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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effects of environmental temperature change on mercury absorption in aquatic organisms with respect to climate warming.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Because of global warming, the quantity of naturally generated mercury (Hg) will increase, subsequently methylation of Hg existing in seawater may be enhanced, and the content of metal in marine products rise which consequently results in harm to human health. Studies of the effects of temperatures on Hg absorption have not been adequate. In this study, in order to observe the effects of temperature changes on Hg absorption, inorganic Hg or methylmercury (MeHg) was added to water tanks containing loaches. Loach survival rates decreased with rising temperatures, duration, and exposure concentrations in individuals exposed to inorganic Hg and MeHg. The MeHg-treated group died sooner than the inorganic Hg-exposed group. The total Hg and MeHg content significantly increased with temperature and time in both metal-exposed groups. The MeHg-treated group had higher metal absorption rates than inorganic Hg-treated loaches. The correlation coefficients for temperature elevation and absorption were significant in both groups. The results of this study may be used as basic data for assessing in vivo hazards from environmental changes such as climate warming.
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Fraction of immature granulocytes reflects severity but not mortality in sepsis.
Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Objective. In order to validate immature granulocytes as a universal biomarker, we have compared the clinical relevance of the proportion of immature granulocytes (IG%), measured using Sysmex XE-2100, with other biomarkers (white blood cell, C-reactive protein, lactate and procalcitonin). Methods. This single center, retrospective study included 184 patients with sepsis admitted to an emergency department. Patients were classified into two groups: Uncomplicated sepsis and complicated sepsis (severe sepsis and septic shock). IG% and other biomarkers were evaluated and compared for predicting sepsis severity, overt disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and 28 day mortality. Results. In multivariate analysis, only IG% (odd ratio [OR] 2.530, p = 0.004) and lactate (OR 4.500, p < 0.001) could discriminate between complicated and uncomplicated sepsis. The optimal cut-off value for IG% and lactate was 0.5% and 2.0 mmol/L, respectively. In subgroup analyses of complicated sepsis, IG% was related to overt DIC. However, no single biomarker could predict 28-day mortality. Conclusions. Given that IG% reflected sepsis severity and overt DIC without additional cost, IG% could be a useful biomarker in patients with sepsis. However, there is a limitation for using it as a novel biomarker in sepsis due to the disability of prediction for 28-day mortality.
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Clinical significance of platelet-associated hematological parameters as an early supplementary diagnostic tool for sepsis in thrombocytopenic very-low-birth-weight infants.
Platelets
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Abstract Sepsis is an important cause of death in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates. Although conventional diagnostic indicator of sepsis has been done by blood cultures, this took much longer time. The measurement of platelet-associated parameters such as mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) become more reliable and accurate parameters as a non-specific marker for sepsis. Our objective is to examine the usefulness of those platelet hematological parameters as a supplementary diagnostic tool for sepsis in VLBW infants. This study is a retrospective cohort study of neonates subject to the diagnosis of sepsis from October 2006 to July 2010. This study was conducted at Korea University medical center. We studied total 2,336 infants for 32 days from birth (Day 0) to Day 31. We compared three groups of infants to examine differences of platelet parameters according to their age from birth to Day 31: (i) full-terms versus VLBW without sepsis, (ii) VLBW without sepsis versus VLBW with sepsis and (iii) thrombocytopenic VLBW without sepsis versus those with sepsis. The platelet-associated parameters were significantly distinguishable between septic and non-septic groups at their early age (?1 week), especially platelet counts (PLT) (p?=?0.0091), MPV (p?=?0.007) and PDW (p?=?0.0372) in thrombocytopenic VLBW infants. The decreased PLT, elevated MPV and PDW were major characteristics of septic group. We suggested maximum cutoff values of the platelet factors by performing receiver operating characteristic curve analysis between septic and non-septic thrombocytopenic VLBW infants, among which MPV was the most promising index (AUCMPV?=?0.7044?>?AUCPLT?=?0.6921?>?AUCPDW?=?0.6593). Platelet-associated hematological parameters are useful for the early diagnosis of sepsis as a more efficient and supplementary diagnostic method in thrombocytopenic VLBW infants.
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Effects of PI3K¿ overexpression in the hippocampus on synaptic plasticity and spatial learning.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Previous studies have shown that a family of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) plays pivotal roles in the brain; in particular, we previously reported that knockout of the ¿ isoform of PI3K (PI3K¿) in mice impaired synaptic plasticity and reduced behavioral flexibility. To further examine the role of PI3K¿ in synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent behavioral tasks we overexpressed p110¿, the catalytic subunit of PI3K¿, in the hippocampal CA1 region. We found that the overexpression of p110¿ impairs NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD) and hippocampus-dependent spatial learning in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. In contrast, long-term potentiation (LTP) and contextual fear memory were not affected by p110¿ overexpression. These results, together with the previous knockout study, suggest that a critical level of PI3K¿ in the hippocampus is required for successful induction of LTD and normal learning.
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ZAT11, a zinc finger transcription factor, is a negative regulator of nickel ion tolerance in Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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ZAT11, a Zinc Finger of Arabidopsis Thaliana 11, is a dual-function transcriptional regulator that positively regulates primary root growth but negatively regulates Ni (2+) tolerance. Zinc Finger of Arabidopsis Thaliana 11 (ZAT11) is a C2H2-type zinc finger protein that has been reported to function as an active transcriptional repressor. However, the biological function of ZAT11 remains unknown. Here we show that GFP-tagged ZAT11 is targeted to the nucleus. Analysis of plants expressing ZAT11 promoter-GUS showed that ZAT11 is highly expressed in roots and particularly in root tips. To identify the biological function of ZAT11, we constructed three independent lines of ZAT11 overexpressing transgenic plant (ZAT11 OE). ZAT11 OE enhanced the elongation of primary root but reduced the metal tolerance against nickel ion (Ni(2+)). The reduced Ni(2+) tolerance of ZAT11 OE was correlated with decreased accumulation of Ni(2+) in plants. The decreased accumulation of Ni(2+) in ZAT11 OE was caused by the reduced transcription of a vacuolar Ni(2+) transporter gene. Taken together, our results suggest that ZAT11 is a dual function transcriptional regulator that positively regulates primary root growth but negatively regulates Ni(2+) tolerance.
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Arabidopsis DREB2C modulates ABA biosynthesis during germination.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Plant dehydration-responsive element binding factors (DREBs) are transcriptional regulators of the APETELA2/Ethylene Responsive element-binding Factor (AP2/ERF) family that control expression of abiotic stress-related genes. We show here that under conditions of mild heat stress, constitutive overexpression seeds of transgenic DREB2C overexpression Arabidopsis exhibit delayed germination and increased abscisic acid (ABA) content compared to untransformed wild-type (WT). Treatment with fluridone, an inhibitor of the ABA biosynthesis abrogated these effects. Expression of an ABA biosynthesis-related gene, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 9 (NCED9) was up-regulated in the DREB2C overexpression lines compared to WT. DREB2C was able to trans-activate expression of NCED9 in Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts in vitro. Direct and specific binding of DREB2C to a complete DRE on the NCED9 promoter was observed in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Exogenous ABA treatment induced DREB2C expression in germinating seeds of WT. Vegetative growth of transgenic DREB2C overexpression lines was more strongly inhibited by exogenous ABA compared to WT. These results suggest that DREB2C is a stress- and ABA-inducible gene that acts as a positive regulator of ABA biosynthesis in germinating seeds through activating NCED9 expression.
