Regulatory T cells (Treg) are important for maintaining immune homeostasis. Adoptive transfer of Tregs is protective in renal disease models in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice. However the involvement of TCR recognition of renal antigens remains to be clarified. To address this question, we made use of Tregs from the DO11.10 mouse (a TCR transgenic (Tg) mouse), that recognise the non-murine antigen Ovalbumin (OVA) and therefore are not activated by renal antigens. DO11.10 Tregs were assessed functionally in vitro and demonstrated equivalent suppression to WT BALB/c Tregs. Adriamycin Nephropathy (AN) was induced in mice which had been transfused with CD4+CD25+Tregs isolated from DO11.10 or BALB/c mice. To eliminate the memory/activation state as a cause of differences in activity, the protective capacity of DO11.10 Tregs pre-activated with OVA in vivo was assessed. Transfer of WT BALB/c Tregs significantly attenuated the development of AN with less glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy and macrophage infiltration as compared to AN mice without Treg transfer. However, mice receiving either naïve or pre-activated DO11.10 Tregs were not protected from AN. The lack of protection by DO11.10 Tregs was not due to failure to traffic to the affected kidney. These results suggest that antigen recognition in the kidney is important for Treg protection against injury.
Follicular B helper T (Tfh) cells support high affinity and long-term antibody responses. Here we found that within circulating CXCR5? CD4? T cells in humans and mice, the CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subset has a partial Tfh effector phenotype, whereas CCR7(hi)PD-1(lo) cells have a resting phenotype. The circulating CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subset was indicative of active Tfh differentiation in lymphoid organs and correlated with clinical indices in autoimmune diseases. Thus the CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subset provides a biomarker to monitor protective antibody responses during infection or vaccination and pathogenic antibody responses in autoimmune diseases. Differentiation of both CCR7(hi)PD-1(lo) and CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) subsets required ICOS and BCL6, but not SAP, suggesting that circulating CXCR5? helper T cells are primarily generated before germinal centers. Upon antigen reencounter, CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) CXCR5? precursors rapidly differentiate into mature Tfh cells to promote antibody responses. Therefore, circulating CCR7(lo)PD-1(hi) CXCR5? CD4? T cells are generated during active Tfh differentiation and represent a new mechanism of immunological early memory.
Alternatively activated macrophages (M2) regulate immune responses and ex vivo polarized splenic M2 are able to ameliorate renal injury including models of renal disease, such as adriamycin nephropathy. Whether M2 derived from other organs have similar protective efficacy is unknown. Here, we report adoptively transferred bone marrow M2 macrophages did not improve renal function or reduce renal injury in adriamycin nephropathy, whereas splenic M2 macrophages were protective. Bone marrow and splenic M2 macrophages showed similar regulatory phenotypes and suppressive functions in vitro. Within the inflamed kidney, suppressive phenotypes in bone marrow but not in splenic M2 macrophages, were dramatically reduced. Loss of the suppressive phenotype in bone marrow M2 was related to strong proliferation of bone marrow M2. Bone marrow M2 proliferation in vivo correlated with M-CSF expression by tubular cells in the inflamed kidney. Inhibition of M-CSF in vitro limited bone marrow M2 proliferation and prevented switch of phenotype. Proliferating cells derived from transfused bone marrow M2 were inflammatory rather than regulatory in their phenotype and function. Thus bone marrow in contrast to splenic M2 macrophages do not protect against renal structural and functional injury in murine adriamycin nephropathy. The failed renoprotection of bone marrow M2 is due to the switch of transfused M2 macrophages from a regulatory to an inflammatory phenotype.Kidney International advance online publication, 18 September 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.341.
