Desulfovibrio gigas is a model organism of sulfate-reducing bacteria of which energy metabolism and stress response have been extensively studied. The complete genomic context of this organism was however, not yet available. The sequencing of the D. gigas genome provides insights into the integrated network of energy conserving complexes and structures present in this bacterium. Comparison with genomes of other Desulfovibrio spp. reveals the presence of two different CRISPR/Cas systems in D. gigas. Phylogenetic analysis using conserved protein sequences (encoded by rpoB and gyrB) indicates two main groups of Desulfovibrio spp, being D. gigas more closely related to D. vulgaris and D. desulfuricans strains. Gene duplications were found such as those encoding fumarate reductase, formate dehydrogenase, and superoxide dismutase. Complexes not yet described within Desulfovibrio genus were identified: Mnh complex, a v-type ATP-synthase as well as genes encoding the MinCDE system that could be responsible for the larger size of D. gigas when compared to other members of the genus. A low number of hydrogenases and the absence of the codh/acs and pfl genes, both present in D. vulgaris strains, indicate that intermediate cycling mechanisms may contribute substantially less to the energy gain in D. gigas compared to other Desulfovibrio spp. This might be compensated by the presence of other unique genomic arrangements of complexes such as the Rnf and the Hdr/Flox, or by the presence of NAD(P)H related complexes, like the Nuo, NfnAB or Mnh.
Our previous study demonstrated that essential fatty acid (EFA) dietary restriction over two generations induced midbrain dopaminergic cell loss and oxidative stress in the substantia nigra (SN) but not in the striatum of young rats. In the present study we hypothesized that omega-3 deficiency until adulthood would reduce striatums resilience, increase nitric oxide (NO) levels and the number of BDNF-expressing neurons, both potential mechanisms involved in SN neurodegeneration.
Ethanol is a chemical stress factor that inhibits cellular growth and determines metabolic changes leading to reduction of cell viability during fermentation and yeast storage. To determine the effect of time, temperature and ethanol during storage of brewing yeasts we have monitored viability of cells stored for 72 h, at 6 °C or 12 °C, in the presence of various ethanol concentrations. Under the conditions tested, 6 °C is the most favourable temperature to store brewing yeast creams emphasizing the importance of a tight temperature control in the storage vessels. Because W210 is less resistant to storage in the presence of ethanol than W34/70, the optimal storage parameters obtained under our laboratory conditions vary significantly. The ale strain is sensitive to storage under ethanol concentrations higher than 5% (v/v) for more than 48 h at 6 °C whereas at the same temperature the lager strain tolerates ethanol up to 7.5% (v/v) for 72 h. Also, the viability assays indicate that the antioxidant protein Yap1 is an important factor to storage resistance of BY4741 laboratory strain. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying tolerance of brewing yeast strains to ethanol, we have performed phenotypic analysis, localization studies and have monitored the activation of antioxidant and protection genes as well as the intracellular contents of glycogen and trehalose. Overall, our data suggest that the ale strain W210 has a defective antioxidant defence system and that ethanol may induce the antioxidant defences as well as glycogen and trehalose protection mechanisms in laboratory and brewing yeast strains.
NorR protein was shown to be responsible for the transcriptional regulation of flavorubredoxin and its associated oxidoreductase in Escherichia coli. Since Desulfovibrio gigas has a rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (ROO) that is involved in both oxidative and nitrosative stress response, a NorR-like protein was searched in D. gigas genome. We have found two putative norR coding units in its genome. To study the role of the protein designated as NorR1-like (NorR1L) in the presence of nitrosative stress, a norR1L null mutant of D. gigas was created and a phenotypic analysis was performed under the nitrosating agent GSNO. We show that under these conditions, the growth of both D. gigas mutants ?roo and ?norR1-like is impaired. In order to confirm that D. gigas NorR1-like may play identical function as the NorR of E. coli, we have complemented the E. coli ?norR mutant strain with the norR1-like gene and have evaluated growth when nitrosative stress was imposed. The growth phenotype of E. coli ?norR mutant strain was recovered under these conditions. We also found that induction of roo gene expression is completely abolished in the norR1L mutant strain of D. gigas subjected to nitrosative stress. It is identified in ?-proteobacteria, for the first time a transcription factor that is involved in nitrosative stress response and regulates the rd-roo gene expression.