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Feasibility of nerve stimulator as a supplemental aid for lumbar transforaminal epidural block.
Clin Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of an electric nerve stimulator in a lumbar transforaminal epidural block.
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Intracellular membrane association of the Aplysia cAMP phosphodiesterase long and short forms via different targeting mechanisms.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play key roles in cAMP compartmentalization, which is required for intracellular signaling processes, through specific subcellular targeting. Previously, we showed that the long and short forms of Aplysia PDE4 (ApPDE4), which are localized to the membranes of distinct subcellular organelles, play key roles in 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced synaptic facilitation in Aplysia sensory and motor synapses. However, the molecular mechanism of the isoform-specific distinct membrane targeting was not clear. In this study, we further investigated the molecular mechanism of the membrane targeting of the ApPDE4 long and short forms. We found that the membrane targeting of the long form was mediated by hydrophobic interactions, mainly via 16 amino acids at the N-terminal region, whereas the short form was targeted solely to the plasma membrane, mainly by nonspecific electrostatic interactions between their N termini and the negatively charged lipids such as the phosphatidylinositol polyphosphates PI4P and PI(4,5)P2, which are embedded in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. Moreover, oligomerization of the long or short form by interaction of their respective upstream conserved region domains, UCR1 and UCR2, enhanced their plasma membrane targeting. These results suggest that the long and short forms of ApPDE4 are distinctly targeted to intracellular membranes through their direct association with the membranes via hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, respectively.
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A Prominent Role for RCAR3-Mediated ABA Signaling in Response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Infection in Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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In plant-pathogen interaction, the plant hormone ABA can serve as a crucial modulator of plant responses to biotic as well as abiotic stress. Recent studies have identified pyrabactin resistance (PYR) 1/PYR1-like (PYL)/regulatory component of ABA receptor (RCAR) proteins as an ABA receptor that interacts with the protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C) family. Here, we examined the functional involvement of ABA signaling components in pre- and post-invasive defense responses of Arabidopsis against the virulent pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. Overexpression of the ABA receptor, RCAR3, enhanced susceptibility to Pst DC3000 by suppressing callose deposition and induction of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, such as PR1 and NPR1, after syringe infiltration. In contrast, a dip inoculation assay revealed that RCAR3-overexpression mutants inhibited stomatal reopening during Pst DC3000 infection and coronatine (COR) treatment, leading to enhanced resistance to Pst DC3000, which was not accompanied by differential expression of PR1 and NPR1 genes. As a negative regulator of ABA signaling, PP2CA interacted with RCAR3 and its loss-of-function and overexpression mutants revealed that ABA sensitivity was positively correlated with stomatal immunity, similar to RCAR3 overexpression mutants. Taken together, these results suggest that RCAR3- and PP2CA-mediated ABA signaling antagonistically or synergistically contributes to the plant immune system throughout different phases of Pst DC3000 attack by SA or COR signaling cross-talk.
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False-positive results for rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in patients with rheumatoid factor.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Four different rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria were evaluated by testing 82 healthy control patients, 89 Plasmodium vivax-infected patients, and 92 rheumatoid factor (RF)-positive nonmalaria patients. The false-positive rate ranged from 2.2% to 13% in RF-positive patients. High RF levels are associated with malaria RDT false positivity.
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The pepper late embryogenesis abundant protein CaLEA1 acts in regulating abscisic acid signaling, drought and salt stress response.
Physiol Plant
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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As sessile organisms, plants are constantly challenged by environmental stresses, including drought and high salinity. Among the various abiotic stresses, osmotic stress is one of the most important factors for growth and significantly reduces crop productivity in agriculture. Here, we report a function of the CaLEA1 protein in the defense responses of plants to osmotic stress. Our analyses showed that the CaLEA1 gene was strongly induced in pepper leaves exposed to drought and increased salinity. Furthermore, we determined that the CaLEA1 protein has a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA)_3 homolog domain highly conserved among other known group 5 LEA proteins and is localized in the processing body. We generated CaLEA1-silenced peppers and CaLEA1-overexpressing (OX) transgenic Arabidopsis plants to evaluate their responses to dehydration and high salinity. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaLEA1 in pepper plants conferred enhanced sensitivity to drought and salt stresses, which was accompanied by high levels of lipid peroxidation in dehydrated and NaCl-treated leaves. CaLEA1-OX plants exhibited enhanced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination and in the seedling stage; furthermore, these plants were more tolerant to drought and salt stress than the wild-type plants because of enhanced stomatal closure and increased expression of stress-responsive genes. Collectively, our data suggest that CaLEA1 positively regulates drought and salinity tolerance through ABA-mediated cell signaling.
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Does medical emergency team intervention reduce the prevalence of emergency endotracheal intubation complications?
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Emergency endotracheal intubation (EEI) is a complex process that leads to various complications. Previous studies mainly demonstrated that the Medical Emergency Team (MET) intervention reduced the incidence of cardiac arrest, however, the impact of a MET on airway management has not been investigated in detail. Our purpose was to confirm the impact of a MET on airway management and compare the incidence of complications of EEI before and after MET intervention in a general ward.
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Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Using a Novel Ultrafast Chip-Type Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction System.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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NBS LabChip G2-3 is a novel, ultrafast, chip-type portable real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of this system in detecting pulmonary TB and assessed its diagnostic performance compared with a conventional tube-type PCR system.
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The role of air pollutants in initiating liver disease.
Toxicol Res
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Recent episodes of severe air pollution in eastern Asia have been reported in the scientific literature and news media. Therefore, there is growing concern about the systemic effects of air pollution on human health. Along with the other well-known harmful effects of air pollution, recently, several animal models have provided strong evidence that air pollutants can induce liver toxicity and act to accelerate liver inflammation and steatosis. This review briefly describes examples where exposure to air pollutants was involved in liver toxicity, focusing on how particulate matter (PM) or carbon black (CB) may be translocated from lung to liver and what liver diseases are closely associated with these air pollutants.
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Microfluidic in-reservoir pre-concentration using a buffer drain technique.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Pre-concentration methods are essential for detecting low concentrations of influenza virus in biological samples from patients. Here, we describe a new method for draining buffer from solution in the reservoir of a microfluidic device to increase the concentration of virus in the reservoir. Viruses were captured in the reservoir by an ion depletion barrier from connected ion selective microfluidic channels. 75 ?l of buffer was successfully drained from a 100 ?l sample, resulting in a 4-fold increase in influenza hemagglutinin concentration in the reservoir. The volume of the final concentrated sample was suitable for detection of influenza hemagglutinin by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, demonstrating the usefulness of the developed platform for enhanced sensitivity of virus detection in a conventional analysis.
