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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Tumor thrombus in left atrium from pulmonary adenosquamous carcinoma.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2014
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We report a case of pulmonary adenosquamous carcinoma with a tumor thrombus in the left atrium. The left atrial tumor thrombus and lung cancer were removed via a right pneumonectomy and atriotomy under cardiopulmonary bypass. Simultaneous resection of a left atrial tumor thrombus and lung cancer can prevent systemic embolization, mitral obstruction, and sudden death, and improve the prognosis in selected patients.
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Distinct aetiopathogenesis in subgroups of functional dyspepsia according to the Rome III criteria.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Whether there is distinct pathogenesis in subgroups of functional dyspepsia (FD), the postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) remains controversial. We aimed to identify the risk factors of FD and its subgroups in the Chinese population.
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Titanium nanoparticles inhalation induces renal fibrosis in mice via an oxidative stress-up-regulated transforming growth factor-? pathway.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Nano-TiO2) are gradually extensively used in the clinical, industry and daily life. Accumulation studies showed that Nano-TiO2 exposure is able to cause injuries in various animal organs, including lung, liver, spleen, and kidney. However, it remains unclear whether exposure of Nano-TiO2 by inhalation causes renal fibrosis. Here, we investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-related signalling molecules in the chronic renal damage after Nano-TiO2 inhalation in mice. Mice were treated with Nano-TiO2 (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/week) or microparticle-TiO2 (0.5 mg/week) by non-surgical intratracheal instillation for 4 weeks. The results showed that Nano-TiO2 inhalation increased renal pathological changes in a dose-dependent manner. No renal pathological changes were observed in microparticle-TiO2-instilled mice. Nano-TiO2 (0.5 mg/week) possessed the ability to precipitate in the kidneys determined by transmission electron microscopy and increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen. The expressions of markers of ROS/RNS and renal fibrosis markers, including nitrotyrosine, inducible nitric oxide synthase, hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), heme oxygenase 1, transforming growth factor-? (TGF?), and collagen I determined by immunohistochemical staining were increased in the kidneys. Furthermore, Nano-TiO2-induced renal injury could be mitigated by iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine and ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine treatment in transcription level. The in vitro experiments showed that Nano-TiO2 significantly and dose-dependently increased the ROS production and the expressions of HIF-1??and TGF? in human renal proximal tubular cells, which could be reversed by N-acetylcysteine treatment. Taken together, these results suggest Nano-TiO2 inhalation might induce the renal fibrosis through a ROS/RNS-related HIF-1?-up-regulated TGF-? signalling pathway.
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Simulation of Late Inspiratory Rise in Airway Pressure During Pressure Support Ventilation.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Late inspiratory rise in airway pressure (LIRAP, Paw/?T) caused by inspiratory muscle relaxation or expiratory muscle contraction is frequently seen during pressure support ventilation (PSV), although the modulating factors are unknown.
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Resveratrol suppresses TPA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through the inhibition of MAPK pathways in oral cancer cells.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Naturally occurring agents, such as resveratrol, have been determined to benefit health. Numerous studies have demonstrated that resveratrol has antioxidative, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. However, the effect of resveratrol exerts on the metastasis of oral cancer cells remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect the anti-invasive activity of resveratrol on a human oral cancer cell line (SCC-9) in vitro and the underlying mechanisms.
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MoonProt: a database for proteins that are known to moonlight.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Moonlighting proteins comprise a class of multifunctional proteins in which a single polypeptide chain performs multiple biochemical functions that are not due to gene fusions, multiple RNA splice variants or pleiotropic effects. The known moonlighting proteins perform a variety of diverse functions in many different cell types and species, and information about their structures and functions is scattered in many publications. We have constructed the manually curated, searchable, internet-based MoonProt Database (http://www.moonlightingproteins.org) with information about the over 200 proteins that have been experimentally verified to be moonlighting proteins. The availability of this organized information provides a more complete picture of what is currently known about moonlighting proteins. The database will also aid researchers in other fields, including determining the functions of genes identified in genome sequencing projects, interpreting data from proteomics projects and annotating protein sequence and structural databases. In addition, information about the structures and functions of moonlighting proteins can be helpful in understanding how novel protein functional sites evolved on an ancient protein scaffold, which can also help in the design of proteins with novel functions.
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Biodegradation performance of a chitosan coated magnesium-zinc-tricalcium phosphate composite as an implant.
Biointerphases
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
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A Mg-Zn-tricalcium phosphate composite with a chitosan coating was prepared in this investigation to study its biodegradation performance both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The in vitro test results show that the immersion corrosion rate, the pH values of the simulated body fluids and the released metal ion concentration of the chitosan coated composite are all lower than those of the uncoated composite. The in vitro cytotoxicity test shows that the chitosan coated specimens is safe for cellular applications. When the chitosan coated composite is tested in vivo, the concentration of metal ions from the composite observed in the venous blood of Zelanian rabbits is less than the uncoated composite specimens. The chitosan coating slows down the in vivo degradation of the composite after surgery. In vivo testing also indicates that the chitosan coated composite is harmless to important visceral organs, including the heart, kidneys, and liver of the rabbits. The new bone formation surrounding the chitosan coated composite implant shows that the composite improves the concrescence of the bone tissues. The chitosan coating is an effective corrosion resistant layer that reduces the hydrogen release of the implant composite, thereby decreasing the subcutaneous gas bubbles formed.
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Safety and Efficacy of Adalimumab for Patients With Moderate to Severe Crohn's Disease: The Taiwan Society of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (TSIBD) Study.
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Only moderate to severe Crohn's Disease (CD) patients without a satisfactory conventional therapy effect are eligible to get reimbursement from the National Health Insurance of Taiwan for using adalimumab. These are more stringent criteria than in many Western countries and Japan and Korea. We aim to explore the efficacy of using adalimumab in CD patients under such stringent criteria.
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300 mm Wafer-level, ultra-dense arrays of Au-capped nanopillars with sub-10 nm gaps as reliable SERS substrates.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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The 193 nm deep UV immersion lithography is leveraged to fabricate highly dense and uniform arrays of Au-capped Si nanopillars on a 300 mm wafer level, and the substrates are applied in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy for reliable molecule detection. Due to the sub-10 nm gap sizes and ultra-high array density with the lattice constant less than 100 nm, our nanopillar based substrates outperform the current commercial products in terms of the signal intensity, reproducibility and fabrication scale.