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Yap8 is a key determinant in arsenic stress response. Contrary to Yap1, another basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) yeast regulator, Yap8 has a very restricted DNA-binding specificity and only orchestrates the expression of ACR2 and ACR3 genes. In the DNA-binding basic region, Yap8 has three distinct amino acids residues, Leu26, Ser29 and Asn31, at sites of highly conserved positions in the other Yap family of transcriptional regulators and Pap1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. To evaluate whether these residues are relevant to Yap8 specificity, we first built a homology model of the complex Yap8bZIP-DNA based on Pap1-DNA crystal structure. Several Yap8 mutants were then generated in order to confirm the contribution of the residues predicted to interact with DNA. Using bioinformatics analysis together with in vivo and in vitro approaches, we have identified several conserved residues critical for Yap8-DNA binding. Moreover, our data suggest that Leu26 is required for Yap8 binding to DNA and that this residue together with Asn31, hinder Yap1 response element recognition by Yap8, thus narrowing its DNA-binding specificity. Furthermore our results point to a role of these two amino acids in the stability of the Yap8-DNA complex.
Formins are an important and evolutionarily well conserved class of actin binding proteins with essential biological functions. Although their molecular roles in actin regulation have been clearly demonstrated in vitro, their functions at the cellular or organism levels are still poorly understood. To illustrate this problem, but also to demonstrate potential ways forward, we focus here on the DAAM group of formins. In vertebrates, DAAM group members have been demonstrated to be important regulators of cellular and tissue morphogenesis but, as for all formins, the molecular mechanisms underlying these morphogenetic functions remain to be uncovered. The genome of the fruitfly Drosophila encodes a single DAAM gene that is evolutionarily highly conserved. Recent work on dDAAM has already provided a unique combination of observations and experimental opportunities unrivalled by any other Drosophila formin. These comprise in vitro actin polymerisation assays, subcellular studies in culture and in vivo, and a range of developmental phenotypes revealing a role in tracheal morphogenesis, axonal growth and muscle organization. At all these levels, future work on dDAAM will capitalize on the power of fly genetics, raising unique opportunities to advance our understanding of dDAAM at the systems level, with obvious implications for other formins.
Formate is an important energy substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria in natural environments, and both molybdenum- and tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenases have been reported in these organisms. In this work, we studied the effect of both metals on the levels of the three formate dehydrogenases encoded in the genome of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, with lactate, formate, or hydrogen as electron donors. Using Western blot analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, activity-stained gels, and protein purification, we show that a metal-dependent regulatory mechanism is present, resulting in the dimeric FdhAB protein being the main enzyme present in cells grown in the presence of tungsten and the trimeric FdhABC? protein being the main enzyme in cells grown in the presence of molybdenum. The putatively membrane-associated formate dehydrogenase is detected only at low levels after growth with tungsten. Purification of the three enzymes and metal analysis shows that FdhABC? specifically incorporates Mo, whereas FdhAB can incorporate both metals. The FdhAB enzyme has a much higher catalytic efficiency than the other two. Since sulfate reducers are likely to experience high sulfide concentrations that may result in low Mo bioavailability, the ability to use W is likely to constitute a selective advantage.
F-actin networks are important structural determinants of cell shape and morphogenesis. They are regulated through a number of actin-binding proteins. The function of many of these proteins is well understood, but very little is known about how they cooperate and integrate their activities in cellular contexts. Here, we have focussed on the cellular roles of actin regulators in controlling filopodial dynamics. Filopodia are needle-shaped, actin-driven cell protrusions with characteristic features that are well conserved amongst vertebrates and invertebrates. However, existing models of filopodia formation are still incomplete and controversial, pieced together from a wide range of different organisms and cell types. Therefore, we used embryonic Drosophila primary neurons as one consistent cellular model to study filopodia regulation. Our data for loss-of-function of capping proteins, enabled, different Arp2/3 complex components, the formin DAAM and profilin reveal characteristic changes in filopodia number and length, providing a promising starting point to study their functional relationships in the cellular context. Furthermore, the results are consistent with effects reported for the respective vertebrate homologues, demonstrating the conserved nature of our Drosophila model system. Using combinatorial genetics, we demonstrate that different classes of nucleators cooperate in filopodia formation. In the absence of Arp2/3 or DAAM filopodia numbers are reduced, in their combined absence filopodia are eliminated, and in genetic assays they display strong functional interactions with regard to filopodia formation. The two nucleators also genetically interact with enabled, but not with profilin. In contrast, enabled shows strong genetic interaction with profilin, although loss of profilin alone does not affect filopodia numbers. Our genetic data support a model in which Arp2/3 and DAAM cooperate in a common mechanism of filopodia formation that essentially depends on enabled, and is regulated through profilin activity at different steps.