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Uveodermatologic syndrome concurrent with keratoconjunctivitis sicca in a miniature poodle dog.
Can. Vet. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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A 5-year-old, intact female miniature poodle dog was presented with chronic ophthalmic problems, facial poliosis, nasal depigmentation and multiple areas of alopecia over the trunk. Bilateral uveitis preceded dermatologic signs by 5 months and gradually worsened. The dog was diagnosed as having uveodermatologic syndrome (UDS) concurrent with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Treatment with immunosuppressive drugs resolved the dermatologic lesions, but uveitis continued to progress.
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Genome-wide analysis of histone modifications in latently HIV-1 infected T cells.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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The transcriptional silencing of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) provirus in latently infected cells is a major hurdle on the pathway to HIV-1 elimination. The epigenetic mechanisms established by histone modifications may affect the transcriptional silencing of HIV-1 and viral latency. A systematic epigenome profiling could be applicable to develop new epigenetic diagnostic markers for detecting HIV-1 latency.
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Evaluation of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Treponemal Antibody Test Comparing the Treponema Pallidum Particle Agglutination Assay.
J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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In addition to conventional tests, several methods for detection of treponema-specific antibodies in clinical settings have been recently introduced. We aim to comparatively evaluate a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) for Treponema pallidum specific antibody (SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0) and the T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay.
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Evaluation and verification of the nanosphere Verigene RV+ assay for detection of influenza A/B and H1/H3 subtyping.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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With the emerging risks of drug-resistant viruses and pandemic influenza, rapid and accurate detection of influenza viruses and determination of their subtypes is a crucial component of patient management. This study evaluated the performance of the Verigene respiratory virus plus nucleic acid (Verigene RV+) test for the detection of influenza A/B and subtype determination compared it with conventional molecular methods. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 228 patients with influenza-like illness (influenza A (n?=?67), 2009-H1N1 (n?=?21), influenza B (n?=?80), mixed A & B (n?=?3), mixed RSV A and influenza (n?=?3), and influenza-negative (n?=?54)). Patient samples were analyzed by Influenza A/B one-step typing (Seegene, Seoul, Korea), Seeplex RV15 ACE Detection (Seegene), Nanosphere Verigene RV+ assay (Nanosphere, Northbrrook, IL) and virus culture. Out of 228 samples, 109 (47.8%) were positive by culture, and an additional 65 (28.5%) were positive by Seeplex RV15 ACE Detection, Influenza A/B one-step typing or Nanosphere Verigene RV+ assay. In comparison tests with Seeplex RV15 ACE Detection RT-PCR, the sensitivity of the Verigene RV+ kit for detection of the influenza A, 2009-H1N1, influenza B, and mixed A & B was 97.1%, 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The specificity of the Verigene RV+ was 100% for all types. The concordance between Verigene RV+ and Influenza A/B one-step typing for H1, H3, H1/H3 mixed, and 2009-H1N1 was 100% (26/26), 100% (35/35), 100% (4/4), and 100% (21/21), respectively. The Verigene RV+ assay showed acceptable sensitivity and specificity for detection and subtyping of influenza viruses compared with the conventional RT-PCR method. J. Med. Virol. 87: 18-24, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Markers of poor outcome in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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This study described the acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) population and identified potential modifiable markers of outcome.
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Clinical performance evaluation of the BD Veritor System Flu A+B assay.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Early identification of influenza is important for optimal patient management and infection control. Rapid influenza antigen tests have been used routinely in clinical settings to confirm clinical suspicion, despite their low sensitivity. To improve sensitivity, various influenza point-of-care test reader systems have been developed. This study evaluated the clinical performance of a digital readout rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT), the BD Veritor™ System Flu A+B assay (BD). Nasopharyngeal swabs taken from 250 patients (influenza A positive, n=75; influenza B positive, n=75; and influenza negative, n=100) were analyzed using the BinaxNOW® Influenza A/B antigen kit (BN), SD Influenza Ag A/B kit (SD), BD, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and an influenza virus culture. Compared to RT-PCR, the sensitivities of BN, SD, and BD were 56.0, 53.3, and 72.0%, respectively, for influenza A and 57.3, 65.3, and 69.3%, respectively, for influenza B. No false-positive results were noted with the three rapid antigen tests. For influenza A, the average RT-PCR threshold cycle (Ct) for specimens that tested positive using BD was higher than that for specimens that tested positive using BN and SD. BD is a sensitive and easy method for the early detection of influenza A and B.
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Clinical characteristics of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in Koreans.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Although pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are rare, they are important in clinical practice because they are associated with life-threatening complications such as brain abscess, stroke and lung haemorrhage. The aims of the present study were to characterize PAVMs in a Korean population and to examine the incidence and factors associated with cerebral complications, which are a major cause of mortality.
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Intratracheal administration of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells in a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been introduced as a possible therapy in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This case history is reported of a 59-yr-old man who was treated with MSCs in the course of ARDS and subsequent pulmonary fibrosis. He received a long period of mechanical ventilation and weaning proved difficult. On hospital day 114, he underwent the intratracheal administration of UCB-derived MSCs at a dose of 1 × 10(6)/kg. After cell infusion, an immediate improvement was shown in his mental status, his lung compliance (from 22.7 mL/cmH2O to 27.9 mL/cmH2O), PaO2/FiO2 ratio (from 191 mmHg to 334 mmHg) and his chest radiography over the course of three days. Even though he finally died of repeated pulmonary infection, our current findings suggest the possibility of using MSCs therapy in an ARDS patient. It is the first clinical case of UCB-derived MSCs therapy ever reported.
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Impact of serial measurements of lysophosphatidylcholine on 28-day mortality prediction in patients admitted to the intensive care unit with severe sepsis or septic shock.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of serial lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) measurement on 28-day mortality prediction in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU).
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Ectopic expression of an Arabidopsis dehydration-responsive element-binding factor DREB2C improves salt stress tolerance in crucifers.
Plant Cell Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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DREB2C acts as a transcriptional activator of the salt tolerance-related COLD - REGULATED 15A gene. DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING FACTOR 2C (DREB2C) regulates plant responses to heat stress. We report here that DREB2C is induced by NaCl stress in Arabidopsis, based on quantitative RT-PCR analyses of transcript levels and DREB2C promoter-controlled GUS activity assays. Constitutive overexpression of DREB2C from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter led to enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis and canola plants that was characterized by higher chlorophyll content, lower tissue Na(+) content, reduced rate of water loss, and tighter membrane integrity in plants grown in NaCl-containing medium. Basal expression of the stress-responsive genes COLD-REGULATED 15A (COR15A), RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION (RD) 29A and RD29B, was higher in transgenic DREB2C-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants than in the wild-type. Promoter transactivation assays and electrophoretic mobility-shift assays showed that DREB2C interacts directly with the three DREs in the COR15A promoter, both in vivo and in vitro. Transgenic Arabidopsis constitutively overexpressing COR15A from the CaMV35S promoter exhibited greater NaCl tolerance than the untransformed wild-type. Taken together, the data suggest that DREB2C functions as transcriptional activator that promotes NaCl tolerance, in part through upregulation of the stress-responsive gene COR15A.