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Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia: comparison of the clinicopathologic features and prognosis.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has recently been proposed as a histologic type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), but its broad spectrum of clinicopathologic findings and variable prognosis are poorly understood. It is particularly unclear how NSIP and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) are related. The present study investigated the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of NSIP, and its differential diagnosis from UIP.
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Efficient and uniform planar-type perovskite solar cells by simple sequential vacuum deposition.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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A novel sequential layer-by-layer sub-100 °C vacuum-sublimation method to fabricate planar-type organometal halide perovskite solar cells is developed. Very uniform and highly crystalline perovskite thin films with 100% surface coverage are produced. The cells attain maximum and average efficiencies up to 15.4% and 14%, respectively. This low- temperature, all-vacuum process is suitable for a wide variety of rigid and flexible applications.
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Rectification control points selection method of triangle mesh in optical pressure measurement of wind-tunnel test.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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In optical pressure measurement of wind-tunnel test, triangle mesh is usually built to rectify the images that are distorted in geometry. In this paper, a novel method of control points selection of triangle mesh is proposed by combining the artificial points and margin control points. For the problem that in the condition of wind the margin control point is difficult to extract due to model distortion and grey variation, an improved Smallest Univalue Segment Assimilating Nucleus algorithm based on region selection and adaptive threshold is designed. The connection method is employed to verify the availability of points, which avoids that the noisy points are mistakenly regarded as the angular points. The distorted images of aircraft model are rectified and the results are analyzed. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method greatly improves the rectification effect.
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[Effects of size of pulmonary adenocarcinoma squamous carcinoma tumor on mediastinal lymphonode metastasis].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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To explore the relationship between primary tumor size and mediastinal nodal metastases among different cell types in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and clarify the cutoff size for a higher likelihood of metastases.
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Is neoadjuvant chemotherapy mandatory for limited-disease small-cell lung cancer?
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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The present study attempted to evaluate the role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with surgery in limited-disease small-cell lung cancer (LD-SCLC).
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Optimized rapeseed oils rich in endogenous micronutrients ameliorate risk factors of atherosclerosis in high fat diet fed rats.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Micronutrients in rapeseed such as polyphenols, tocopherols, phytosterols and phospholipids in rapeseed exert potential benefit to atherosclerosis. Some part of these healthy components substantially lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some new processing technologies have been developed to produce various endogenous micronutrient-enriched optimized rapeseed oils. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils have positive effects on the atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet.
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The rapid discovery and identification of physalins in the calyx of Physalis alkekengi L.var.franchetii (Mast.) Makino using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry together with a novel three-step data mining stra
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Physalins, uniquely discovered from genus physalis, showed significant bioactivities in many aspects. It is therefore very important for the exploration of natural resources rich of physalins. However, there is no efficient approach for rapid discovery and identification of this class of compounds due to their structural complexity. To address the issue, the fragmentation pathways and correspondingly fragmentation rules of physalins in negative MS/MS mode were thoroughly investigated in this study using seven physalin standards. As a result, diagnostic ions for the rapid screening of physalins and classification of different types of physalins were determined based on their MS/MS fragmentation patterns. On top of that, an integrated approach using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS together with a novel three-step data mining strategy was developed for the systematic analysis of physalins in complex samples. Consequently, 46 physalins including 20 novel ones were efficiently discovered and identified from the crude extracts of Ph. alkekengi calyx. The present study laid a foundation for future study of different parts of Ph. alkekengi and other physalis species with regard to rapid discovery of novel physalins. In addition, this study provided a base for establishing a quality control method of the raw materials of Ph. alkekengi according to the profile of physalins.
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Role of serum and induced sputum surfactant protein D in predicting the response to treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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This study was designed to determine the expression of serum and sputum surfactant protein D (SP-D) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its association with treatment response. Sixty-five treatment-naive patients with COPD and 26 normal control subjects were recruited in the study. The concentrations of serum and sputum SP-D were measured, and the associations of SP-D with pulmonary function and the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale (mMRC) and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores before and after three months of treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid and a long-acting ?2-agonist were analyzed. The concentrations of serum and sputum SP-D in the COPD group (45.46±37.78 and 173.23±186.93 ng/ml, respectively) were significantly higher than those of the normal control group (31.68±12.04 and 89.59±70.29 ng/ml, respectively). After three months of treatment, serum SP-D levels were reduced to 30.7±13.9 ng/ml and were significantly lower than the baseline levels (t=2.217, P=0.031). However, no significant reduction in sputum SP-D levels was observed following the treatment (P>0.05). A significant association between baseline sputum SP-D and change in SGRQ activity scores (r=-0.652, P=0.012) was observed; however no association was established with the changes in other clinical profiles following the treatment (P>0.05). This result suggested that an increased baseline sputum SP-D may be a weak predictive indicator of response to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting ?2-agonists in patients with COPD.
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Wedge resection for localized infectious lesions: high margin/lesion ratio guaranteed operational safety.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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This study aims to elucidate the risk factors of pulmonary complications for localized infectious lesions with limited resection.
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Association of CDC25 phosphatase family polymorphisms with the efficacy/toxicity of platinum-based chemotherapy in Chinese advanced NSCLC patients.
Future Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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To explore relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CDC25 protein family and the survival and chemotherapy responses of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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A novel suppressive effect of alcohol dehydrogenase 5 in neuronal differentiation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Alcohol dehydrogenase 5 (ADH5) is a conserved enzyme for alcohol and aldehyde metabolism in mammals. Despite dynamic expression throughout neurogenesis, its role in neuronal development remains unknown. Here we present the first evidence that ADH5 is a negative regulator of neuronal differentiation. Gene expression analyses identify a constant reduction of ADH5 levels throughout neuronal development. Overexpression of ADH5 reduces both development and adult neuronal differentiation of mouse neurons. This effect depends on the catalytic activity of ADH5 and involves ADH5-mediated denitrosation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2). Our results indicate that ADH5 counteracts neuronal differentiation of human neural stem cells and that this effect can be reversed by pharmacological inhibition of ADH5. Based on these observations, we propose that ADH5 is a novel suppressor of neuronal differentiation and maturation. Inhibition of ADH5 may improve adult neurogenesis in a physiological or pathological setting.
