JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Visible light-induced difunctionalization of electron-enriched styrenes: synthesis of tetrahydrofurans and tetrahydropyrans.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The difunctionalization of electron-enriched styrenes for the synthesis of substituted tetrahydrofurans and tetrahydropyrans in the presence of photoredox catalysts is described. The procedure is highlighted by its operational simplicity, low catalyst loadings (1 mol%), excellent stereoselectivity and mild reaction conditions.
Related JoVE Video
A highly efficient and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of 1,3-indandione ring-fused 3-oxindoles bearing two contiguous quaternary stereocenters via an aldol reaction in aqueous media.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A highly efficient and environmentally benign method for the synthesis of oxindoles featuring two contiguous quaternary carbon centers via an aldol reaction starting from various 3-substituted oxindoles has been established. A wide variety of such featured multi-substituted 1,3-indandione ring-fused 3-oxindole scaffolds were obtained smoothly in good yields (up to 98%) employing the most green of solvents, namely water, as reaction medium. Furthermore, their biological activity has been preliminarily demonstrated by in vitro evaluation against human prostate cancer cells PC-3, human lung cancer cells A549 and human leukemia cells K562 by MTT-based assays, using the commercially available standard drug, cisplatin, as a positive control. Gratifyingly, compounds , , and exhibited the best levels of in vitro inhibitory activity against human leukemia cells K562, which were almost 2.0, 2.8, 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively, the activity of the positive control, cisplatin. Compound had 2.7 times the activity of the positive control, cisplatin, against PC-3 cancer cells, and , and showed levels of in vitro inhibitory activity against PC-3 cancer cells that were comparable to that of cisplatin. Compounds , and had good inhibitory ability against human lung cancer cells A549. The results indicated that 1,3-indandione ring-fused 3-oxindole analogs may be useful leads for further biological screenings.
Related JoVE Video
Spontaneous exfoliation and tailoring of MoS2 in mixed solvents.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Spontaneous exfoliation of MoS2 is achieved in H2O2-NMP mixed solvents with a yield of over 60 wt%, operated under mild conditions. H2O2-prompted sheet-tailoring effect induces a size evolution of MoS2 nanosheets from micro-scale to nano-scale. Furthermore, the concurrent dissolution also affords an approach to introduce structural defects in the nanosheets.
Related JoVE Video
[Epidemics of conjunctivitis caused by avian influenza virus and molecular basis for its ocular tropism].
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Avian influenza virus (AIV) has caused several outbreaks in humans, leading to disasters to human beings. The outbreak of H7N9 avian influenza in China in 2003 re-attracted our close attention to this disease. More and more evidences demonstrated that eye is one of invasion portals of AIV, leading to conjunctivitis. The current studies showed that only subtypes H7 and H5 could cause severe systemic infections. Abundant distribution of ?-2, 3 siliac acid receptor in conjunctiva and cornea as well as specific activiation of NF-?B signal transduction pathway by subtype H7 virus may contribute to the ocular tropism of the virus. These studies suggest that avian influenza conjunctivitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis during influenza epidemic seasons, and eyes should be well protected for disease control personnel when handling avian influenza epidemics. This review focused on AIV conjunctivitis and the molecular basis of ocular tropism.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular cloning and expression pattern of duck Six1 and its preliminary functional analysis in myoblasts transfected with eukaryotic expression vector.
Indian J. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Skeletal muscle development is regulated by Six1, an important myogenic transcription factor. However, the functional analysis of duck Six1 has not been reported. Here, we cloned the coding domain sequence (CDS) region of the duck Six1 gene using RT-PCR and RACE methods. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that duck Six1 CDS region comprised of 849 bp and encoded 282 amino acids and had a high degree of homology with other species, suggesting that the functions of duck Six1 gene are conserved among other animals. Real-time PCR used to determine the mRNA expression profiles of duck Six1 in different tissues and different developmental stages showed that Six1 was highly expressed in skeletal muscle and the embryonic stage. Furthermore, the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-duSix1 was constructed and transfected into the duck myoblasts; the MTT assay revealed an obvious increase of cell proliferation after transfection. The expression profiles of Six1, Myf5 and MyoD showed that their expression levels were significantly increased. These results together suggested that pEGFP-duSix1 vector was constructed successfully and overexpression of duck Six1 in the myoblasts could promote cell proliferation activity and significant up-regulate expression of Myf5 and MyoD.
Related JoVE Video
Rice SPX1 and SPX2 inhibit phosphate starvation responses through interacting with PHR2 in a phosphate-dependent manner.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In plants, sensing the levels of external and internal nutrients is essential for reprogramming the transcriptome and adapting to the fluctuating environment. Phosphate (Pi) is a key plant nutrient, and a large proportion of Pi starvation-responsive genes are under the control of PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE REGULATOR 1 (PHR1) in Arabidopsis (AtPHR1) and its homologs, such as Oryza sativa (Os)PHR2 in rice. AtPHR1 and OsPHR2 expression is not very responsive to Pi starvation, raising the question as to how plants sense changes in cellular Pi levels to activate the central regulator. SPX [named after SYG1 (suppressor of yeast gpa1), Pho81 (CDK inhibitor in yeast PHO pathway), and XPR1 (xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus receptor)] proteins that harbor only the SPX domain are reported to be involved in the negative regulation of Pi starvation responses. Here, we show that the nuclear localized SPX proteins SPX1 and SPX2 are Pi-dependent inhibitors of the activity of OsPHR2 in rice. Indeed, SPX1 and SPX2 proteins interact with PHR2 through their SPX domain, inhibiting its binding to P1BS (the PHR1-binding sequence: GNATATNC). In vivo data, as well as results from in vitro experiments using purified SPX1, SPX2, and OsPHR2 proteins, showed that SPX1 and SPX2 inhibition of OsPHR2 activity is Pi-dependent. These data provide evidence to support the involvement of SPX1 and SPX2 in the Pi-sensing mechanism in plants.
Related JoVE Video
I2/TBPB mediated oxidative reaction of N-tosylhydrazones with anilines: practical construction of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles under metal-free and azide-free conditions.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An efficient I2 (20 mol %)/TBPB mediated oxidative formal [4 + 1] cycloaddition of N-tosylhydrazones with anilines via C-N/N-N bond formation and S-N cleavage has been developed. This protocol represents a simple, general, and efficient approach for the construction of 1,2,3-triazoles under metal-free and azide-free conditions by utilizing a catalytic amount of I2.