Two types of alternatively activated macrophages, M(2a) induced by IL-4/IL-13 and M(2c) by IL-10/TGF-?, exhibit anti-inflammatory functions in vitro and protect against renal injury in vivo. Since their relative therapeutic efficacy is unclear, we compared the effects of these two macrophage subsets in murine adriamycin nephrosis. Both subsets significantly reduced renal inflammation and renal injury; however, M(2c) macrophages more effectively reduced glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial expansion, and proteinuria than M(2a) macrophages. The M(2c) macrophages were also more effective than M(2a) in reduction of macrophage and CD4(+) T-cell infiltration in kidney. Moreover, nephrotic mice treated with M(2c) had a greater reduction in renal fibrosis than those treated with M(2a). M(2c) but not M(2a) macrophages induced regulatory T cells (Tregs) from CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells in vitro, and increased Treg numbers in local draining lymph nodes of nephrotic mice. To determine whether the greater protection with M(2c) was due to their capability to induce Tregs, the Tregs were depleted by PC61 antibody in nephrotic mice treated with M(2a) or M(2c). Treg depletion diminished the superior effects of M(2c) compared to M(2a) in protection against renal injury, inflammatory infiltrates, and renal fibrosis. Thus, M(2c) are more potent than M(2a) macrophages in protecting against renal injury due to their ability to induce Tregs.
A pro-fibrotic role of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in tubular cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is well established in renal fibrosis; however studies from our group and others have demonstrated some previously unrecognized complexity of MMP-9 that has been overlooked in renal fibrosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern, origin and the exact mechanism underlying the contribution of MMP-9 to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), a well-established model of renal fibrosis via MMP-9 inhibition. Renal MMP-9 expression in BALB/c mice with UUO was examined on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 14. To inhibit MMP-9 activity, MMP-2/9 inhibitor or MMP-9-neutralizing antibody was administered daily for 4 consecutive days from day 0-3, 6-9 or 10-13 and tissues harvested at day 14. In UUO, there was a bi-phasic early- and late-stage upregulation of MMP-9 activity. Interestingly, tubular epithelial cells (TECs) were the predominant source of MMP-9 during early stage, whereas TECs, macrophages and myofibroblasts produced MMP-9 during late-stage UUO. Early- and late-stage inhibition of MMP-9 in UUO mice significantly reduced tubular cell EMT and renal fibrosis. Moreover, MMP-9 inhibition caused a significant reduction in MMP-9-cleaved osteopontin and macrophage infiltration in UUO kidney. Our in vitro study showed MMP-9-cleaved osteopontin enhanced macrophage transwell migration and MMP-9 of both primary TEC and macrophage induced tubular cell EMT. In summary, our result suggests that MMP-9 of both TEC and macrophage origin may directly or indirectly contribute to the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis via osteopontin cleavage, which, in turn further recruit macrophage and induce tubular cell EMT. Our study also highlights the time dependency of its expression and the potential of stage-specific inhibition strategy against renal fibrosis.
Macrophages have heterogeneous phenotypes and complex functions within both innate and adaptive immune responses. To date, most experimental studies have been performed on macrophages derived from bone marrow, spleen and peritoneum. However, differences among macrophages from these particular sources remain unclear. In this study, the features of murine macrophages from bone marrow, spleen and peritoneum were compared.
The kidney contains receptors for the cytokine IL-25, but the effects of IL-25 in CKD are unknown. Here, we induced adriamycin nephropathy in both BALB/c mice and severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, and we injected IL-25 for 7 consecutive days starting at day 5 after adriamycin administration. BALB/c mice treated with IL-25 had less glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial expansion, and proteinuria than control mice at day 28. IL-25 increased the levels of IL-4 and IL-13 in serum, kidney, renal draining lymph nodes, and CD4+ lymphocytes. IL-25 also directly suppressed effector macrophages in vitro and in vivo and induced alternatively activated (M2) macrophages in vivo. However, in SCID mice and in BALB/c mice treated with IL-4/13-neutralizing antibody, IL-25 failed to protect against renal injury and did not induce M2. In conclusion, IL-25 protects against renal injury in adriamycin nephropathy in mice by, at least in part, inducing Th2 immune responses.