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Correlating vestibular schwannoma size with vestibular-evoked myogenic potential results.
Ear Hear
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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The maximum size of the vestibular schwannoma (VS) that is compatible with preservation of the function of the vestibular nerve in performing stereotactic radiosurgery remains unclear. This study utilized ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) test results to correlate with the size of VS.
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Sparse fusion imaging for a moving target in T/R-R configuration.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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For high resolution imaging of a non-cooperative moving target, this paper proposes a sparse fusion imaging method. The imaging system contains two radar stations, which are separated by a certain bistatic angle and configured in a transmitter/receiver-receiver (T/R-R) manner. Consequently, two synthetic apertures are obtained at the same time from different aspect angles. By coherently fusing the echoes of the two radars, a virtual aperture spanned by these two sub-apertures can be constructed, which is larger than either of the sub-apertures; thus, the cross-range resolution of the image is enhanced. Moreover, the fusion of the echoes is realized by exploiting the sparse scattering property of the target. Then, based on the maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion, the T/R-R fusion imaging problem is converted into a sparse signal recovery problem with unknown parameters. Finally, it is solved in an iterative manner, which contains two steps, i.e., sparse imaging and parameter estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed sparse fusion imaging method can improve the cross-range resolution significantly compared to inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) within the same coherent processing interval (CPI).
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Re-epithelializaiton by epithelial inoculation with recipient phenotype in heterotopically transplanted rat allografts.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Re-epithelialization has remained a major obstacle in both tracheal and lung transplantations. This study examines the realization of re-epithelialization by epithelial inoculation in a rat heterotopic tracheal transplantation model.
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Synergism and rules of the new combination drug Yiqijiedu formulae (YQJD) on ischemic stroke based on amino acids (AAs) metabolism.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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The use of combination drugs is considered to be a promising strategy to control complex diseases such as ischemic stroke. The detection of metabolites has been used as a versatile tool to reveal the potential mechanism of diverse diseases. In this study, the levels of 12 endogenous AAs were simultaneously determined quantitatively in the MCAO rat brain using RRLC-QQQ method. Seven AAs were chosen as the potential biomarkers, and using PLS-DA analysis, the effects of the new combination drug YQJD, which is composed of ginsenosides, berberine, and jasminoidin, on those 7 AAs were evaluated. Four AAs, glutamic acid, homocysteine, methionine, and tryptophan, which changed significantly in the YQJD-treated groups compared to the vehicle groups (P < 0.05), were identified and designated as the AAs to use to further explore the synergism of YQJD. The result of a PCA showed that the combination of these three drugs exhibits the strongest synergistic effect compared to other combination groups and that ginsenosides might play a pivotal role, especially when combined with jasminoidin. We successfully explored the synergetic mechanism of multi-component and provided a new method for evaluating the integrated effects of combination drugs in the treatment of complex diseases.
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Failure to utilize feedback causes decision-making deficits among excessive Internet gamers.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Internet gaming addiction (IGA) is an increasing mental health issue worldwide. Previous studies have revealed decision-making impairments in excessive Internet gamers (EIGs) with high symptoms of IGA. However, the role of feedback processing in decision-making deficits among EIGs remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of feedback processing on decision-making deficits under risk among EIGs, using the Game of Dice Task (GDT) and a modified version of the GDT in which no feedback was provided. Twenty-six EIGs and 26 matched occasional Internet gamers (OIGs) were recruited. The results showed: (a) OIGs performed better on the original GDT than on the modified GDT (no feedback condition); however, EIGs performed similarly on both tasks; (b) EIGs and OIGs performed equally on the modified GDT; however, EIGs chose more disadvantageous options than OIGs on the original GDT; (c) EIGs utilized feedback less frequently on the original GDT relative to OIGs. These results suggest that EIGs are not able to utilize feedback to optimize their decisions, which could underlie their poor decision-making under risk.
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Morphology, molecular stacking, dynamics and device performance correlations of vacuum-deposited small-molecule organic solar cells.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The "all carbon" organic solar cells (OSCs) based on the homocyclic molecule tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) as a donor and C60 as an acceptor were comprehensively characterized. The optimized planar-mixed heterojunction device with a DBP:C60 mixture ratio of DBP?:?C60 (1?:?2) exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 4.47%. To understand why DBP possesses such advantageous characteristics, the correlations of the morphology, molecular stacking, carrier dynamics and performance of DBP:fullerene-based devices have been systematically studied. First, the face-on stacked DBP molecules could enhance both the absorption of light and the charge carrier mobility. Second, DBP?:?C60 (1?:?2) thin films with optimized domain sizes and partially interconnected acceptor grains led to the most balanced carrier mobility and the lowest bimolecular recombination in devices. Finally, the DBP molecules were found to stack closely using grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements, with a ?-? stacking spacing of 4.58 Å, indicating an effective molecular orbital overlap in DBP. The study not only reveals the promising characteristics of DBP as a donor in OSCs but the clear correlations of the thin-film nano-morphology, molecular stacking, carrier mobility and charge recombination found here could also provide insights into the characterization methodology and optimization of the small molecule OSCs.
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Correlation of pulmonary function indexes determined by low-dose MDCT with spirometric pulmonary function tests in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The objective of our study was to evaluate the correlation between pulmonary function indexes determined by low-dose MDCT and those obtained from routine spirometric pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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Live-cell SERS endoscopy using plasmonic nanowire waveguides.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Live-cell surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) endoscopy is developed by using plasmonic nanowire waveguides as endoscopic probes. It is demonstrated that the probe insertion does not stress the cell. Opposed to conventional SERS endoscopy, with excitation at the hotspot within the cell, the remote excitation method yields low-background SERS spectra from specific cell compartments with minimal associated photodamage.
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Molecular insights into the membrane-associated phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase II?.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase II? (PI4KII?), a membrane-associated PI kinase, plays a central role in cell signalling and trafficking. Its kinase activity critically depends on palmitoylation of its cysteine-rich motif (-CCPCC-) and is modulated by the membrane environment. Lack of atomic structure impairs our understanding of the mechanism regulating kinase activity. Here we present the crystal structure of human PI4KII? in ADP-bound form. The structure identifies the nucleotide-binding pocket that differs notably from that found in PI3Ks. Two structural insertions, a palmitoylation insertion and an RK-rich insertion, endow PI4KII? with the 'integral' membrane-binding feature. Molecular dynamics simulations, biochemical and mutagenesis studies reveal that the palmitoylation insertion, containing an amphipathic helix, contributes to the PI-binding pocket and anchors PI4KII? to the membrane, suggesting that fluctuation of the palmitoylation insertion affects PI4KII?'s activity. We conclude from our results that PI4KII?'s activity is regulated indirectly through changes in the membrane environment.