Related JoVE Video
Alkyne-functionalized superstable graphitic silver nanoparticles for Raman imaging.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Noble metals, especially gold, have been widely used in plasmon resonance applications. Although silver has a larger optical cross section and lower cost than gold, it has attracted much less attention because of its easy corrosion, thereby degrading plasmonic signals and limiting its applications. To circumvent this problem, we report the facile synthesis of superstable AgCu@graphene (ACG) nanoparticles (NPs). The growth of several layers of graphene onto the surface of AgCu alloy NPs effectively protects the Ag surface from contamination, even in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen sulfide, and nitric acid. The ACG NPs have been utilized to enhance the unique Raman signals from the graphitic shell, making ACG an ideal candidate for cell labeling, rapid Raman imaging, and SERS detection. ACG is further functionalized with alkyne-polyethylene glycol, which has strong Raman vibrations in the Raman-silent region of the cell, leading to more accurate colocalization inside cells. In sum, this work provides a simple approach to fabricate corrosion-resistant, water-soluble, and graphene-protected AgCu NPs having a strong surface plasmon resonance effect suitable for sensing and imaging.
Related JoVE Video
Application of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of radiation-induced Gastrointestinal syndrome.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nuclear accidents and terrorism present a serious threat for mass casualty. Accidental or intended radiation exposure leads to radiation-induced gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome. However, currently there are no approved medical countermeasures for GI syndrome. Thus, developing novel treatments for GI syndrome is urgent. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow are a subset of multipotent adult somatic stem cells that have the ability to undergo self-renewal, proliferation and pluripotent differentiation. MSCs have advantages over other stem cells; they can be easily isolated from patients or donors, readily expanded ex vivo, and they possess reparative and immunomodulatory properties. Moreover, MSCs have been shown to be powerful tools in gene therapy and can be effectively transduced with vectors containing therapeutic genes. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of MSCs has been brought into the spotlight for the clinical treatment of GI syndrome. In this review, we discuss the possible role of MSCs in radiation-induced GI syndrome.
Related JoVE Video
Promoter polymorphisms of miR-34b/c are associated with risk of gastric cancer in a Chinese population.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
More and more evidence reveals that noncoding RNA miR-34b/c and tumor suppressor gene TP-53 independently, and/or jointly, play crucial roles in carcinogenesis. The purpose of the present hospital-based case-control study was to investigate the association between the miR-34b/c rs4938723 and TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphisms and the risk of gastric cancer. Two polymorphisms were genotyped in 419 gastric cancer patients and 402 age- and sex-matched cancer-free controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The CC genotype and C allele of the miR-34b/c rs4938723 were associated with a significantly decreased risk of gastric cancer compared with the TT genotype and T allele (CC vs. TT: P?=?0.006, adjusted odds ratio (OR)?=?0.53, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI)?=?0.34-0.83; C vs. T: P?=?0.005, adjusted OR?=?0.75, 95 % CI?=?0.61-0.92). Compared with individuals with the wild-type TT genotype, subjects with the variant genotypes (CT?+?CC) had a significantly decreased risk of gastric cancer (P?=?0.047, adjusted OR?=?0.75, 95 % CI?=?0.57-0.99). Stratified analysis showed that the association between the risk of gastric cancer and the variant genotypes of miR-34b/c was more profound among men. However, no overall association was found between the TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism and gastric cancer risk. In the combined analysis, no effects of the interaction of miR-34b/c rs4938723 and TP53Arg72Pro on gastric cancer risk were observed. Our findings indicate that the miR-34b/c rs4938723 CT/CC genotypes may be associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer and the C allele may be a protective factor in gastric cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Exome sequencing identifies SLC17A9 pathogenic gene in two Chinese pedigrees with disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterised by annular lesions that has an atrophic centre and a prominent peripheral ridge distributed on sun exposed area. It exhibits high heterogeneity, and five linkage loci have been reported. The mevalonate kinase (MVK) gene located on 12q24 has been confirmed as one of the disease-causing genes. But, the pathogenesis of a large part of DSAP remains unclear so far.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis of benzobicycloheptanones via the trap of photogenerated ketene methide intermediate with olefins.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Irradiation of ortho-formyl dienes with UV light led to benzobicycloheptanones in high yields and chemoselectivities via a photogenerated ketene methide/Diels-Alder cascade reaction. The reaction mechanism was proposed to be a [1,5]-H shift process rather than a radical pathway based on control experiments. DFT calculations indicate that the energy of transition states is responsible for the high chemoselectivity observed in this protocol.
Related JoVE Video
Engineering chlorpyrifos-degrading Stenotrophomonas sp. YC-1 for heavy metal accumulation and enhanced chlorpyrifos degradation.
Biodegradation
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many ecosystems are currently co-contaminated with pesticides and heavy metals, such as chlorpyrifos and cadmium. A promising strategy to remediate mixed chlorpyrifos-cadmium-contaminated sites is the use of chlorpyrifos-degrading bacteria endowed with cadmium removal capabilities. In this work, a gene coding for synthetic phytochelatins (EC20) with high cadmium-binding capacity was introduced into a chlorpyrifos-degrading bacterium, Stenotrophomonas sp. YC-1, resulting in an engineered strain with both cadmium accumulation and chlorpyrifos degradation capabilities. To improve the cadmium-binding efficiency of whole cells, EC20 was displayed on the cell surface of Stenotrophomonas sp. YC-1 using the truncated ice nucleation protein (INPNC) anchor. The surface localization of the INPNC-EC20 fusion protein was demonstrated by cell fractionation, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Expression of EC20 on the cell surface not only improved cadmium binding, but also alleviated the cellular toxicity of cadmium. As expected, the chlorpyrifos degradation rate was reduced in the presence of cadmium for cells without EC20 expression. However, expression of EC20 (higher cadmium accumulation) completely restored the level of chlorpyrifos degradation. These results demonstrated that EC20 expression not only enhanced cadmium accumulation, but also reduced the toxic effect of cadmium on chlorpyrifos degradation.
Related JoVE Video
Cephalometric analysis of craniofacial morphology and growth in unrepaired isolated cleft palate patients.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study is to analyze the craniofacial morphology in patients with unrepaired isolated cleft palate (UICP) at childhood, adolescence and adulthood, in order to assess the influence of nonsurgical factors on the craniofacial growth in these patients.
Related JoVE Video
The potential of dental stem cells differentiating into neurogenic cell lineage after cultivation in different modes in vitro.
Cell Reprogram
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trauma or degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) cause the loss of neurons or glial cells. Stem cell transplantation has become a vital strategy for CNS regeneration. It is necessary to effectively induce nonneurogenic stem cells to differentiate into neurogenic cell lineages because of the limited source of neurogenic stem cells, relatively difficult cultivation, and ethical issues. Previous studies have found that dental stem cells can be used for transplantation therapy. The aim of this study was to explore a better inductive mode and time point for dental stem cells to differentiate into neural-like cells and evaluate a better candidate cell. In this study, dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs), dental papilla stem cells (DPSCs), and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) were cultivated in five different modes. The proliferation ability, morphology, and expression of neural marker genes were analyzed. Results showed that DFSCs showed a higher proliferation potential. The proliferation was decreased after cultivation in chemical inductive medium as cultivation modes 3 and 5. The cells could present neural-like cell morphology after cultivation with human epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor-basic (bFGF) as cultivation modes 4 and 5. The vast majority of DFSCs gene expression levels in mode 4 on the third day was upregulated significantly. In conclusion, our data suggested that different dental stem cells exhibited different neural differentiation potentials. DFSCs might be the better candidate cell type. Furthermore, cultivation mode 4 and timing of the third day may promote differentiation into neurogenic cell lineages more effectively before transplantation to treat neurological diseases.