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses a very flexible and complex programme of gene expression when exposed to several environmental challenges. Homeostasis is achieved through a highly coordinated mechanism of transcription regulation involving several transcription factors, each one acting singly or in combination to perform specific functions. Here, we review our current knowledge of the function of the Yap transcription factors in stress response. They belong to b-ZIP proteins comprising eight members with specificity at the DNA-binding domain distinct from that of the conventional yeast AP-1 factor, Gcn4. We finish with new insights into the links of transcriptional networks controlling several cellular processes. The data reviewed in this article illustrate how much our comprehension of the biology of Yap family involved in stress response has advanced, and how much research is still needed to unravel the complexity of the role of these transcriptional factors. The complexities of these regulatory interactions, as well as the dynamics of these processes, are important to understand in order to elucidate the control of stress response, a highly conserved process in eukaryotes.
Yap4 is a nuclear-resident transcription factor induced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae when exposed to several stress conditions, which include mild hyperosmotic and oxidative stress, temperature shift or metal exposure. This protein is also phosphorylated. Here we report that this modification is driven by PKA and GSK3. In order to ascertain whether Yap4 is directly or indirectly phosphorylated by PKA, we searched for stress and PKA-related kinases that could phosphorylate Yap4. We show that phosphorylation is independent of the kinases Rim15, Yak1, Sch9, Slt2, Ste20 and Ptk2. In addition, we showed that Yap4 phosphorylation is also abrogated in the triple GSK3 mutant mck1 rim11 yol128c. Furthermore, our data reveal that Yap4 nuclear localization is independent of its phosphorylation state. This protein has several putative phosphorylation sites, but only the mutation of residues T192 and S196 impairs its phosphorylation under different stress conditions. The ability of the non-phosphorylated forms of Yap4 to partially rescue the hog1 severe sensitivity phenotype is not affected, suggesting that Yap4 activity is maintained in the absence of phosphorylation. However, this modification seems to be required for stability of the protein, as the non-phosphorylated form has a shorter half-life than the phosphorylated one.
Spectraplakins are large actin-microtubule linker molecules implicated in various processes, including gastrulation, wound healing, skin blistering and neuronal degeneration. Expression data for the mammalian spectraplakin ACF7 and genetic analyses of the Drosophila spectraplakin Short stop (Shot) suggest an important role during neurogenesis. Using three parallel neuronal culture systems we demonstrate that, like Shot, ACF7 is essential for axon extension and describe, for the first time, their subcellular functions during axonal growth. Firstly, both ACF7 and Shot regulate the organisation of neuronal microtubules, a role dependent on both the F-actin- and microtubule-binding domains. This role in microtubule organisation is probably the key mechanism underlying the roles of Shot and ACF7 in growth cone advance. Secondly, we found a novel role for ACF7 and Shot in regulating the actin cytoskeleton through their ability to control the formation of filopodia. This function in F-actin regulation requires EF-hand motifs and interaction with the translational regulator Krasavietz/eIF5C, indicating that the underlying mechanisms are completely different from those used to control microtubules. Our data provide the basis for the first mechanistic explanation for the role of Shot and ACF7 in the developing nervous system and demonstrate their ability to coordinate the organisation of both actin and microtubule networks during axonal growth.
