Amplification involves repeated infection of packaging cells with vector produced by transfection. Cotransfection is not required in any step. Viruses are purified by centrifugation using discontinuous sucrose or cesium chloride (CsCl) gradients and resulting vectors are replication-incompetent and contain no detectable wild-type SV40 revertants. These approaches are simple, give reproducible results, and may be used to generate vectors that are deleted only for large T antigen (Tag), or for all SV40-coding sequences capable of carrying up to 5 kb of foreign DNA. These vectors are best applied to long-term expression of proteins normally encoded by mammalian cells or by viruses that infect mammalian cells, or of untranslated RNAs (e.g., RNA interference). The preparative approaches described facilitate application of these vectors and allow almost any laboratory to exploit their strengths for diverse gene delivery applications.
Chronic alcohol exposure produces neuroadaptation, which increases the risk of cellular excitotoxicity and autonomic dysfunction during withdrawal. The temporal progression and regulation of the gene expression that contributes to this physiologic and behavioral phenotype is poorly understood early in the withdrawal period. Further, it is unexplored in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), a brainstem autonomic regulatory structure.
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