Related JoVE Video
SIESTA-PEXSI: massively parallel method for efficient and accurate ab initio materials simulation without matrix diagonalization.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe a scheme for efficient large-scale electronic-structure calculations based on the combination of the pole expansion and selected inversion (PEXSI) technique with the SIESTA method, which uses numerical atomic orbitals within the Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT) framework. The PEXSI technique can efficiently utilize the sparsity pattern of the Hamiltonian and overlap matrices generated in SIESTA, and for large systems it has a much lower computational complexity than that associated with the matrix diagonalization procedure. The PEXSI technique can be used to evaluate the electron density, free energy, atomic forces, density of states and local density of states without computing any eigenvalue or eigenvector of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. It can achieve accuracy fully comparable to that obtained from a matrix diagonalization procedure for general systems, including metallic systems at low temperature. The PEXSI method is also highly scalable. With the recently developed massively parallel PEXSI technique, we can make efficient use of more than 10?000 processors on high performance machines. We demonstrate the performance and accuracy of the SIESTA-PEXSI method using several examples of large scale electronic structure calculations, including 1D, 2D and bulk problems with insulating, semi-metallic, and metallic character.
Related JoVE Video
Catalytic effect of Ag(+) on arsenic bioleaching from orpiment (As2S3) in batch tests with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Sulfobacillus sibiricus.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Orpiment is one of the major arsenic sulfide minerals which commonly occurs in the gold mine environment and the weathering of this mineral can lead to the contamination of arsenic. In this study, chemical leaching experiments using 10g/L Fe(3+) at 35°C and 50°C were carried out and the results show that orpiment can be leached by Fe(3+) and the leaching rate of orpiment was significantly enhanced in the presence of Ag(+). The bioleaching experiments with mesophilic bacteria Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and moderate thermophilic bacteria Sulfobacillus sibiricus were carried out, showing that these two strains can survive in the mineral pulp and oxidize Fe(2+) to regenerate Fe(3+). Based on above results, it is believed that the leaching action of the acidic mining drainage by some bacteria can lead to the release of arsenic from orpiment. Different performances of At. ferrooxidans and S. sibiricus in the tests suggest they follow two different mechanisms and this point of view is further confirmed based on analyses of the composition and morphology of the mineral residue by SEM and EDS.
Related JoVE Video
Integrin ?v?3 mediates the synergetic regulation of core-binding factor ?1 transcriptional activity by gravity and insulin-like growth factor-1 through phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mechanical stimulation and biological factors coordinately regulate bone development and regeneration; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Microgravity induces bone loss, which may be partly related to the development of resistance to local cytokines, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Here, we report the involvement of integrin ?v?3 in microgravity-associated bone loss. An established OSE-3T3 cell model was stably transfected with a 6OSE2 (Osteoblast-Specific Element 2)-luciferase reporter and cultured under simulated microgravity (SMG) and hypergravity (HG) conditions in the presence or absence of IGF-1, the disintegrin echistatin, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, or combinations of these agents. Activity of core-binding factor ?1 (Cbfa1), an essential transcription factor for osteoblastic differentiation and osteogenesis, was reflected by luciferase activity. Different gravity conditions affected the induction of IGF-1 and subsequent effects on Cbfa1 transcription activity. SMG and HG influenced the expression and activity of integrin ?v?3 and phosphorylation level of p85. LY294002 inhibited the effects of HG or IGF-1 on Cbfa1 activity, indicating that HG and IGF-1 could increase Cbfa1 activity via PI3K signaling. Inhibition of integrin ?v?3 by echistatin attenuated the induction of IGF-1 and thus its effect on Cbfa1 activity under normal and HG conditions. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that integrin ?3 interacted with insulin receptor substrate 1, and that this interaction was decreased under SMG and increased under HG conditions. These results suggest that integrin ?v?3 mediates the synergetic regulation of Cbfa1 transcription activity by gravity and IGF-1 via PI3K signaling.
Related JoVE Video
Doliroside A attenuates monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation by targeting NLRP3 inflammasome.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our previous study demonstrates that Dolichos falcata Klein (DF) ameliorates the gouty arthritis induced by monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, and one of the active components, doliroside A, contributed to the anti-gouty arthritis effect of DF according to the in vitro study. However, there is still little known about the potential beneficial effects and possible mechanism of action of doliroside A on gouty arthritis. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism of action of doliroside A in vitro and the anti-inflammatory effects of doliroside A in vivo. Bone-marrow-derived macrophages were treated with doliroside A before or after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and then stimulated with MSU crystals, nigericin and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The expressions of proteins related to activation of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome were analyzed. The results manifested that doliroside A (15, 30, 45 and 60 ?M) suppressed both LPS-induced priming and inflammasome activation in macrophages. Moreover, doliroside A was administered to the rats treated by MSU crystals. The results demonstrated that doliroside A (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) ameliorated the symptoms of gouty arthritis, decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inhibited the expressions of caspase-1 and pro-interleukin-1? (pro-IL-1?) proteins in MSU crystals-treated rats. These findings indicate that doliroside A exhibits a prominent effect on ameliorating gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystals. The action of doliroside A on gouty arthritis exerts via inhibiting the activation of caspase-1 and IL-1? secretion by affecting both LPS-induced priming and inflammasome activation.
Related JoVE Video
Genome Sequence of the ?-Poly-l-Lysine-Producing Strain Streptomyces albulus NK660, Isolated from Soil in Gutian, Fujian Province, China.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We determined the complete genome sequence of a soil bacterium, Streptomyces albulus NK660. It can produce ?-poly-l-lysine, which has antimicrobial activity against a spectrum of microorganisms. The genome of S. albulus NK660 contains a 9,360,281-bp linear chromosome and a 12,120-bp linear plasmid.
Related JoVE Video
Propargylic cation-induced intermolecular electrophilic addition–semipinacol rearrangement.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel propargylic electrophile-induced tandem intermolecular addition-semipinacol rearrangement was developed efficiently under mild conditions. Various allylic silylether substrates as well as Co-complexed propargylic species were applicable to this protocol and gave a series of synthetically useful ?-propargyl spirocyclic ketones in moderate to good yields. Its synthetic application was also demonstrated by an efficient construction of the key tricyclic moiety of daphlongamine E.