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Reduced miR-3127-5p expression promotes NSCLC proliferation/invasion and contributes to dasatinib sensitivity via the c-Abl/Ras/ERK pathway.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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miR-3127-5p is a primate-specific miRNA which is down-regulated in recurrent NSCLC tissue vs. matched primary tumor tissue (N = 15) and in tumor tissue vs. normal lung tissue (N = 177). Reduced miR-3127-5p expression is associated with a higher Ki-67 proliferation index and unfavorable prognosis in NSCLC. Overexpression of miR-3127-5p significantly reduced NSCLC cells proliferation, migration, and motility in vitro and in vivo. The oncogene ABL1 was a direct miR-3127-5p target, and miR-3127-5p regulated the activation of the Abl/Ras/ERK pathway and transactivated downstream proliferation/metastasis-associated molecules. Overexpression of miR-3127-5p in A549 or H292 cells resulted in enhanced resistance to dasatinib, an Abl/src tyrosine kinase inhibitor. miR-3127-5p expression levels were correlated with dasatinib sensitivity in NSCLC cell lines without K-Ras G12 mutation. In conclusion, miR-3127-5p acts as a tumor suppressor gene and is a potential biomarker for dasatinib sensitivity in the non-mutated Ras subset of NSCLC.
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Dual inhibition of EGFR at protein and activity level via combinatorial blocking of PI4KII? as anti-tumor strategy.
Protein Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Our previous studies indicate that phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase II? can promote the growth of multi-malignant tumors via HER-2/PI3K and MAPK pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms of this pathway and its potential for clinical application remain unknown. In this study, we found that PI4KII? could be an ideal combinatorial target for EGFR treatment via regulating EGFR degradation. Results showed that PI4KII? knockdown reduced EGFR protein level, and the expression of PI4KII? shows a strong correlation with EGFR in human breast cancer tissues (r = 0.77, P < 0.01). PI4KII? knockdown greatly prolonged the effects and decreased the effective dosage of AG-1478, a specific inhibitor of EGFR. In addition, it significantly enhanced AG1478-induced inhibition of tumor cell survival and strengthened the effect of the EGFR-targeting anti-cancer drug Iressa in xenograft tumor models. Mechanistically, we found that PI4KII? suppression increased EGFR ligand-independent degradation. Quantitative proteomic analysis by stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and LC-MS/MS suggested that HSP90 mediated the effect of PI4KII? on EGFR. Furthermore, we found that combined inhibition of PI4KII? and EGFR suppressed both PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways, and resulted in downregulation of multiple oncogenes like PRDX2, FASN, MTA2, ultimately leading to suppression of tumor growth. Therefore, we conclude that combined inhibition of PI4KII? and EGFR exerts a multiple anti-tumor effect. Dual inhibition of EGFR at protein and activity level via combinatorial blocking of PI4KII? presents a novel strategy to combat EGFR-dependent tumors.
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A combination of flaxseed oil and astaxanthin alleviates atherosclerosis risk factors in high fat diet fed rats.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Atherosclerosis is the most common pathologic process underlying cardiovascular disease. Both flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) are believed to benefit cardiovascular system. The combined effect of FO and ASX on the atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet was investigated.
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Quantitative analysis of erythromycylamine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application in a bioequivalence study of dirithromycin enteric-coated tablets with a special focus on the fragmentation pattern and carryover effect.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of erythromycylamine, which is the predominant active metabolite of dirithromycin in human plasma. After solid-phase extraction, the analyte and internal standard (IS) were separated by using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 20 mM ammonium acetate (pH 3.9, adjusted with formic acid)-acetonitrile (75:25, v/v) on a Phenyl-Hexyl column (150 × 2.1 mm, 3 ?m) and then analyzed in positive ion mode under electrospray ionization. Azithromycin was selected as the IS because it has the most similar mass spectrometric and chromatographic behaviors to the analyte. The respective multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions, m/z 368.5>83.2 for erythromycylamine and m/z 375.4>115.2 for IS were chosen to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity in determination. A more acidic mobile phase (pH 3.9) than those of previous reports and a special needle wash (ethylene glycol-acetonitrile-water, 50:30:20, v/v/v, adjusted to pH 3.9 using formic acid) were used to eliminate the carryover effects of the two macrolides. The method exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.5-440.0 ng/mL for erythromycylamine in human plasma (r=0.9999). The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) and limit of detection (LOD) were 0.5 and 0.05 ng/mL, respectively. The mean extraction recoveries were higher than 94.0% for the analyte and IS. The intra- and inter-day precisions ranged from 1.4 to 5.4% and from 1.6 to 4.0%, respectively. The accuracy varied between 91.2 and 101.2%. The established method was successfully applied to analyze the human plasma samples from 24 healthy subjects in a bioequivalence study of two dirithromycin enteric-coated formulations.
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Spontaneous formation of light-trapping nano-structures for top-illumination organic solar cells.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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By introduction of nano-structured crystallite capping layers, the power conversion efficiency of top-illumination organic solar cells is improved from 4.2 ± 0.1% to 6.0 ± 0.2%, representing a 44% enhancement. This is caused by the increase in JSC and led by the enhancement in the local E distribution inside the active layers. Comprehensive finite-difference time domain simulation reveals two main reasons for this enhancement: (1) the nano-structured capping layers can be treated as gradient-index films that effectively increase the light entering the devices. (2) The nano-structured capping layers can also diffract the light from original normal-incident paths, hence increasing the absorption length inside the active layers.
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Characterization of Lung Function Impairment in Adults with Bronchiectasis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Characteristics of lung function impairment in bronchiectasis is not fully understood.
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Virulence Diversity among Bacteremic Aeromonas Isolates: Ex Vivo, Animal, and Clinical Evidences.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The objective of this study was to compare virulence among different Aeromonas species causing bloodstream infections.