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Comparison of Non-contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography and Intravenous Pyelogram for Detection of Patients With Urinary Calculi.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the changing pattern in the use of intravenous pyelogram (IVP), conventional computed tomography (CT), and non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (NECT) for evaluation of patients with acute flank pain.
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Soybean-derived glyceollins induce apoptosis through ROS generation.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Glyceollins, which are synthesized from daidzein in soybeans infected with fungi, have been shown to have anti-fungal effects and antioxidant properties. However, the anti-proliferative mechanism of glyceollins against tumor cells is unknown. Glyceollin-induced apoptosis was evidenced by a decrease in cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential, and an increase in early redistribution of plasma membrane phosphatidylserine, the sub G1 phase, and DNA fragmentation in hepa1c1c7 cells. Western blot analysis showed that treatment of the hepa1c1c7 cells with the glyceollins decreased the expression of pro-caspase-3, Bcl-2, and cell cycle-related proteins, but increased the expression of p21 and p27, and cytochrome C release into cytosol. At a concentration of 6 ?g mL(-1) or higher, glyceollins significantly stimulated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which appear to be responsible for the apoptotic activity of the compounds. Our present study demonstrated that the high dose of glyceollins possibly caused apoptosis in mouse hepatoma cells through the production of ROS, suggesting the potential to exploit glyceollins as anti-tumorigenic agents.
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The Initial Experience of Pneumovesicoscopic Bladder Stone Removal Using a Laparoscopic Entrapment Sac.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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In this article, we aim to present our novel experience of bladder stone removal under pneumovesicoscopic field using a laparoscopic entrapment sac.
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Optimization of AAV expression cassettes to improve packaging capacity and transgene expression in neurons.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can deliver transgenes to diverse cell types and are therefore useful for basic research and gene therapy. Although AAV has many advantages over other viral vectors, its relatively small packaging capacity limits its use for delivering large genes. The available transgene size is further limited by the existence of additional elements in the expression cassette without which the gene expression level becomes much lower. By using alternative combinations of shorter elements, we generated a series of AAV expression cassettes and systematically evaluated their expression efficiency in neurons to maximize the transgene size available within the AAV packaging capacity while not compromising the transgene expression. We found that the newly developed smaller expression cassette shows comparable expression efficiency with an efficient vector generally used for strong gene expression. This new expression cassette will allow us to package larger transgenes without compromising expression efficiency.
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Pharmacological rescue of Ras signaling, GluA1-dependent synaptic plasticity, and learning deficits in a fragile X model.
Genes Dev.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Fragile X syndrome, caused by the loss of Fmr1 gene function, is the most common form of inherited mental retardation, with no effective treatment. Using a tractable animal model, we investigated mechanisms of action of a few FDA-approved psychoactive drugs that modestly benefit the cognitive performance in fragile X patients. Here we report that compounds activating serotonin (5HT) subtype 2B receptors (5HT2B-Rs) or dopamine (DA) subtype 1-like receptors (D1-Rs) and/or those inhibiting 5HT2A-Rs or D2-Rs moderately enhance Ras-PI3K/PKB signaling input, GluA1-dependent synaptic plasticity, and learning in Fmr1 knockout mice. Unexpectedly, combinations of these 5HT and DA compounds at low doses synergistically stimulate Ras-PI3K/PKB signal transduction and GluA1-dependent synaptic plasticity and remarkably restore normal learning in Fmr1 knockout mice without causing anxiety-related side effects. These findings suggest that properly dosed and combined FDA-approved psychoactive drugs may effectively treat the cognitive impairment associated with fragile X syndrome.
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A cluster of lung injury associated with home humidifier use: clinical, radiological and pathological description of a new syndrome.
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Over a few months in the spring of 2011, a cluster of patients with severe respiratory distress were admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU). Household clustering was also observed. Extensive laboratory investigations failed to detect an infectious cause.
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Evaluation of the AdvanSure™ real-time RT-PCR compared with culture and Seeplex RV15 for simultaneous detection of respiratory viruses.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Recently, AdvanSure™ kit based on multiplex real-time PCR was developed for simultaneous detection of 14 respiratory viruses (RVs). We compared the performance of AdvanSure with those of Seeplex® RV 15 ACE and culture by determining their sensitivities and specificities against a composite reference standard. Four hundred thirty-seven respiratory samples were tested by modified shell vial culture method, RV 15 ACE, and AdvanSure. One hundred fourteen samples (26.2%) out of 437 samples were positive by culture, while additional 91 (20.8%) were positive by AdvanSure or RV15. One hundred twelve of 114 culture-positive samples were positive by AdvanSure except 2 samples (1 adenovirus, 1 respiratory syncytial virus [RSV]). Overall, the sensitivities of culture, RV15, and AdvanSure were 74.5%, 89.8%, and 95.1%, respectively. Sensitivities of culture, RV15, and AdvanSure for each virus tested were as follows: 91/100/96% for influenza A, 60/0/100% for influenza B, 63/95/97% for RSV, 69/81/89% for adenovirus, and 87/93/93% for parainfluenza virus. For viruses not covered by culture, sensitivities of RV15 and AdvanSure were as follows: 77/88% for rhinovirus, 100/100% for coronavirus OC43, 40/100% for coronavirus 229E/NL63, 13/100% for metapneumovirus, and 44/100% for bocavirus. The overall specificities of culture, RV15, and AdvanSure were 100/98.9/99.5%, respectively. Of 45 coinfected specimens, AdvanSure detected 41 specimens (91.1%) as coinfected, while RV15 detected 27 specimens (60.0%) as coinfected. AdvanSure assay demonstrated exquisite performance for the detection of RVs and will be a valuable tool for the management of RV infection.
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Impact of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status on hospital mortality in critically ill patients.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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This study evaluates the association between the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG-PS) and hospital mortality in general critically ill patients.
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Transcription-related element gene expression pattern differs between microglia and macrophages during inflammation.
Inflamm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Microglia and macrophages play an important role in the innate and adaptive immune systems. Although the resident location of these cells is different, their functions during the polarization response due to various stimuli are very similar. The present study aimed to analyze differences in microglial and macrophage gene expression during inflammation.
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Immunogenicity and antigenicity of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 10.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Among the proteins involved in the invasion by merozoite, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are suggested as potential vaccine candidates because of their localization to apical organelles and the surface; these candidates are predicted to play essential roles during invasion. As a GPI-AP, Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 10 (PvMSP-10) induces high antibody titers. However, such high antibody titers have shown no protective efficacy for animals challenged with P. vivax parasites in a previous study. To adequately evaluate the immunogenicity and further characterize PvMSP-10 in order to understand its vaccine potential, we assessed its immunogenicity by immunizing BALB/c mice with cell-free expressed recombinant PvMSP-10 protein. The antigenicity of MSP-10 was analyzed, and we found 42% sensitivity and 95% specificity using serum samples from P. vivax-infected Korean patients. The IgG1 and IgG3 were the predominant immunoreactive antibodies against PvMSP-10 in vivax patient sera, and IgG1 and IgG3 and Th1-type cytokines were predominantly secreted in PvMSP-10-immunized mice. We conclude that the immunogenicity and antigenicity of MSP-10 may serve as a potential vaccine against vivax malaria.