Related JoVE Video
Estimating urban roadside emissions with an atmospheric dispersion model based on in-field measurements.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Urban vehicle emission models have been utilized to calculate pollutant concentrations at both microscopic and macroscopic levels based on vehicle emission rates which few researches have been able to validate. The objective of our research is to estimate urban roadside emissions and calibrate it with in-field measurement data. We calculated the vehicle emissions based on localized emission rates, and used an atmospheric dispersion model to estimate roadside emissions. A non-linear regression model was applied to calibrate the localized emission rates using in-field measurement data. With the calibrated emission rates, emissions on urban roadside can be estimated with a high accuracy.
Related JoVE Video
Expression profiles of myostatin, myogenin, and Myosin heavy chain in skeletal muscles of two rabbit breeds differing in growth rate.
Anim. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to compare mRNA levels of myostatin (MSTN), myogenin (MyoG), and fiber type compositions in terms of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) in skeletal muscles of two rabbit breeds with different body sizes and growth rates. Longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles of 16 Californian rabbits (CW) and 16 Germany great line of ZIKA rabbits (GZ) were collected at the ages of 35d and 84d (slaughter age). The results showed that the live weights of GZ rabbits of 35d and 84d old were approximately 36% and 26% greater than those of CW rabbits, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that at the age of 84d GZ rabbits contained significantly lower MSTN mRNA level and higher MyoG mRNA level in both longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles than CW rabbits, and mRNA levels of MSTN and MyoG exhibited opposite changes from the age of 35d to 84d, suggesting that GZ rabbits were subjected to less growth inhibition from MSTN at slaughter age, which occurred most possibly in skeletal muscles. Four types of fiber were identified by real-time PCR in rabbit muscles, with MyHC-1 and MyHC-2D, MyHC-2B were the major types in biceps femoris and longissimus dorsi muscles, respectively. At the age of 84d, GZ rabbits contained greater proportion of MyHC-1 and decreased proportion of MyHC-2D and decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity in biceps femoris than CW rabbits, and the results were exactly opposite in longissimus dorsi, suggesting that GZ rabbits show higher oxidative capacity in biceps femoris muscle than CW rabbits. In conclusion, the trends of mRNA levels of MSTN and fiber types in GZ rabbits' skeletal muscles might be consistent with the putative fast growth characteristic of GZ rabbits compared to CW rabbits.
Related JoVE Video
Integrated 10 Gb/s multilevel multiband passive optical network and 500 Mb/s indoor visible light communication system based on Nyquist single carrier frequency domain equalization modulation.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel integrated passive optical network (PON) and indoor visible light communication (VLC) system based on Nyquist single carrier frequency domain equalization (N-SC-FDE) modulation with direct detection. In this system, a directly modulated laser and a commercially available red light emitting diode are served as the transmitters of the PON and VLC, respectively. To enable high spectral efficiency, high-speed transmission, and flexible multiple access with simplified optical network unit-side digital signal processing, multilevel, multiband quadrature amplitude modulations 128/64/16 are implemented here. VLC N-SC-FDE signals are successfully delivered a further 30 cm indoor distance after transmitting over a span of 40 km single mode fiber (SMF) together with 3 sub-band PON signals. As a proof of concept, a 10 Gb/s PON and 500 Mb/s VLC integrated system for three wired users and one wireless user is successfully achieved, which shows the promising potential and feasibility of this proposal to extend multiple services from metropolitan to suburban areas.
Related JoVE Video
Kyphoplasty versus vertebroplasty for the treatment of malignant vertebral compression fractures caused by metastases: a retrospective study.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There are few comparative studies regarding kyphoplasty (KP) and vertebroplasty (VP) for the treatment of painful vertebral compression fractures (VCF) in patients with cancer. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively compare KP with VP in pain improvement, cement leakage incidence, and the cost of treatment of malignant VCF.
Related JoVE Video
[The keystone design perforator island flap in reconstructive surgery].
Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To introduce the experience in skin defects reconstruction using keystone design perforator island flap.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of 60-day head-down bed rest on osteocalcin, glycolipid metabolism and their association with or without resistance training.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bone loss and subclinical diabeteslike are developed during long-term spaceflight. Recently, it was demonstrated that bone was able to regulate energy metabolism and testosterone synthesis via osteocalcin. The aim of this study was to determine whether serum osteocalcin level is associated with glycolipid metabolism or testosterone under the influence of microgravity with or without resistive vibration exercise (RVE).
Related JoVE Video
Low Al-composition p-GaN/Mg-doped Al0.25Ga0.75N/n+-GaN polarization-induced backward tunneling junction grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire substrate.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Low Al-composition p-GaN/Mg-doped Al0.25Ga0.75N/n(+)-GaN polarization-induced backward tunneling junction (PIBTJ) was grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire substrate. A self-consistent solution of Poisson-Schrödinger equations combined with polarization-induced theory was used to model PIBTJ structure, energy band diagrams and free carrier concentrations distribution. The PIBTJ displays reliable and reproducible backward tunneling with a current density of 3?A/cm(2) at the reverse bias of -1?V. The absence of negative differential resistance behavior of PIBTJ at forward bias can mainly be attributed to the hole compensation centers, including C, H and O impurities, accumulated at the p-GaN/Mg-doped AlGaN heterointerface.
Related JoVE Video
Reconstruction of the zygomatic cheek defects using a flap based on the pretragal perforator of the superficial temporal artery.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to create a new flap based method for zygomatic cheek defect reconstruction using the pretragal perforator from the superficial temporal artery.
Related JoVE Video
Spatial analysis on human brucellosis incidence in mainland China: 2004-2010.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
China has experienced a sharply increasing rate of human brucellosis in recent years. Effective spatial monitoring of human brucellosis incidence is very important for successful implementation of control and prevention programmes. The purpose of this paper is to apply exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) methods and the empirical Bayes (EB) smoothing technique to monitor county-level incidence rates for human brucellosis in mainland China from 2004 to 2010 by examining spatial patterns.
Related JoVE Video
Gigabit polarization division multiplexing in visible light communication.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this Letter, polarization division multiplexing is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time that we know of, in visible light communication systems based on incoherent light emitting diodes and two orthogonal groups of linear polarizers. Spectrally efficient 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation Nyquist single carrier frequency domain equalization is employed to obtain a maximum spectral efficiency. We achieve an aggregate data rate of 1??Gb/s, with bit error rate results for two polarization directions both below the 7% pre-forward-error-correction threshold of 3.8×10(-3) after 80 cm free-space transmission. Moreover, the cross talk between x and y polarization is also discussed and analyzed.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolic engineering of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for poly-gamma-glutamic acid (?-PGA) overproduction.