The CD40-CD154 costimulatory pathway has been shown to be critical for both T- and B-cell activation in autoimmune disease. Here, we assessed the effects of blocking this pathway using CD40 DNA vaccine enhanced by dendritic cell targeting on the development of active Heymann nephritis, a rat model of human membranous nephropathy. DNA vaccination delivers plasmid DNA encoding the target antigen, either alone or in combination with enhancing elements, to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses. To determine whether CD40 DNA vaccine targeting the encoded CD40 directly to dendritic cells would improve the efficacy of the vaccination against self-protein CD40, we utilized a plasmid encoding a single-chain Fv antibody specific for the dendritic cell-restricted antigen-uptake receptor DEC205 (scDEC), the target gene CD40, and the adjuvant tetanus sequence p30. This vaccine plasmid was compared to a control plasmid without scDEC. Rats vaccinated with scDEC-CD40 had significantly less proteinuria and renal injury than did rats receiving scControl-CD40 and were protected from developing Heymann nephritis. Thus, CD40 DNA vaccination targeted to dendritic cells limits the development of Heymann nephritis.
Transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) is known to be both anti-inflammatory and profibrotic. Cross-talk between TGF-?/Smad and Wnt/?-catenin pathways in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) suggests a specific role for ?-catenin in profibrotic effects of TGF-?1. However, no such mechanistic role has been demonstrated for ?-catenin in the anti-inflammatory effects of TGF-?1. In the present study, we explored the role of ?-catenin in the profibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of TGF-?1 by using a cytosolic, but not membrane, ?-catenin knockdown chimera (F-TrCP-Ecad) and the ?-catenin/CBP inhibitor ICG-001. TGF-?1 induced nuclear Smad3/?-catenin complex, but not ?-catenin/LEF-1 complex or TOP-flash activity, during EMT of C1.1 (renal tubular epithelial) cells. F-TrCP-Ecad selectively degraded TGF-?1-induced cytoplasmic ?-catenin and blocked EMT of C1.1 cells. Both F-TrCP-Ecad and ICG-001 blocked TGF-?1-induced Smad3/?-catenin and Smad reporter activity in C1.1 cells, suggesting that TGF-?1-induced EMT depends on ?-catenin binding to Smad3, but not LEF-1 downstream of Smad3, through canonical Wnt. In contrast, in J774 macrophages, the ?-catenin level was low and was not changed by interferon-? (IFN-?) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without TGF-?1. TGF-?1 inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-? and IFN-?-stimulated inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression was not affected by F-TrCP-Ecad, ICG-001 or by overexpression of wild-type ?-catenin in J774 cells. Inhibition of ?-catenin by either F-TrCP-Ecad or ICG-001 abolished LiCl-induced TOP-flash, but not TGF-?1-induced Smad reporter, activity in J774 cells. These results demonstrate for the first time that ?-catenin is required as a co-factor of Smad in TGF-?1-induced EMT of C1.1 epithelial cells, but not in TGF-?1 inhibition of macrophage activation. Targeting ?-catenin may dissociate the TGF-?1 profibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects.
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells play important roles in inducing immune tolerance, preventing allograft rejection, and regulating immune responses in both autoimmune disease and graft-versus-host disease. In order to evaluate a possible protective effect of plasmacytoid dendritic cells against renal inflammation and injury, we purified these cells from mouse spleens and adoptively transferred lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated cells, modified ex vivo, into mice with adriamycin nephropathy. These LPS-treated cells localized to the kidney cortex and the lymph nodes draining the kidney, and protected the kidney from injury during adriamycin nephropathy. Glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial expansion, proteinuria, and creatinine clearance were significantly reduced in mice with adriamycin nephropathy subsequently treated with LPS-activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells as compared to the kidney injury in mice given naive plasmacytoid dendritic cells. In addition, LPS-pretreated cells, but not naive plasmacytoid dendritic cells, convert CD4+CD25- T cells into Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and suppress the proinflammatory cytokine production of endogenous renal macrophages. This may explain their ability to protect against renal injury in adriamycin nephropathy.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.