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Outcomes and prognostic factors of patients with lung cancer and pneumonia-induced respiratory failure in a medical intensive care unit: a single-center study.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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To evaluate the outcomes and prognostic factors of 28-day mortality following medical intensive care unit (MICU) admission of patients with lung cancer and pneumonia-induced respiratory failure.
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Usefulness of cellular analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for predicting the etiology of pneumonia in critically ill patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The usefulness of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cellular analysis in pneumonia has not been adequately evaluated. This study investigated the ability of cellular analysis of BAL fluid to differentially diagnose bacterial pneumonia from viral pneumonia in adult patients who are admitted to intensive care unit.
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Viral infection is not uncommon in adult patients with severe hospital-acquired pneumonia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Viral pathogens have not generally been regarded as important causes of severe hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), except in patients with hematologic malignancy or transplant recipients. We investigated the role and distribution of viruses in adult with severe HAP who required intensive care.
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Body mass index and mortality in korean intensive care units: a prospective multicenter cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The level of body mass index (BMI) that is associated with the lowest mortality in critically ill patients in Asian populations is uncertain. We aimed to examine the association of BMI with hospital mortality in critically ill patients in Korea.
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Radial to femoral arterial blood pressure differences in septic shock patients receiving high-dose norepinephrine therapy.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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The accuracy of arterial blood pressure (ABP) monitoring is crucial in treating septic shock patients. Clinically significant differences in central to peripheral ABP could develop into sepsis during vasopressor therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between radial (peripheral) and femoral (central) ABP in septic shock patients receiving high-dose norepinephrine (NE) therapy.
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Isolation of DNA using magnetic nanoparticles coated with dimercaptosuccinic acid.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Lately, the isolation of DNA using magnetic nanoparticles has received increased attention owing to their facile manipulation and low costs. Although methods involving their magnetic separation have been extensively studied, there is currently a need for an efficient technique to isolate DNA for highly sensitive diagnostic applications. We describe herein a method to isolate and purify DNA using biofunctionalized superparamagnetic nanoparticles synthesized by a modified polyol method to obtain the desired monodispersity, followed by surface modification with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) containing carboxyl groups for DNA absorption. The DMSA-coated magnetic nanoparticles (DMSA-MNPs) were used for the isolation of DNA, with a maximum yield of 86.16%. In particular, we found that the isolation of DNA using small quantities of DMSA-MNPs was much more efficient than that using commercial microbeads (NucliSENS-easyMAG, BioMérieux). Moreover, the DMSA-MNPs were successfully employed in the isolation of genomic DNA from human blood. In addition, the resulting DNA-nanoparticle complex was directly subjected to PCR amplification without prior elution, which could eventually lead to simple, rapid, sensitive and integrated diagnostic systems.
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Functional roles of the pepper MLO protein gene, CaMLO2, in abscisic acid signaling and drought sensitivity.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses including drought in the natural environment and have evolved physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms to counteract the deleterious effects of stress. Of them, modulation of abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction allows plants to overcome stress. Recently, Kim and Hwang (Plant J 72:843-855, 2012) identified CaMLO2 that is transcriptionally induced by both biotic and abiotic stress. Based on this, we tested the possibility that CaMLO2 is involved in abiotic stress, although m ildew resistance l ocus O (MLO) proteins have been known as negative regulators in plant defense responses against powdery mildew. The CaMLO2 gene was strongly induced in pepper leaves exposed to ABA and drought. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaMLO2 in pepper plants showed low levels of transpiration and lipid peroxidation in dehydrated leaves. Overexpression of the CaMLO2 gene in Arabidopsis conferred reduced sensitivity to ABA in germination and seedling growth and establishment. High transpiration rates and low degrees of stomatal closure in response to ABA also led transgenic plants to be more vulnerable to drought than the wild-type, which was accompanied by altered expression of stress-related genes. Taken together, these data suggest that CaMLO2 acts as a negative regulator of ABA signaling that suppresses water loss from leaves under drought conditions.
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Detrimental effects of cement mortar and fly ash mortar on asthma progression.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Currently, concrete additive materials are used worldwide to improve properties of concrete production and to reduce the total cost of the materials used in the concrete. However, the effects of exposure to various gases emitted from mortar mixed with additive materials are poorly understood. To evaluate the pattern of gas emission from cement mortar and additives, the emission levels of gas including ammonia (NH3) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured from two different mortar types, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), and OPC with fly ash on various time points after manufacture. On days 1, 3, 10 and 30 after manufacture, moderate concentrations of NH3 (4, 9, 12 and 5ppm) were measured in OPC mortar (24h, 150mm×150mm×50mm), whereas higher concentrations of NH3 (73, 55, 20 and 5ppm) were measured in OPC mortar with fly ash (24h, 150mm×150mm×50mm). Furthermore, the concentration of VOCs was more than 10ppm on 1, 3, and 10 days of age in OPC and OPC with fly ash mortars. To examine the mortars allergic effects on the respiratory system, mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and divided into four groups: normal, asthma control, OPC mortar and OPC mortar with fly ash. The mice were housed in corresponding group cage for 10 days with OVA challenges to induce asthma. Histopathologically, increased infiltration of lymphocytes was observed in the lung perivascular area of mice housed in OPC mortar and OPC mortar with fly ash cages compared to lungs of asthma control mice. Moreover, severe bronchial lumen obstruction and increased hypertrophy of bronchial epithelial cells (p<0.05) were observed in the OPC mortar with fly ash group compared to OPC mortar or asthma control groups. Lungs of the two mortar groups generally expressed higher levels of genes related with asthma, including IL-4, eotaxin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) compared to lungs of asthma control mice. Additionally, the OPC mortar with fly ash group showed higher expression of IL-5, 13 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) compared to the asthma control group. These results indicate that OPC mortar and OPC mortar with fly ash might exacerbate asthma.
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A KCNQ1 mutation causes age-dependant bradycardia and persistent atrial fibrillation.
Pflugers Arch.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia. Gain-of-function mutations in KCNQ1, the pore-forming ?-subunit of the slow delayed rectifier K current (I Ks) channel, have been associated with AF. The purpose of this study was functional assessment of a mutation in KCNQ1 identified in a family with persistent AF and sinus bradycardia. We investigated whether this KCNQ1 missense mutation could form the genetic basis for AF and bradycardia simultaneously in this family. Sanger sequencing in a family with hereditary persistent AF identified a novel KCNQ1 variant (V241F) in a highly conserved region of S4 domain. The proband and her son developed bradycardia and persistent AF in an age-dependent fashion. The other son was a mutation carrier but he showed sinus bradycardia and not AF. Whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology showed that V241F mutation in KCNQ1 shifted the activation curve to the left and dramatically slowed deactivation, leading to a constitutively open-like phenotype. Computer modeling showed that V241F would slow pacemaker activity. Also, simulations of atrial excitation predicted that V241F results in extreme shortening of action potential duration, possibly resulting in AF. Our study indicates that V241F might cause sinus bradycardia by increasing I Ks. Additionally, V241F likely shortens atrial refractoriness to promote a substrate for reentry. KCNQ1 mutations have previously been described in AF, yet this is the first time a mutation in KCNQ1 is associated with age-dependent bradycardia and persistent AF. This finding further supports the hypothesis that sinus node dysfunction contributes to the development of AF.