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Site-selective substitutional doping with atomic precision on stepped Al (111) surface by single-atom manipulation.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In fabrication of nano- and quantum devices, it is sometimes critical to position individual dopants at certain sites precisely to obtain the specific or enhanced functionalities. With first-principles simulations, we propose a method for substitutional doping of individual atom at a certain position on a stepped metal surface by single-atom manipulation. A selected atom at the step of Al (111) surface could be extracted vertically with an Al trimer-apex tip, and then the dopant atom will be positioned to this site. The details of the entire process including potential energy curves are given, which suggests the reliability of the proposed single-atom doping method.
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Expert consensus on acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the People's Republic of China.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease that severely threatens human health. Acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) is a major cause of disease progression and death, and causes huge medical expenditures. This consensus statement represents a description of clinical features of AECOPD in the People's Republic of China and a set of recommendations. It is intended to provide clinical guidelines for community physicians, pulmonologists and other health care providers for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of AECOPD.
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Macrolide therapy in adults and children with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of macrolide therapy in adults and children with bronchiectasis.
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n-butylidenephthalide protects against dopaminergic neuron degeneration and ?-synuclein accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans models of Parkinson's disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that impairs motor skills and cognitive function. To date, the disease has no effective therapies. The identification of new drugs that provide benefit in arresting the decline seen in PD patients is the focus of much recent study. However, the lengthy time frame for the progression of neurodegeneration in PD increases both the time and cost of examining potential therapeutic compounds in mammalian models. An alternative is to first evaluate the efficacy of compounds in Caenorhabditis elegans models, which reduces examination time from months to days. n-Butylidenephthalide is the naturally-occurring component derived from the chloroform extract of Angelica sinensis. It has been shown to have anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties, but no reports have yet described the effects of n-butylidenephthalide on PD. The aim of this study was to assess the potential for n-butylidenephthalide to improve PD in C. elegans models.
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[Construction and characterization of EGFP reporter gene labeled Sindbis virus].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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To construct and characterize EGFP reporter gene labeled Sindbis virus (SINV).
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Facile Synthesis of One Dimensional AgBr@Ag Nanostructures and Their Visible Light Photocatalytic Properties.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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In this work, we successfully prepared one dimensional (1D) AgBr@Ag nanostructures in high yield by a facile wet chemical method, and the plausible growth mechanism was discussed. The synthesis of as-prepared AgBr@Ag nanostructure is a dissolution and recrystallization process, and the PVP and DMSO have a synergistic and competitive effect on the preparation of 1D AgBr@Ag products. Moreover, the AgBr@Ag nanorods exhibit excellent photocatalytic activities under visible light illumination, which may be attributed to their large surface area as well as superior charge separation and transfer efficiency compared to AgBr@Ag particles.
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Twitch mouth pressure and disease severity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have impaired respiratory muscle strength. Twitch mouth pressure (TwPM) in response to magnetic stimulation of the cervical nerve has been suggested to clinically reflect inspiratory muscle strength. However, studies on TwPM values and their relationship with disease severity are limited. Thus, we tested the TwPM values of COPD patients and investigated the relationship of these values with disease severity.
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Microcavity-Embedded, Colour-Tuneable, Transparent Organic Solar Cells.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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In this work microcavity-capped colour-tuneable SMOSCs are evaluated. By adopting a microcavity-structured cathode with optical spacer layers of different thicknesses fabricated in a Ag/NPB/Ag structure, the transmission spectra of complete devices can be tuned over the entire visible-light region (400-750 nm). The fabricated semitransparent colour-tuneable solar cells show an average efficiency of 4.78% under 1-sun illumination.
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Endovascular coil embolization of a costocervical trunk pseudoaneurysm after bullectomy with pleural abrasion.
Vasc Endovascular Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Transarterial embolization (TAE) is less invasive than surgery for the treatment of pseudoaneurysms. Costocervical trunk (CCT) pseudoaneurysms are extremely rare. We herein report an unusual case of a 45-year-old man with a CCT pseudoaneurysm caused by a bullectomy with pleural abrasion, which had been performed to manage a spontaneous pneumothorax. The patient presented with chronic chest pain and successfully underwent TAE with a metallic coil. The chest pain completely disappeared 2 weeks after the TAE, and follow-up computed tomography showed that the pseudoaneurysm had almost completely disappeared 9 months after the TAE.
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Towards finding a population biomarker for wastewater epidemiology studies.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Wastewater analysis has the potential to provide objective information on community drug use. Introducing a population biomarker (PB) in the sample analysis may significantly reduce errors in the back-calculation associated with population estimation and wastewater volume measurement. A number of potential PBs have been suggested but no systematic evaluation has been conducted so far. This study evaluated the eligibility of the previously suggested PB candidates (creatinine, cholesterol, coprostanol and cotinine) as well as three new ones (cortisol, androstenedione and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)) using five criteria. We assessed the quantification method, affinity to particulate matter and stability of candidates in wastewater, as well as the constancy of inter-day excretion and correlation between excretion and census population. All PB candidates were quantifiable in wastewater. Cholesterol and coprostanol were eliminated from further consideration due to affinity to particulate matters in the wastewater. Creatinine, cortisol and androstenedione were disqualified for stability reasons. On a population scale, both cotinine and 5-HIAA were excreted (RSD=8.01±1.13% and 10.20±0.89%, respectively) at a constant rate and concentrations of each correlated well with the census population (r=0.9809 and 0.9442, respectively). Overall, both cotinine and 5-HIAA are eligible PBs, but the neurotransmitter metabolite 5-HIAA may be more suitable for international comparisons.
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[Advances in studies on toxicity of aconite].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Aconite has the efficacy of reviving yang for resuscitation, dispelling cold and relieving pain, which is widely used in clinic, and shows unique efficacy in treating severe diseases. However, aconite has great toxicity, with obvious cardio-toxicity and neurotoxicity. Its toxicological mechanism main shows in the effect on voltage-dependent sodium channels, release of neurotransmitters and changes in receptors, promotion of lipid peroxidation and cell apoptosis in heart, liver and other tissues. Aconite works to reduce toxicity mainly through compatibility and processing. Besides traditional processing methods, many new modern processing techniques could also help achieve the objectives of detoxification and efficacy enhancement. In order to further develop the medicinal value of aconite and reduce its side effect in clinical application, this article gives comprehensive comments on aconites toxicity characteristics, mechanism and detoxification methods on the basis of relevant reports for aconites toxicity and the authors experimental studies.