Grape berries (Vitis vinifera L fruit) exhibit a double-sigmoid pattern of development that results from two successive periods of vacuolar swelling during which the nature of accumulated solutes changes significantly. Throughout the first period, called green or herbaceous stage, berries accumulate high levels of organic acids, mainly malate and tartrate. At the cellular level fruit acidity comprises both metabolism and vacuolar storage. Malic acid compartmentation is critical for optimal functioning of cytosolic enzymes. Therefore, the identification and characterization of the carriers involved in malate transport across sub-cellular compartments is of great importance. The decrease in acid content during grape berry ripening has been mainly associated to mitochondrial malate oxidation. However, no Vitis vinifera mitochondrial carrier involved in malate transport has been reported to date. Here we describe the identification of three V. vinifera mitochondrial dicarboxylate/tricarboxylate carriers (VvDTC1-3) putatively involved in mitochondrial malate, citrate and other di/tricarboxylates transport. The three VvDTCs are very similar, sharing a percentage of identical residues of at least 83 %. Expression analysis of the encoding VvDTC genes in grape berries shows that they are differentially regulated exhibiting a developmental pattern of expression. The simultaneous high expression of both VvDTC2 and VvDTC3 in grape berry mesocarp close to the onset of ripening suggests that these carriers might be involved in the transport of malate into mitochondria.
Although arsenic is notoriously poisonous to life, its utilization in therapeutics brings many benefits to human health, so it is therefore essential to discover the molecular mechanisms underlying arsenic stress responses in eukaryotic cells. Aiming to determine the contribution of Ca(2+) signalling pathways to arsenic stress responses, we took advantage of the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. Here we show that Ca(2+) enhances the tolerance of the wild-type and arsenic-sensitive yap1 strains to arsenic stress in a Crz1-dependent manner, thus providing the first evidence that Ca(2+) signalling cascades are involved in arsenic stress responses. Moreover, our results indicate that arsenic shock elicits a cytosolic Ca(2+) burst in these strains, without the addition of exogenous Ca(2+) sources, strongly supporting the notion that Ca(2+) homeostasis is disrupted by arsenic stress. In response to an arsenite-induced increase of Ca(2+) in the cytosol, Crz1 is dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus, and stimulates CDRE-driven expression of the lacZ reporter gene in a Cnb1-dependent manner. The activation of Crz1 by arsenite culminates in the induction of the endogenous genes PMR1, PMC1 and GSC2. Taken together, these data establish that activation of Ca(2+) signalling pathways and the downstream activation of the Crz1 transcription factor contribute to arsenic tolerance in the eukaryotic model organism S. cerevisiae.
Alzheimers (AD) and Parkinsons (PD) diseases are the two most common causes of dementia in aged population. Both are protein-misfolding diseases characterized by the presence of protein deposits in the brain. Despite growing evidence suggesting that oxidative stress is critical to neuronal death, its precise role in disease etiology and progression has not yet been fully understood. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae shares conserved biological processes with all eukaryotic cells, including neurons. This fact together with the possibility of simple and quick genetic manipulation highlights this organism as a valuable tool to unravel complex and fundamental mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. In this paper, we summarize the latest knowledge on the role of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders, with emphasis on AD and PD. Additionally, we provide an overview of the work undertaken to study AD and PD in yeast, focusing the use of this model to understand the effect of oxidative stress in both diseases.
Accumulation of iron (Fe) is often detected in the brains of people suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. High Fe concentrations have been consistently observed in Parkinsons, Alzheimers, and Huntingtons diseases; however, it is not clear whether this Fe contributes to the progression of these diseases. Other conditions, such as Friedreichs ataxia or neuroferritinopathy are associated with genetic factors that cause Fe misregulation. Consequently, excessive intracellular Fe increases oxidative stress, which leads to neuronal dysfunction and death. The characterization of the mechanisms involved in the misregulation of Fe in the brain is crucial to understand the pathology of the neurodegenerative disorders and develop new therapeutic strategies. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as the best understood eukaryotic organism, has already begun to play a role in the neurological disorders; thus it could perhaps become a valuable tool also to study the metalloneurobiology.
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has developed several mechanisms to avoid either the drastic consequences of iron deprivation or the toxic effects of iron excess. In this work, we analysed the global gene expression changes occurring in yeast cells undergoing iron overload. Several genes directly or indirectly involved in iron homeostasis showed altered expression and the relevance of these changes are discussed. Microarray analyses were also performed to identify new targets of the iron responsive factor Yap5. Besides the iron vacuolar transporter CCC1, Yap5 also controls the expression of glutaredoxin GRX4, previously known to be involved in the regulation of Aft1 nuclear localization. Consistently, we show that in the absence of Yap5 Aft1 nuclear exclusion is slightly impaired. These studies provide further evidence that cells control iron homeostasis by using multiple pathways.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.