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Evaluation of the Simplexa Flu A/B and RSV test for the rapid detection of influenza viruses.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Recently, various molecular systems have been introduced for the detection of influenza viruses. Among these, the Simplexa Flu A/B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) test can provide results in approximately 2?hr. Nasopharyngeal swabs from 241 patients (influenza A, n?=?81; influenza B, n?=?80; influenza A and influenza B mixed, n?=?1; influenza A and RSV A mixed, n?=?2; and influenza and RSV negative, n?=?77) were analyzed using the Simplexa Flu A/B and RSV test, a conventional reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, and a real-time RT-PCR assay. Compared to conventional RT-PCR, the Simplexa test had respective sensitivities and specificities of 100% and 100% for influenza A and 100% and 99.4% for influenza B with extracted RNA samples, and 91.7% and 99.4% for influenza A, and 97.5% and 98.1% for influenza B with unprocessed patient specimens. All RSV A specimens were successfully detected by the Simplexa test using both extracted RNA samples and unprocessed patient specimens. The real-time RT-PCR assay had respective sensitivities and specificities of 96.4% and 99.4% for influenza A, and 98.8% and 99.4% for influenza B. The Simplexa test was effective at detecting influenza viruses from extracted RNA samples as well as from unprocessed patient specimens. The assay was not only simple and rapid for influenza detection, but the performance was also comparable to that of other conventional molecular methods.
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Sequence polymorphisms in Pvs48/45 and Pvs47 gametocyte and gamete surface proteins in Plasmodium vivax isolated in Korea.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Nucleotide sequence analyses of the Pvs48/45 and Pvs47 genes were conducted in 46 malaria patients from the Republic of Korea (ROK) (n = 40) and returning travellers from India (n = 3) and Indonesia (n = 3). The domain structures, which were based on cysteine residue position and secondary protein structure, were similar between Plasmodium vivax (Pvs48/45 and Pvs47) and Plasmodium falciparum (Pfs48/45 and Pfs47). In comparison to the Sal-1 reference strain (Pvs48/45, PVX_083235 and Pvs47, PVX_083240), Korean isolates revealed seven polymorphisms (E35K, H211N, K250N, D335Y, A376T, I380T and K418R) in Pvs48/45. These isolates could be divided into five haplotypes with the two major types having frequencies of 47.5% and 20%, respectivelfy. In Pvs47, 10 polymorphisms (F22L, F24L, K27E, D31N, V230I, M233I, E240D, I262T, I273M and A373V) were found and they could be divided into four haplotypes with one major type having a frequency of 75%. The Pvs48/45 isolates from India showed a unique amino acid substitution site (K26R). Compared to the Sal-1 and ROK isolates, the Pvs47 isolates from travellers returning from India and Indonesia had amino acid substitutions (S57T and I262K). The current data may contribute to the development of the malaria transmission-blocking vaccine in future clinical trials.
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Clinical role of serum pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor in ventilated patients with sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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We measured serum levels of pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF), which has been suggested as a novel biomarker of sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and evaluated its use as a prognostic biomarker.
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Value of cardiac troponin I for predicting in-hospital occurrence of hypotension in stable patients with acute pulmonary embolism.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Although cardiac troponin I (cTnI) elevations during acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are predictive of in-hospital death, it is not clear whether cTnI measurements at emergency department (ED) admission are predictive of the occurrence of hypotension. The study subjects included all consecutive patients with acute PE (diagnosed by chest computed tomography angiography) in the ED between January 2006 and December 2011. All underwent cTnI tests at ED admission and were divided into two groups based on the occurrence of hypotension within 24 h. Of 457 stable patients with acute PE who were admitted to the ED during the study period, 301 patients were included. Within 24 h of hospitalization, 27 (9.0%) developed hypotension. The patients who developed hypotension had a significantly higher mean cTnI concentration than did the remaining patients (1.01 vs. 0.14 ng/mL, P < 0.00). They were also more likely to be treated with thrombolytic therapy and had higher 28-day and 6-month mortality rates. Cardiac TnI elevation (>0.05 ng/mL) at ED admission was a strong predictor of the development of hypotension within 24 h (odds ratio, 8.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-26.1; P = 0.00). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of elevated cTnI were 85%, 66%, 20%, and 98%, respectively. This study suggests that a normal cTnI nearly rules out subsequent development of hypotension within 24 h. This may help to select those patients who would benefit most from intensive clinical surveillance and escalated treatment.
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Clinical outcomes of witnessed and monitored cases of in-hospital cardiac arrest in the general ward of a university hospital in Korea.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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There are few studies of the epidemiology and clinical outcomes of patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) in a general hospital ward.
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Synergistic Activation of the Nrf2-Signaling Pathway by Glyceollins under Oxidative Stress Induced by Glutathione Depletion.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Oxidative stress state such as depletion of the intracellular glutathione (GSH) is associated with the development of cancer. Some dietary phytochemicals have been shown to possess a cancer preventive effect, although the understanding of the involved mechanisms is still limited. Recent study has shown that glyceollins, phytoalexins derived from soybean by biotic elicitor, might have a cancer preventive effect through induction of detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of glyceollins on the Nrf2 signaling pathway under excessive oxidative stress induced by GSH depletion. In mouse hepatoma cells (Hepa1c1c7) subjected to the buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?GCS), the intracellular GSH content was significantly lowered. On the other hand, incubation with glyceollins in the presence of BSO increased the level of GSH, expression of ?GCS, and nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), compared to the cells treated with BSO only. Nrf2-antioxidant responsive element (ARE)-reporter activity assay in HepG2-C8 showed that BSO increased the ARE-reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner, compared to vehicle-treated cells, whereas cotreatment with glyceollins caused further increase in reporter luciferase activity relative to BSO alone. Taken together, glyceollins synergistically activated the Nrf2 signaling pathway and subsequently the expression of phase 2/antioxidant enzymes in the presence of BSO, suggesting that BSO-induced oxidative stress and that glyceollins regulate the expression of phase 2/antioxidant enzymes through different mechanisms from each other.
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Evaluation of a novel real-time RT-PCR using TOCE technology compared with culture and Seeplex RV15 for simultaneous detection of respiratory viruses.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Various kinds of commercial molecular systems have been developed for fast and more accurate detection of respiratory viruses. Anyplex™ II RV16 [RV16] was designed for simultaneous detection of 16 respiratory viruses using multiplex PCR coupled with TOCE™ technology.