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Differentiating cerebellopontine angle meningioma from schwannoma using caloric testing and vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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This study utilized audiometry, and caloric, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests to differentiate between cerebellopontine angle (CPA) meningioma and schwannoma.
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Taxifolin prevents diabetic cardiomyopathy in vivo and in vitro by inhibition of oxidative stress and cell apoptosis.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Diabetic cardiomyopathy has been increasingly recognized as an important cause of heart failure in diabetic patients. Excessive oxidative stress has been suggested to play a critical role in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects and mechanisms of taxifolin on cardiac function of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and on hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis of H9c2 cardiac myoblasts. In vivo study revealed that taxifolin improved diastolic dysfunction, ameliorated myocardium structure abnormality, inhibited myocyte apoptosis and enhanced endogenous antioxidant enzymes activities. Interestingly, taxifolin reduced angiotensin II level in myocardium, inhibited NADPH oxidase activity, and increased JAK/STAT3 activation. In vitro investigation demonstrated that taxifolin inhibited 33mM glucoseinduced H9c2 cells apoptosis by decreasing intracellular ROS level. It also inhibited caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation, restored mitochondrial membrane potential, and regulated the expression of proteins related to the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, thus inhibiting the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. In conclusion, taxifolin exerted cardioprotective effects against diabetic cardiomyopathy by inhibiting oxidative stress and cardiac myocyte apoptosis and might be a potential agent in the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy.
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In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a once-weekly formulation of an antidiabetic peptide drug exenatide in an injectable thermogel.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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An injectable thermogel composed of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) triblock copolymers was evaluated as the matrix of a long-acting drug delivery system of exenatide (EXT), an antidiabetic peptide. The optimal gel formulation containing 2 mg/mL EXT and three pharmaceutical excipients (1.25 wt % zinc acetate, 5 wt % PEG200, and 5 wt % sucrose) was injected subcutaneously, and its pharmacokinetics was investigated. Both in vitro and in vivo release profiles exhibited a sustained release of EXT over 1 week. After a subcutaneous injection of the EXT formulation into db/db mice, the blood glucose level was maintained in a normal range up to 7 days and meanwhile the growth of body weight was suppressed. The in vivo results were consistent with the in vitro EXT-release profile. Moreover, twice injections of the gel formulation resulted in the higher blood insulin level and lower plasma concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin compared with twice-daily injections of an EXT solution for 18 days. Histological observations manifested the protection of islet due to administration of the gel formulation. Therefore, the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel provided an excellent candidate for a once-weekly delivery system of EXT, and the optimal EXT formulation not only afforded therapeutic efficacy but also improved patient compliance.
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Comparison of methane production potential, biodegradability, and kinetics of different organic substrates.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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The methane production potential, biodegradability, and kinetics of a wide range of organic substrates were determined using a unified and simple method. Results showed that feedstocks that contained high energy density and easily degradable substrates exhibited high methane production potential and biodegradability. Lignocellulosic biomass with high content of fibrous compositions had low methane yield and biodegradability. Feedstocks with high lignin content (? 15%, on a TS basis) had low first-order rate constant (0.05-0.06 1/d) compared to others. A negative linear correlation between lignin content and experimental methane yield (or biodegradability) was found for lignocellulosic and manure wastes. This could be used as a fast method to predict the methane production potential and biodegradability of fiber-rich substrates. The findings of this study provided a database for the conversion efficiency of different organic substrates and might be useful for applications of biomethane potential assay and anaerobic digestion in the future.
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Biogas production from co-digestion of corn stover and chicken manure under anaerobic wet, hemi-solid, and solid state conditions.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Corn stover (CS) and chicken manure (CM) are ubiquitous agricultural wastes at low cost and have the potential to achieve a nutrient-balance when mixed together to produce biomethane via anaerobic digestion (AD). The main objective of this work was to investigate methane production at different CS to CM ratios and to evaluate the process stability under wet (W-AD), hemi-solid state (HSS-AD) and solid state (SS-AD) conditions. Results showed that synergistic effects were found when mixing two substrates at CS:CM ratios of 3:1 and 1:1 (on volatile solid basis). The highest methane yield of 218.8 mL/g VS added was achieved in W-AD at CS:CM ratio of 3:1. In SS-AD, the highest volumetric methane productivity of 14.2L methane/L reactor volume was found at CS:CM of 1:1. The results of this work provide useful information to improve the efficiency and stability of co-digestion of CS and CM under different AD conditions.
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Spectrum and antimicrobial resistance of common pathogenic bacteria isolated from patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in mainland of China.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Bacteria-induced respiratory infection has been long considered to be the major cause of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Therefore, a clear picture about the distribution and drug-resistance of pathogenic bacteria in the lower airways should be helpful for treatment of the disease. So far, data on this topic among Chinese are lacking.
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Video-assisted thoracic surgery for pulmonary aspergilloma: a safe and effective procedure.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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A variety of complications occur in patients with pulmonary aspergilloma. The safety and feasibility of a thoracoscopic approach to therapeutic lung resection for pulmonary aspergilloma have not been well evaluated.
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Dexmedetomidine regulates inflammatory molecules contributing to ventilator-induced lung injury in dogs.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Dexmedetomidine reduced mortality and inhibited the inflammatory response during endotoxemia in rats. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of dexmedetomidine-regulating inflammation on a noninfectious, ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in dogs.
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Immobilization of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans with addressable light-induced heat knockdown (ALINK).
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans is a model animal used in genetics, neuroscience, and developmental biology. Researchers often immobilize squirming worms to obtain high-quality images for analysis. However, current methods usually require physical contact or anesthetics. This can cause injuries to worm bodies or neuron disturbances. This study presents an alternative technique, called addressable light-induced heat knockdown (ALINK), to effectively immobilize worms by using light-induced sublethal heat. A microchip composed of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass plate and an ITO glass plate coated with a photoconductive layer (a-Si:H) was produced. Worms to be immobilized were immersed in a liquid medium and sandwiched between the two plates. When the worms were irradiated with a focused laser beam in the presence of electric fields (referred to as an optoelectric treatment), the optoelectric effect heated the liquid medium. The neural functions of the worms shut down temporarily when a critical temperature (>31 °C) was reached. Their neural functions resumed after the heat source was removed. A temperature above 37 °C killed all worms. Using short-wavelength light reduced the worms recovery time. An equivalent circuit was modeled to predict the operating modes, and an optoelectric treatment with a high-concentration medium enhanced rapid heating. A safe operating range (20 Vpp (peak-to-peak voltage), 100 kHz to 10 MHz, 31 to 37 °C) to induce heat knockdown (KD) was also investigated. The results show that the heat KD was well controlled, autonomous, and reversible. This technique can be used for worm immobilization.