Microb Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We constructed a metabolically engineered glutamate-independent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain with considerable ?-PGA production. It was carried out by double-deletion of the cwlO gene and epsA-O cluster, as well as insertion of the vgb gene in the bacteria chromosome. The final generated strain NK-PV elicited the highest production of ?-PGA (5.12 g l(-1)), which was 63.2% higher than that of the wild-type NK-1 strain (3.14 g l(-1)). The ?-PGA purity also improved in the NK-PV strain of 80.4% compared with 76.8% for the control. Experiments on bacterial biofilm formation experiment showed that NK-1 and NK-c (?cwlO) strains can form biofilm; the epsA-O deletion NK-7 and NK-PV strains could only form an incomplete biofilm.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical and experimental study of castleman disease in children.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disease that is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, especially in children. For this reason, we describe the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of CD in 11 children.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis and microwave modification of CuO nanoparticles: Crystallinity and morphological variations, catalysis, and gas sensing.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CuO nanoparticles with different morphologies were synthesized by chemical precipitation and subsequently modified by microwave hydrothermal processing. The nanoparticles were precipitated by the introduction of a strong base to an aqueous solution of copper cations in the presence/absence of the polyethylene glycol and urea additives. The modification of the nanoparticles was subsequently carried out by a microwave hydrothermal treatment of suspensions of the precipitates, precipitated with and without the additives. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicated that the crystallinity and crystallite size of the CuO nanoparticles increased after the microwave hydrothermal modification. Microscopy observations revealed the morphology changes induced by microwave hydrothermal processing. The thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate and the detection of volatile gases were performed to evaluate the catalytic and gas sensing properties of the synthesized CuO nanoparticles.
Related JoVE Video
Conditioned media from human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells efficiently induced the apoptosis and differentiation in human glioma cell lines in vitro.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have an intrinsic property for homing towards tumor sites and can be used as tumor-tropic vectors for tumor therapy. But very limited studies investigated the antitumor properties of MSCs themselves. In this study we investigated the antiglioma properties of two easily accessible MSCs, namely, human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs). We found (1) MSC conditioned media can significantly inhibit the growth of human U251 glioma cell line; (2) MSC conditioned media can significantly induce apoptosis in human U251 cell line; (3) real-time PCR experiments showed significant upregulation of apoptotic genes of both caspase-3 and caspase-9 and significant downregulation of antiapoptotic genes such as survivin and XIAP after MSC conditioned media induction in U 251 cells; (4) furthermore, MSCs conditioned media culture induced rapid and complete differentiation in U251 cells. These results indicate MSCs can efficiently induce both apoptosis and differentiation in U251 human glioma cell line. Whereas UC-MSCs are more efficient for apoptosis induction than ASCs, their capability of differentiation induction is not distinguishable from each other. Our findings suggest MSCs themselves have favorable antitumor characteristics and should be further explored in future glioma therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Twin-arginine signal peptide of Bacillus subtilis YwbN can direct Tat-dependent secretion of methyl parathion hydrolase.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway exports folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membranes of bacteria and archaea. Two parallel Tat pathways (TatAdCd and TatAyCy systems) with distinct substrate specificities have previously been discovered in Bacillus subtilis. In this study, to secrete methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) into the growth medium, the twin-arginine signal peptide of B. subtilis YwbN was used to target MPH to the Tat pathway of B. subtilis. Western blot analysis and MPH assays demonstrated that active MPH was secreted into the culture supernatant of wild-type cells. No MPH secretion occurred in a total-tat2 mutant, indicating that the observed export in wild-type cells was mediated exclusively by the Tat pathway. Export was fully blocked in a tatAyCy mutant. In contrast, the tatAdCd mutant was still capable of secreting MPH. These results indicated that the MPH secretion directed by the YwbN signal peptide was specifically mediated by the TatAyCy system. The N-terminal sequence of secreted MPH was determined as AAPQVR, demonstrating that the YwbN signal peptide had been processed correctly. This is the first report of functional secretion of a heterologous protein via the B. subtilis TatAyCy system. This study highlights the potential of the TatAyCy system to be used for secretion of other heterologous proteins in B. subtilis.
Related JoVE Video
A markerless gene replacement method for B. amyloliquefaciens LL3 and its use in genome reduction and improvement of poly-?-glutamic acid production.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We herein adapted a markerless gene replacement method by combining a temperature-sensitive plasmid pKSV7 with a counterselectable marker, the upp gene encoding uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase), for the poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA)-producing strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3. Deletion of the upp gene conferred LL3 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistance. Sensitivity to 5-FU was restored when LL3 ?upp was transformed with pKSV7-based deletion plasmid which carries a functional allele of the upp gene of Bacillus subtilis 168. These observations allowed us to adapt a two-step plasmid integration and excision strategy to perform markerless deletion of genes of interest. Deletion plasmid harboring a mutant allele of the target gene was first integrated in the genome by culturing cells under nonpermissive conditions for pKSV7 replication. Single-crossover recombinants were then grown without antibiotics to aid the second recombinational event. 5-FU was used to select for double-crossover recombinants with plasmid evicted from the chromosome. The resulting recombinants either harbored the wild-type or mutated allele of the target gene and could be identified by PCR and DNA sequencing. Using this method, we successively removed the amyA gene and a 47-kb fragment of the bae cluster from the genome of LL3, with higher efficiency compared with previous reports. We also investigated the effects of a transcriptional regulator, RocR, on ?-PGA production and cell growth. Specific ?-PGA production of the rocR mutant was increased by 1.9-fold, which represents a new way to improve ?-PGA production.
Related JoVE Video
Biodegradable nanoassemblies of piperlongumine display enhanced anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activities.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Piperlongumine (PL) shows an inhibitory effect on tumor growth; however, lipophilicity has restricted its further applications. Nanotechnology provides an effective method to overcome the poor water solubility of lipophilic drugs. Polymeric micelles with small particle size can passively target tumors by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, thus improving their anti-tumor effects. In this study, to improve the water solubility and anti-tumor activity of PL, PL encapsulated polymeric micelles (PL micelles) were prepared by a solid dispersion method. The prepared PL micelles showed a small particle size and high encapsulation efficiency, which could be lyophilized into powder, and the re-dissolved PL micelles are homogenous and stable in water. In addition, a sustained release behavior of PL micelles was observed in vitro. Encapsulation of PL into polymeric micelles could increase the cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and reduce glutathione (GSH) levels in vitro. Encapsulation of PL into polymeric micelles enhanced its inhibitory effect on neovascularization both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with free PL, PL micelles showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Additionally, in a transgenic zebrafish model, embryonic angiogenesis was inhibited by PL micelles. Furthermore, PL micelles were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth and prolonging survival in a subcutaneous CT-26 murine tumor model in vivo. Therefore, our data revealed that the encapsulation of PL into biodegradable polymeric micelles enhanced its anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activities both in vitro and in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Complete mitochondrial genome of Relict Gull, Larus relictus (Charadriiformes: Laridae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Larus relictus was 16,586-bp long, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a control region. Most PCGs begin with the typical ATN start codon with the exception of COI and ND5 genes, which use GTG as the initiation codon. Stop codons AGG, TAG, TAA and AGA are present in the PCGs; exceptions are COIII and ND4, which possess incomplete termination codons (T), and ND3, in which one extra C nucleotide is found. Secondary structure prediction of the 22 tRNA genes revealed the absence of the DHU arm in tRNA(Ser)(()(AGN)). Seven conserved sequence box elements, as well as the origin of H-strand replication (OH) and bidirectional light- and heavy-strand transcription promoters (LSP/HSP), are found in control region.