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Serological responses to a soluble recombinant chimeric Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein in VK210 and VK247 population.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) is essential for sporozoite formation and sporozoite invasion into human hepatocyte. Previously, a recombinant P. vivax CSP based on chimeric repeats (rPvCSP-c) representing two major alleles VK210 and VK247 within central region has been designed. Naturally acquired humoral immune responses study show that antigenicity of rPvCSP-c was much higher than that of native strain. However, the serologic reactivity of rPvCSP-c was still unclear in detail.
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pLDH level of clinically isolated Plasmodium vivax and detection limit of pLDH based malaria rapid diagnostic test.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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BACKGROUND: The malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are now widely used in the world. Compared to Plasmodium falciparum, a poor sensitivity of RDTs was reported against Plasmodium vivax based on the adopted antibody against pan-Plasmodium antigen lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) or aldolase. Levels of pLDH were measured from patient with P. vivax, and the correlations between the levels of pLDH and the sensitivities of RDTs were analysed among Republic of Korea (ROK) isolates. METHODS: Three RDTs, OptiMAL test, SD BIOLINE Malaria Ag P.f/Pan test, Humasis Malaria Pf/Pan antigen test, and the Genedia pLDH antigen ELISA were performed with blood samples from 152 febrile patients and 100 healthy controls. RESULTS: Three malaria RDTs revealed sensitivities between 85.5 (131/152) and 86.8% (132/152) with highest sensitivity for the detection of P.vivax by pLDH antigen ELISA test (145/152, 95.4%) in comparison to traditional microscopy using Giemsa--stained slides. None of the healthy control tested positive by three RDTs or ELISA, indicating 100% specificity in their respective test. Levels of pLDH among Korean P. vivax isolates ranged between 0 ng/mL and 22,387.2 ng/mL (mean +/- standard deviation 3,917.5 +/- 6,120.9 ng/mL). The lower detection limits of three RDTs were between 25 and 50 ng/mL with artificially diluted samples. The moderate degree of correlation was observed between parasitaemia and concentrations of pLDH (r = 0.4, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The pLDH levels of P. vivax are the main explanation for the variations in the performance of pLDH-based RDTs. Therefore, comparing sensitivities of RDT may need to include targeted biomarker value of patients.
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Efficacy of the oral neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist aprepitant administered with ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Korean J Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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5-HT3 receptor antagonist, dexamethasone and droperidol were used for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). Recently, neurokinin-1 (NK1) antagonist has been used for PONV. We evaluated the effect of oral aprepitant premedication in addition to ondansetron.
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DREB2C acts as a transcriptional activator of the thermo tolerance-related phytocystatin 4 (AtCYS4) gene.
Transgenic Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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Phytocystatins are proteinaceous inhibitors of cysteine proteases. They have been implicated in the regulation of plant protein turnover and in defense against pathogens and insects. Here, we have characterized an Arabidopsis phytocystatin family gene, Arabidopsis thaliana phytocystatin 4 (AtCYS4). AtCYS4 was induced by heat stress. The heat shock tolerance of AtCYS4-overexpressing transgenic plants was greater than that of wild-type and cys4 knock-down plants, as measured by fresh weight and root length. Although no heat shock elements were identified in the 5-flanking region of the AtCYS4 gene, canonical ABA-responsive elements (ABREs) and dehydration-responsive elements (DREs) were found. Transient promoter activity measurements showed that AtCYS4 expression was up-regulated in unstressed protoplasts by co-expression of DRE-binding factor 2s (DREB2s), especially by DREB2C, but not by bZIP transcription factors that bind to ABREs (ABFs, ABI5 and AREBs). DREB2C bound to and activated transcription from the two DREs on the AtCYS4 promoter although some preference was observed for the GCCGAC DRE element over the ACCGAC element. AtCYS4 transcript and protein levels were elevated in transgenic DREB2C overexpression lines with corresponding decline of endogenous cysteine peptidase activity. We propose that AtCYS4 functions in thermotolerance under the control of the DREB2C cascade.
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Differential immune modulation by deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in mice.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium fungi, is a contaminant in wheat, barley, and corn worldwide. It has been suggested that DON exhibits toxicity in various organs. Due to the lack of immunotoxicity data for DON, we investigated the differential immunomodulatory effects of DON in mice. DON was orally administered to female BALB/c mice at a dose of 0, 0.5, or 2mg/kg body weight for 14 days and various immunotoxicity tests were performed with standard protocols. The population of CD19(+) and CD11c(+) cells in the spleen and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and of F4/80(+) cells in the spleen was significantly decreased in DON-treated mice, whereas the level of CD8(+) and CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) cells in the spleen and CD4(+) T cells in MLN was significantly increased. In intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs) of the small intestine, the population of CD4 (+) and CD19(+) cells was increased but that of CD8(+) cells was decreased. Levels of CD4 (+) and CD8(+) cells were decreased in lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) of small intestine; however, the level of CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes was increased but that of CD19(+) cells was decreased in Peyers patches lymphocytes (PPLs). Normalized expression of TLR4 in spleen, TLR9 in PPs, and TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 in MLNs was significantly decreased, whereas expression of TLR5 and TLR9 was increased in spleen. The concentration of IgA and IgE was decreased and increased, respectively, in serum; however, the mucosal IgA level was significantly increased in the duodenum. Levels of IFN-?, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 were significantly increased in serum. Furthermore, DON induced apoptosis in spleen, MLNs, and PPs, and DON-induced apoptosis was promoted by increased expression of Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2. The autophagy genes Atg5 and Beclin-1 were up-regulated in spleen but down-regulated in MLN. After priming of the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line with different TLR ligands, DON exposure differentially modulated IL-1?, IL-10, and TNF-? production. These results indicate that DON can cause various immunomodulatory effects in mice, creating a milieu that might allow invasion by other microorganisms.
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Low-tidal volume mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by pandemic influenza A/H1N1 infection.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Low-tidal volume (TV) mechanical ventilation is an important manipulation in managing patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, there is no definite evidence to support the use of this intervention in patients with viral etiologies.
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Acinetobacter baumannii infection was decreased by the structural renovation of a medical intensive care unit.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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The study aimed to determine whether improvements in intensive care unit (ICU) structural environment affect the incidence of ICU-acquired infections (IAIs), particularly those caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens.
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Gross morphological features of the organ surface primo-vascular system revealed by hemacolor staining.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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The primo-vascular system (PVS), which consists of primo-vessels (PVs) and primo-nodes (PNs), is a novel thread-like structure identified in many animal species. Various observational methods have been used to clarify its anatomical properties. Here, we used Hemacolor staining to examine the gross morphology of organ-surface PVS in rats. We observed a sinus structure (20-50? ? m) with a remarkably low cellularity within PNs and PVs and several lines of ductules (3-5? ? m) filled with single cells or granules (~1? ? m) in PV. Both sinuses and ductules were linearly aligned along the longitudinal axis of the PVS. Such morphology of the PVS was further confirmed by acridine orange staining. In PN slices, there was a honeycomb-like structure containing the granules with pentagonal lumens (~10? ? m). Both PVs and PNs were densely filled with WBCs, RBCs, and putative mast cells (MCs), which were 90.3%, 5.9%, and 3.8% of the cell population, respectively. Granules in putative MCs showed spontaneous vibrating movements. In conclusion, the results show that Hemacolor, a simple and rapid staining system, can reveal the gross morphological features reported previously. Our findings may help to elucidate the structure and function of the PVS in normal and disease states in future studies.