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Coniferyl Ferulate, a Strong Inhibitor of Glutathione S-Transferase Isolated from Radix Angelicae sinensis, Reverses Multidrug Resistance and Downregulates P-Glycoprotein.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is the key enzyme in multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumour. Inhibition of the expression or activity of GST has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the reversal of MDR. Coniferyl ferulate (CF), isolated from the root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Radix Angelicae sinensis, RAS), showed strong inhibition of human placental GST. Its 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 0.3? ? M, which was greater than a known GSTP1-1 inhibitor, ethacrynic acid (EA), using the established high-throughput screening model. Kinetic analysis and computational docking were used to examine the mechanism of GST inhibition by CF. Computational docking found that CF could be fully docked into the gorge of GSTP1-1. The further exploration of the mechanisms showed that CF was a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to GSH and CDNB, and it has much less cytotoxicity. Apoptosis and the expression of P-gp mRNA were evaluated in the MDR positive B-MD-C1 (ADR+/+) cell line to investigate the MDR reversal effect of CF. Moreover, CF showed strong apoptogenic activity and could markedly decrease the overexpressed P-gp. The results demonstrated that CF could inhibit GST activity in a concentration-dependent manner and showed a potential MDR reversal effect for antitumour adjuvant therapy.
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Genetic variants in IL1A and IL1B contribute to the susceptibility to 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus.
BMC Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Host genetic variations may contribute to disease susceptibility of influenza. IL-1A and IL-1B are important inflammatory cytokines that mediate the inflammation and initiate the immune response against virus infection. In this study, we investigated the relationship between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of Interleukin-1A (IL-1A) and Interleukin-1B (IL-1B) and the susceptibility to 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza (A(H1N1)pdm09). 167 patients whom were confirmed with A(H1N1)pdm09 and 192 healthy controls were included in this study. Four SNPs (rs1304037, rs16347, rs17561, rs2071373) in IL1A gene and three SNPs (rs1143623, rs3917345, rs1143627) in IL1B gene were genotyped by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry platform, and the associations of the genetic variants of IL-1 with susceptibility to A(H1N1)pdm09 were then assessed.
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Use of twitch mouth pressure to assess diaphragm strength in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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This study was undertaken to determine whether twitch mouth pressure (TwPmo) can reliably assess diaphragm strength in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using fully automatic trigger techniques. Fifteen patients with COPD were recruited. TwPmo, twitch oesophageal pressure (TwPes) and twitch transdiaphragmtic pressure (TwPdi) were generated by phrenic nerve stimulation and were measured using an inspiratory flow trigger (40 ml/s, Experiment 1) using an inspiratory pressure trigger (-5 cmH2O, Experiment 2) and using no trigger at functional residual capacity (Experiment 3). The correlation between TwPmo and TwPes was as follows: r=0.832; P<0.0001 (Experiment 1), r=0.900; P<0.0001 (Experiment 2); there was no significant correlation in Experiment 3. A Bland-Altman plot of the difference between TwPmo and TwPes showed the limits of agreement in Experiment (1) bias (range) 0.18 cmH2O (-2.05 to 2.41) and Experiment (2) bias (range) 0.32 cmH2O (-1.69 to 2.32). Measuring TwPmo using a fully automatic technique is a simple and convenient method for assessing diaphragm strength.
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Association between awareness of harmful effects of smoking and smoking cessation advice provided by hospital chest physicians in Guangzhou, China: a multi-institutional cross-sectional survey.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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It is unknown which factors are associated with smoking cessation interventions initiated by hospital chest physicians in China. We examined physicians awareness of negative effects of smoking on smoking cessation advice given.
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Acetylcorynoline attenuates dopaminergic neuron degeneration and ?-synuclein aggregation in animal models of Parkinsons disease.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
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Parkinsons disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disease, impairs motor skills and cognitive function. To date, the drugs used for PD treatment provide only symptomatic relief. The identification of new drugs that show benefit in slowing the decline seen in PD patients is the focus of much current research. Acetylcorynoline is the major alkaloid component derived from Corydalis bungeana, a traditional Chinese medical herb. It has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, but no studies have yet described the effects of acetylcorynoline on PD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for acetylcorynoline to improve PD in Caenorhabditis elegans models. In the present study, we used a pharmacological strain (BZ555) that expresses green fluorescent protein specifically in dopaminergic neurons, and a transgenic strain (OW13) that expresses human ?-synuclein in muscle cells to study the antiparkinsonian effects of acetylcorynoline. Our experimental data showed that treatment with up to 10 mM acetylcorynoline does not cause toxicity in animals. Acetylcorynoline significantly decreases dopaminergic neuron degeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in BZ555 strain; prevents ?-synuclein aggregation; recovers lipid content in OW13 strain; restores food-sensing behavior, and dopamine levels; and prolongs life-span in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated N2 strain, thus showing its potential as a possible antiparkinsonian drug. Acetylcorynoline may exert its effects by decreasing egl-1 expression to suppress apoptosis pathways and by increasing rpn5 expression to enhance the activity of proteasomes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neurodegenerative Disorders.
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Increases in use of novel synthetic stimulant are not directly linked to decreased use of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA).