Related JoVE Video
Extremely cold and hot temperatures increase the risk of diabetes mortality in metropolitan areas of two Chinese cities.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Numerous studies have reported the association between ambient temperature and mortality. However, few studies have focused on the effects of extreme temperatures on diabetes mortality, particularly in China. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of extremely cold and hot temperatures on diabetes mortality in urban areas of Harbin and Chongqing in China to provide scientific evidence for public health policy implementation to respond to challenges in diabetes mortality because of extreme temperature events.
Related JoVE Video
HIV infection predisposes skin to toxic epidermal necrolysis via depletion of skin-directed CD4? T cells.
J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A greater incidence of adverse cutaneous drug eruptions, including toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), occurs among HIV-infected patients.
Related JoVE Video
Modification of marine natural product ningalin B and SAR study lead to potent P-glycoprotein inhibitors.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, new marine ningalin B analogues containing a piperazine or a benzoloxy group at ring C have been synthesized and evaluated on their P-gp modulating activity in human breast cancer and leukemia cell lines. Their structure-activity relationship was preliminarily studied. Compounds 19 and 20 are potent P-gp inhibitors. These two synthetic analogues of permethyl ningalin B may be potentially used as effective modulators of P-gp-mediated drug resistance in cancer cells.
Related JoVE Video
Soil fungal resources in annual cropping systems and their potential for management.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Soil fungi are a critical component of agroecosystems and provide ecological services that impact the production of food and bioproducts. Effective management of fungal resources is essential to optimize the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. In this review, we (i) highlight the functional groups of fungi that play key roles in agricultural ecosystems, (ii) examine the influence of agronomic practices on these fungi, and (iii) propose ways to improve the management and contribution of soil fungi to annual cropping systems. Many of these key soil fungal organisms (i.e., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and fungal root endophytes) interact directly with plants and are determinants of the efficiency of agroecosystems. In turn, plants largely control rhizosphere fungi through the production of carbon and energy rich compounds and of bioactive phytochemicals, making them a powerful tool for the management of soil fungal diversity in agriculture. The use of crop rotations and selection of optimal plant genotypes can be used to improve soil biodiversity and promote beneficial soil fungi. In addition, other agronomic practices (e.g., no-till, microbial inoculants, and biochemical amendments) can be used to enhance the effect of beneficial fungi and increase the health and productivity of cultivated soils.
Related JoVE Video
BTNL2 associated with the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination in a Chinese Han population.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
No response to hepatitis B vaccination is a complex phenomenon, which is induced by the combinations of environmental and genetic factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the polymorphisms of the butyrophilin-like 2 (BTNL2) gene and the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination in a Chinese Han population. A total of 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the BTNL2 gene were analyzed in 566 non-responders and 1,040 high-responders to hepatitis B vaccination. The alleles T, T, C, A, G of rs3763316, rs3763311, rs9268494, rs3806156, and rs2076530 were associated with no response to hepatitis B vaccination (P?=?0.015, odds ratio (OR)?=?1.20; P?=?0.029, OR?=?1.18; P?=?2.00E-07, OR?=?1.58; P?=?0.002, OR?=?1.27; P?=?2.90E-06, OR?=?1.41, respectively). Whereas, the alleles T, C of rs9268501 and rs3763313 played significantly protective roles in the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination (P?=?0.007, OR?=?0.81; P?=?0.004, OR?=?0.74). Besides, the risks of no response to hepatitis B vaccination were increased significantly among individuals harbored the haplotypes of G-T-A-T-C-A-G (P?=?0.038, OR?=?1.48), G-T-A-T-C (P?
Related JoVE Video
Effects of interleukin-10 gene deficiency on hepatic biochemical metabolism in mice.
Clin. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene deficiency on mouse liver function. The experimental mice were divided into wild-type and IL-10 knockout groups. Serological biomarkers for liver functions were detected by the automatic biochemical analyzer AU5400. The pathological changes were assessed by the light microscope. The levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) in liver tissues were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared with the wild type, the serum levels of albumin (ALB), total protein, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in IL-10-deficient mice were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). No obvious pathological changes including liver necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were found. The expression of iNOS and IL-1? genes, the serum levels of iNOS and IL-1? were significantly higher in IL-10-deficient mice than in wild-type mice (P < 0.05). The absence of IL-10 gene can significantly decrease serum ALB and bilirubin. The effect may be related to the upregulation of iNOS and IL-1?.
Related JoVE Video
Urban, semi-urban and rural difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Shaanxi province, northwestern China: a population-based survey.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ongoing rapid urbanization in China offers rural population opportunities not only for economic improvement but also for substantial health risks. Albeit some researches related to rural-urban difference of metabolic syndrome (MS), there lacks studies focusing on this point in undeveloped provinces in China.
Related JoVE Video
Soluble complement complex C5b-9 promotes microglia activation.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Soluble C5b-9 has been described as a pro-inflammatory mediator that triggers cell activation rather than inducing cell death. Microglia is the most important immune cell involved in inflammatory response in the CNS. Although microglia activation induced by various stimuli has been well characterized, the role of C5b-9 in microglia has not been well studied. In the current experiment, we utilized assembled functional C5b-9 to treat microglia and analyzed the function. We found that soluble C5b-9 could promote microglia activation by up-regulation of costimulatory molecules and increase cytokine secretion. Our results suggested that soluble C5b-9 possessed immunoregulatory potential on microglia.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of the regulation of follistatin mRNA expression by IGF-1 in duck (Anas platyrhynchos) skeletal muscle.
Growth Horm. IGF Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The IGF-1 and TGF-? pathways have been shown to be involved in regulating muscle development. Many mediators that are associated with the regulation of muscle development have been found to participate in the cross-talk between these two pathways. To research the relationships between IGF-1 and the follistatin-mediated TGF-? pathways in duck skeletal muscle development, a series of studies were conducted. The results showed that follistatin had similar expression patterns to IGF-1 during duck embryonic muscle development. The in ovo feeding of IGF-1 to duck eggs was shown to increase follistatin expression in the duck skeletal muscle. Thus, IGF-1 may induce the mRNA expression of follistatin. These results suggest that follistatin may be a key regulator of multiple signaling cascades responding to the cross-talk between the IGF-1 and TGF-? pathways.