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Mortality after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: multicenter analysis in Korea.
J Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors associated with the mortality of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the impact of a hospital rapid response system (RRS) on patient mortality in Korea.
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External validation of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II in Korean intensive care units.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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This study was designed to validate the usefulness of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II for predicting hospital mortality of critically ill Korean patients.
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Synthetic RNA devices to expedite the evolution of metabolite-producing microbes.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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An extension of directed evolution strategies to genome-wide variations increases the chance of obtaining metabolite-overproducing microbes. However, a general high-throughput screening platform for selecting improved strains remains out of reach. Here, to expedite the evolution of metabolite-producing microbes, we utilize synthetic RNA devices comprising a riboswitch and a selection module that specifically sense inconspicuous metabolites. Using L-lysine-producing Escherichia coli as a model system, we demonstrated that this RNA device could enrich pathway-optimized strains to up to 75% of the total population after four rounds of enrichment cycles. Furthermore, the potential applicability of this device was examined by successfully extending its application to the case of L-tryptophan. When used in conjunction with combinatorial mutagenesis for metabolite overproduction, our synthetic RNA device should facilitate strain improvement.
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A case of IgM deficiency with B cell deficiency detected by ABO discrepancy in a patient with acute osteomyelitis.
Ann Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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ABO discrepancy refers to an inconsistency between red cell and serum typings and has various causes, including hypogammaglobulinemia. IgM deficiency is a rare disorder that may accompany several conditions such as infection and autoimmune disorders. Here, we describe a case of IgM deficiency discovered during the evaluation of an ABO discrepancy in a 16-yr-old Korean boy. ABO blood grouping showed that while his cell type was O+, serum typing detected only anti-A (3+). Anti-B was not detectable at room temperature but was graded at 1+ at 4?. ABO genotyping revealed an O/O genotype. His serum IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations were 770 mg/dL (reference range: 800-1,700 mg/dL), 244 mg/dL (reference range: 100-490 mg/dL), and 13.5 mg/dL (reference range: 50-320 mg/dL), respectively. He was diagnosed with acute osteomyelitis on the basis of clinical presentation and imaging studies. The symptoms gradually improved within 3 weeks of treatment. However, the ABO discrepancy and IgM deficiency persisted even 6 months after recovery and lymphocyte subset analysis revealed CD19+ B cell deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, IgM deficiency detected by ABO discrepancy in a patient with acute osteomyelitis has not been reported before.
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Comparison between the radionuclide salivagram and videofluoroscopic swallowing study methods for evaluating patients with aspiration pneumonia.
Ann Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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A videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) is generally used to assess dysphagia and aspiration, although false-negative results may be obtained. Saliva aspiration may cause false-negative VFSS findings in elderly people. A radionuclide salivagram can be useful in detecting saliva aspiration. We therefore compared these two methods for the evaluation of patients with aspiration pneumonia.
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Aeromonas hydrophila-associated septicemia in captive crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus porosus).
J. Zoo Wildl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2011
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Five 25-yr-old crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus porosus) were diagnosed with Aeromonas hydrophila-associated septicemia accelerated by improper thermoregulation. At necropsy, pulmonary congestion and pleural effusion were the main lesions in the thorax. Necrotizing enteritis, intestinal hemorrhage, fibrinous serositis, hepatitis, and pancreatitis were observed in the abdominal cavities of all five crocodiles. Aeromonas hydrophila was identified in the pleural effusions and abdominal ascites of all necropsied crocodiles by using an API system 20NE. Aeromonas hydrophila infection and evaluation of virulence were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16S rRNA and extracellular hemolysin gene. The crocodiles in the present case were housed in an indoor facility at a private zoo that failed to optimize land and water portions of the enclosure, exposing the animals to impeded thermoregulation, and it is suggested that the pathogenesis was accelerated by the improper thermoregulation-induced stress. This is the first description of A. hydrophila pathogenicity associated with impeded thermoregulation in reptiles.
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The use of Stronger Neo-Minophagen C, a glycyrrhizin-containing preparation, in robust neuroprotection in the postischemic brain.
Anat Cell Biol
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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Stronger Neo-Minophagen C (SNMC) is a glycyrrhizin-containing preparation that is approved in Japan for the treatment of chronic hepatic diseases and is marketed in Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan, and India. Glycyrrhizin, a triterpene present in the roots and rhizomes of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-viral effects. In the present study, we demonstrated the marked neuroprotective effects of SNMC in the postischemic rat brain after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). We used 1 ml/kg of SNMC, which is within the dose range used for the treatment of patients with chronic hepatic disease. The administration of SNMC intravenously at 30 minutes before or 30 minutes and 3 hours after MCAO (60 minutes) reduces mean infarct volumes to 27.0±4.2%, 37.1±12.4%, and 67.8±5.8% of that of untreated controls, respectively. This neuroprotective effect is accompanied by improvements in motor impairment and neurological deficits. The administration of SNMC is shown to suppress microglia activation and neutrophil infiltration in the postischemic brain. In addition, SNMC suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced nitrite production and proinflammatory cytokine induction in a microglia cell line, BV2. This indicates that the neuroprotective effect of SNMC might be due, at least in part, to an anti-inflammatiory effect. Interestingly, SNMC shows significantly higher neuroprotective potency compared to an equivalent dose of pure glycyrrhizin, in terms of reducing infarct volume and improving neurological deficits. Together these results indicate that SNMC, a glycyrrhizin-containing preparation developed for chronic liver disease, has a marked neuroprotective function in the postischemic brain via its anti-inflammatory effects.
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Physiologic effect and safety of the pumpless extracorporeal interventional lung assist system in patients with acute respiratory failure--a pilot study.
Artif Organs
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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Interventional lung assist (iLA) effectively reduces CO(2) tension and permits protective lung ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, there is little experience in using iLA in acute respiratory failure from various causes and no experience for small body sizes such as Asian patients. We evaluated the physiologic effect and safety of the iLA device in patients with acute respiratory failure from various causes. We enrolled 11 consecutive patients with severe respiratory failure from various causes. Wire-enforced cannulae (13-15 Fr) were inserted under ultrasound guidance and connected to iLA. Arterial blood gas analysis, ventilator parameters, hemodynamic parameter, and adverse events were recorded serially. During the first 24h of iLA use, mean blood flow was 1.08±0.15L/min, PaCO(2) decreased from 83.9±23.4mmHg to 40.7±10.2mmHg, and PaO(2) /FiO(2) ratio increased from 110±37 to 141±74. Minute ventilation decreased from 9.4±2.5 to 6.3±1.5L/min, and peak inspiratory pressure decreased from 30.3±7.1cm H(2) O to 28.8±9.4cm H(2) O. No serious adverse events were observed during iLA use. iLA showed effective CO(2) removal, allowed for reducing the invasiveness of mechanical ventilation in patients with severe respiratory failure from various causes even using a small-sized catheter and was safe in small body-sized patients.
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