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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A decline in 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) use in Adelaide, Australia from 2009 to 2010 was confirmed by us previously. Reports suggested that the shortage in MDMA supply was associated with an increased prevalence of other synthetic stimulants, but quantitative measurements were unavailable. To obtain objective data on the community use of synthetic stimulants, we collected wastewater samples from multiple treatment plants in Adelaide, Australia from 2009 to 2011 and analysed them using solid-phase extraction/liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS), targeting MDMA and some of the most reported synthetic cathinones and piperazines. Data were temporally compared. MDMA and six other synthetic stimulants were detected and quantified in wastewater samples. While MDMA level decreased markedly from 2009 to 2010 and remained low in 2011, localized increased use of mephedrone, methylone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), benzylpiperazine (BZP), 3-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP), but not methcathinone, was observed in 2010 and 2011. This suggested that the decline in MDMA use was associated with an increase in the use of a number of other synthetic stimulants. However, the lag time from the decrease in MDMA to the increase in use of a number of these stimulants, together with the highly regionalized use of all synthetic stimulants except methcathinone indicates that there was no direct population wide substitution in response to the reduction in MDMA.
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Positive blood culture is not associated with increased mortality in patients with sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Previous studies have demonstrated that positive blood culture could contribute to poorer outcomes in patients with pneumonia. However, the impact of positive blood culture on the outcomes of patients with sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has not been evaluated.
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Histone deacetylase inhibitor AR42 regulates telomerase activity in human glioma cells via an Akt-dependent mechanism.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Epigenetic regulation via abnormal activation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is a mechanism that leads to cancer initiation and promotion. Activation of HDACs results in transcriptional upregulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and increases telomerase activity during cellular immortalization and tumorigenesis. However, the effects of HDAC inhibitors on the transcription of hTERT vary in different cancer cells. Here, we studied the effects of a novel HDAC inhibitor, AR42, on telomerase activity in a PTEN-null U87MG glioma cell line. AR42 increased hTERT mRNA in U87MG glioma cells, but suppressed total telomerase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Further analyses suggested that AR42 decreases the phosphorylation of hTERT via an Akt-dependent mechanism. Suppression of Akt phosphorylation and telomerase activity was also observed with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 further supporting the hypothesis that Akt signaling is involved in suppression of AR42-induced inhibition of telomerase activity. Finally, ectopic expression of a constitutive active form of Akt restored telomerase activity in AR42-treated cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the novel HDAC inhibitor AR42 can suppress telomerase activity by inhibiting Akt-mediated hTERT phosphorylation, indicating that the PI3K/Akt pathway plays an important role in the regulation of telomerase activity in response to this HDAC inhibitor.
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?-galactosyl-pyrrolidinyl diazeniumdiolate: an efficient tool to investigate nitric oxide functions on promoting cell death.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Nitric oxide (NO) is an active free radical gas that plays crucial roles in a broad range of biological processes. Extremely short half-life makes it difficult to use NO directly in research. It has been suggested that different concentrations of NO may lead to quite opposite results on cytotoxicity. However, the net effect of intracellular NO on tumor cell death has been controversial, partly because it is hard to precisely control the amount of NO generated exclusively within the target cells. Therefore, we have developed a cell-specific NO donor, ?-galactosyl-pyrrolidinyl diazeniumdiolate (?-Gal-NONOate), in hopes of simulating the actual effects of intracellularly derived NO on the patterns of cell death as well as investigating its underlying mechanisms. In this study, by using three different tumor cell models, we showed that ?-Gal-NONOate could steadily transport NO into the target cells with similar delivery efficiencies and exerted a determinative effect on cell death. In addition, ?-Gal-NONOate-derived intracellular NO could provoke both apoptosis and necrosis in a concentration-dependent manner. While lower NO concentration primarily induced apoptosis, higher NO concentration mainly triggered necrosis. Moreover, the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, characterized by rapid Ca²? overload and subsequent mitochondrial damage, was the collective mechanism responsible for the apoptotic death in all the three tumor cell lines. Taken together, since this cell-specifically derived NO is cheap to use and easy to quantify, ?-Gal-NONOate might be used as a novel and ideal tool to standardize intracellular NO generation and evaluate its net effects in different cellular and experimental settings in the coming future.
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Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm after a left upper sleeve lobectomy.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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A 55-year-old man was re-admitted for persistent hemoptysis and high fever three weeks after an initial left upper sleeve lobectomy for a central squamous lung cancer tumor. Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm and pulmonary infection were confirmed by multidetector computed tomography angiography and subsequent emergency completion pneumonectomy. The development of pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm, secondary to post-operative pulmonary infection and pulmonary vascular manipulation, is rare and prompt surgical manipulation is mandatory.
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A proposed method to comprehensively define outcomes in acoustic tumor patients undergoing CyberKnife management.
Stereotact Funct Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Vestibular assessment in patients with acoustic tumor (so-called vestibular schwannoma, VS) via ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests are not often discussed in the neurosurgical literature.
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Plasma kallistatin levels in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) treatment commonly causes acute respiratory failure with high mortality. Kallistatin, an endogenous tissue kallikrein inhibitor, has been reported to be protective in various human diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations of kallistatin with other biomarkers and to determine whether kallistatin levels have a prognostic value in severe CAP. METHODS: Plasma samples and clinical data were prospectively collected from 54 patients with severe CAP requiring ICU admission. Seventeen healthy control subjects were included for comparison. Plasma kallistatin, kallikrein, and other biomarkers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-8, C-reactive protein (CRP)), and anti-coagulation (protein C, anti-thrombin III) were measured on days 1 and 4 of ICU admission. Comparison between survivors (n = 41) and nonsurvivors (n = 13) was performed. RESULTS: Plasma kallistatin was significantly consumed in severe CAP patients compared with healthy individuals. Lower day 1 kallistatin levels showed a strong trend toward increased mortality (P = 0.018) and higher day 1 CURB-65 scores (P = 0.004). Plasma kallistatin levels on day 1 of ICU admission were significantly decreased in patients who developed septic shock (P = 0.017) and who had acute respiratory distress syndrome (P = 0.044). In addition, kallistatin levels were positively correlated with anti-thrombin III and protein C and inversely correlated with IL-1?, IL-6, and CRP levels. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, higher day 1 CURB-65 scores were independent predictors of mortality (odds ratio = 29.9; P = 0.009). Also, higher day 1 kallistatin levels were independently associated with a decreased risk of death (odds ratio, 0.1) with a nearly significant statistical difference (P = 0.056). Furthermore, we found that a cutoff level of 6.5 ?g/ml of day 1 kallistatin determined by receiver operating characteristic curves could be used to distinguish between patients who survived in 60 days and those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that kallistatin may serve as a novel marker for severe CAP prognosis and may be involved in the pathogenesis of CAP through antiinflammatory and anticoagulation effects.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.