Related JoVE Video
Alcohol consumption and risk of glioma: a meta-analysis of 19 observational studies.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relationship between risk of glioma and alcohol consumption has been widely studied, but results have been conflicting. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to systematically assess the relationship between alcohol drinking and risk of glioma. Two electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) were searched from inception to 8 August 2013 to identify pertinent studies that linked alcohol drinking with glioma risk. We used a random-effects model to calculate the overall relative risk (RR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Fifteen case-control and four cohort studies were identified for this analysis. The combined RR for total alcohol drinkers versus non-drinkers was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.89-1.04). In the subgroup analysis by geographic area, a significant association was observed in North American studies (RR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65-0.93), but not in European or Asian/Australian studies. In the subgroup analysis by study design, a borderline significant association emerged in population-based case-control studies (RR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68-0.99), but not in hospital-based case-control studies (RR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.99-1.01) or cohort group (RR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.88-1.20). Our results show no material association between alcohol consumption and risk of glioma existed. Further prospective evidences are needed to confirm this association.
Related JoVE Video
Functions of poly-gamma-glutamic acid (?-PGA) degradation genes in ?-PGA synthesis and cell morphology maintenance.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA) is an important biopolymer with greatly potential in industrial and medical applications. In the present study, we constructed a metabolically engineered glutamate-independent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3 strain with considerable ?-PGA production, which was carried out by single, double, and triple markerless deletions of three degradation genes pgdS, ggt, and cwlO. The highest ?-PGA production (7.12 g/L) was obtained from the pgdS and cwlO double-deletion strain NK-pc, which was 93 % higher than that of wild-type LL3 strain (3.69 g/L). The triple-gene-deletion strain NK-pgc showed a 28 % decrease in ?-PGA production, leading to a yield of 2.69 g/L. Furthermore, the cell morphologies of the mutant strains were also characterized. The cell length of cwlO deletion strains NK-c and NK-pc was shorter than that of the wild-type strain, while the ggt deletion strains NK-g, NK-pg, NK-gc, and NK-pgc showed longer cell lengths. This is the first report concerning the markerless deletion of ?-PGA degradation genes to improve ?-PGA production in a glutamate-independent strain and the first observation that ?-glutamyltranspeptidase (encoded by ggt) could be involved in the inhibition of cell elongation.
Related JoVE Video
Visible-light photoredox catalysis enabled bromination of phenols and alkenes.
Beilstein J Org Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A mild and efficient methodology for the bromination of phenols and alkenes has been developed utilizing visible light-induced photoredox catalysis. The bromine was generated in situ from the oxidation of Br(-) by Ru(bpy)3 (3+), both of which resulted from the oxidative quenching process.
Related JoVE Video
Potential biomarkers for sensitivity of gallbladder cancer cells to gemcitabine.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gemcitabine (Gem)-based chemotherapies are the main therapeutic regimens for patients with unresectable advanced or metastatic gallbladder cancer (GBC). However, the modest ORR and mild benefit on survival demonstrates the need for finding biomarkers for sensitivity to Gem and hence improving the therapy. In present work, two GBC cell lines with vast difference in sensitivity to Gem were subjected to DNA microarray analysis. Dramatic expression difference was found in protein kinase A signaling, P2Y purigenic receptor signaling, ErbB signaling and p70S6K signaling. Predicted low expression of KRAS and inactivation of AKT/ERK signaling in Gem-resistant GBC cells was validated by quantitative PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. However, p70S6K, p38MAPK and NF-?B signaling was probably activated in Gem-resistant GBC cells, which deserves further investigation in more GBC cell lines and tissues. Our work provides potential pathway signatures for Gem sensitivity of GBC patients.
Related JoVE Video
A genome-wide association study identifies polymorphisms in the HLA-DR region associated with non-response to hepatitis B vaccination in Chinese Han populations.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vaccination against hepatitis B virus is an effective and routine practice that can prevent infection. However, 5-10% of healthy adults fail to produce protective levels of antibody against the hepatitis B vaccination. It has been reported that host genetic variants might affect the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination. Here, we reported a genome-wide association study in a Chinese Han population consisting of 108 primary high-responders and 77 booster non-responders to hepatitis B vaccination using the Illumina HumanOmniExpress Beadchip. We identified 21 SNPs at 6p21.32 were significantly associated with non-response to booster hepatitis B vaccination (P-value <1 × 10(-6)). The most significant SNP in the region was rs477515, located ?12 kb upstream of the HLA-DRB1 gene. Its P-value (4.81 × 10(-8)) exceeded the Bonferroni-corrected genome-wide significance threshold. Four tagging SNPs (rs477515, rs28366298, rs3763316 and rs13204672) that capture genetic information of these 21 SNPs were validated in three additional Chinese Han populations, consisting of 1336 primary high-responders and 420 primary non-responders. The four SNPs continued to show significant associations with non-response to hepatitis B vaccination (P-combined = 3.98 × 10(-13)- 1.42 × 10(-8)). Further analysis showed that the rs477515 was independently associated with non-response to hepatitis B vaccination with correction for other three SNPs in our GWAS and the known hepatitis B vaccine immunity associated SNP in previous GWAS. Our findings suggest that the rs477515 was an independent marker associated with non-response to hepatitis B vaccination and HLA-DR region might be a critical susceptibility locus of hepatitis B vaccine-induced immunity.
Related JoVE Video
Translocation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein to plasma membrane leads to necrotic cell death.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) was identified to function downstream of receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3) in tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF)-induced necrosis (also called necroptosis). However, how MLKL functions to mediate necroptosis is unknown. By reconstitution of MLKL function in MLKL-knockout cells, we showed that the N-terminus of MLKL is required for its function in necroptosis. The oligomerization of MLKL in TNF-treated cells is essential for necroptosis, as artificially forcing MLKL together by using the hormone-binding domain (HBD*) triggers necroptosis. Notably, forcing together the N-terminal domain (ND) but not the C-terminal kinase domain of MLKL causes necroptosis. Further deletion analysis showed that the four-?-helix bundle of MLKL (1-130 amino acids) is sufficient to trigger necroptosis. Both the HBD*-mediated and TNF-induced complexes of MLKL(ND) or MLKL are tetramers, and translocation of these complexes to lipid rafts of the plasma membrane precedes cell death. The homo-oligomerization is required for MLKL translocation and the signal sequence for plasma membrane location is located in the junction of the first and second ?-helices of MLKL. The plasma membrane translocation of MLKL or MLKL(ND) leads to sodium influx, and depletion of sodium from the cell culture medium inhibits necroptosis. All of the above phenomena were not seen in apoptosis. Thus, the MLKL oligomerization leads to translocation of MLKL to lipid rafts of plasma membrane, and the plasma membrane MLKL complex acts either by itself or via other proteins to increase the sodium influx, which increases osmotic pressure, eventually leading to membrane rupture.
Related JoVE Video
[The application of pedicle orbital fat flap for the correction of lacrimal groove and palpebromalar groove deformity in the middle-aged and old people].
Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the effective techniques for correction of lacrimal groove and palpebromalar groove deformity in the middle-aged and old people.
Related JoVE Video
[The activity of special CTLs in diminishing CD55(high) subgroup in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the activities of cytokine induced killer cells (CIK cells) and specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in killing CD55(high) subgroup in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.
Related JoVE Video
Fiber-based tunable microcavity fluidic dye laser.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigate a tunable fluidic dye laser formed by a microcavity filled with a dye solution. We achieve a wide 18 nm tunability of the laser wavelength by controlling the cavity length for the first time. The microcavity is made of a silica capillary and two aligned fibers with end faces Au-coated. The Rhodamine 6G dye solution flowing through the microcavity is pumped by 532 nm wavelength laser pulses. Laser emission around 570 nm in the form of TE mode with a threshold of about 58???J/pulse is obtained. This work suggests a fiber-based convenient approach to achieve wavelength tunability and integration with lab-on-a-chip systems.
Related JoVE Video
The effect of the H2 density on the electron energy distribution in H- ion sources.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The electron energy distribution in H(-) ion sources is studied. By three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations (3D-MCC) and cross sections of collisions, the crucial collisions in the JAEA 10A are chosen to develop theoretical models for the low electron temperature and the high electron temperature, respectively. The effects of the H2 density on the low electron temperature and the high electron temperature in H(-) ion sources are predicted with analytic expressions and verified by 3D-MCC. The results show that both the low and high electron temperatures become lower while n(H2) increases.
Related JoVE Video
Tear trough and palpebromalar groove in young versus elderly adults: a sectional anatomy study.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The tear trough and palpebromalar groove are of increasing interest to plastic surgeons, but their mechanisms of formation remain unclear. This study evaluated the anatomical foundation for tear trough and palpebromalar groove.
Related JoVE Video
A Combinatorial Perspective of the Protein Inference Problem.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In a shotgun proteomics experiment, proteins are the most biologically meaningful output. The success of proteomics studies depends on the ability to accurately and efficiently identify proteins. Many methods have been proposed to facilitate the identification of proteins from peptide identification results. However, the relationship between protein identification and peptide identification has not been thoroughly explained before. In this paper, we devote ourselves to a combinatorial perspective of the protein inference problem. We employ combinatorial mathematics to calculate the conditional protein probabilities (Protein probability means the probability that a protein is correctly identified) under three assumptions, which lead to a lower bound, an upper bound and an empirical estimation of protein probabilities, respectively. The combinatorial perspective enables us to obtain an analytical expression for protein inference. Our method achieves comparable results with ProteinProphet in a more efficient manner in experiments on two datasets of standard protein mixtures and two datasets of real samples. Based on our model, we study the impact of unique peptides and degenerate peptides (degenerate peptides are peptides shared by at least two proteins) on protein probabilities. Meanwhile, we also study the relationship between our model and ProteinProphet.
Related JoVE Video
DNA Damage and Effects on Antioxidative Enzymes in Earthworm (Eisenia fetida) Induced by Flumorph.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Flumorph is an Oomycete fungicide, which is used extensively as an effective fungicide in vegetables and fruits, but little is known about its effect on nontarget soil organisms. In the present study, biochemical responses including changes in the activity of antioxidative enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), malondialdehyde (MDA), and DNA damage induced by flumorph were investigated in earthworms (Eisenis fetida). The CAT concentrations were stimulated at 5.0 mg kg(-1) over 28 days and inhibited at 10 and 20 mg kg(-1), except 10 mg kg(-1) on days 21 and 28 compared with the controls. The overall SOD activities were inhibited except 5 mg kg(-1) on day 28 and 10 mg kg(-1) on days 7 and 14. Meanwhile, the GST activities were stimulated on day 7 and decreased on the other days in summary. The MDA activities were increased notably at 5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) after 14 days. Clear dose-dependent DNA damage to Eisenia fetida was observed by olive tail moments in comet assay compared with controls. The results demonstrate that flumorph induces oxidative stress and DNA damage to earthworms, and the effects may be the important mechanisms of its toxicity.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of plant growth-promoting bacteria isolated from copper tailings on plants in sterilized and non-sterilized tailings.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ten strains of Cu-tolerant bacteria with potential plant growth-promoting ability were isolated by selecting strains with the ability to use 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate as a sole nitrogen source (designated ACC-B) or fix nitrogen (designated FLN-B) originating from the rhizosphere of plants growing on copper tailings. All 10 strains proved to have intrinsic ability to produce indole acetic acid and siderophores, and most of them could mobilize insoluble phosphate. In addition, a greenhouse study showed that ACC-B, FLN-B and a mixture of both had similar, potent ability to stimulate growth of Pennisetum purpureum, Medicago sativa and Oenothera erythrosepala plants grown on sterilized tailings. For instance, above-ground biomass of P. purpureum was 278-357% greater after 60d growth on sterilized tailings in their presence. They could also significantly promote the growth of the plants grown on non-sterilized tailings, though the growth-promoting effects were much weaker. So, strategies for using of the plant growth-promoting bacteria in the practice of phytoremediation deserve further studies to get higher growth-promoting efficiency.
Related JoVE Video
UNC569, a novel small-molecule mer inhibitor with efficacy against acute lymphoblastic leukemia in vitro and in vivo.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in children. Although survival rates have improved, patients with certain biologic subtypes still have suboptimal outcomes. Current chemotherapeutic regimens are associated with short- and long-term toxicities and novel, less toxic therapeutic strategies are needed. Mer receptor tyrosine kinase is ectopically expressed in ALL patient samples and cell lines. Inhibition of Mer expression reduces prosurvival signaling, increases chemosensitivity, and delays development of leukemia in vivo, suggesting that Mer tyrosine kinase inhibitors are excellent candidates for targeted therapies. Brain and spinal tumors are the second most common malignancies in childhood. Multiple chemotherapy approaches and radiotherapies have been attempted, yet overall survival remains dismal. Mer is also abnormally expressed in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT), providing a rationale for targeting Mer as a therapeutic strategy. We have previously described UNC569, the first small-molecule Mer inhibitor. This article describes the biochemical and biologic effects of UNC569 in ALL and AT/RT. UNC569 inhibited Mer activation and downstream signaling through ERK1/2 and AKT, determined by Western blot analysis. Treatment with UNC569 reduced proliferation/survival in liquid culture, decreased colony formation in methylcellulose/soft agar, and increased sensitivity to cytotoxic chemotherapies. MYC transgenic zebrafish with T-ALL were treated with UNC569 (4 ?mol/L for two weeks). Fluorescence was quantified as indicator of the distribution of lymphoblasts, which express Mer and enhanced GFP. UNC569 induced more than 50% reduction in tumor burden compared with vehicle- and mock-treated fish. These data support further development of Mer inhibitors as effective therapies in ALL and AT/RT.
Related JoVE Video
Ternary 3D architectures of CdS QDs/graphene/ZnIn2S4 heterostructures for efficient photocatalytic H2 production.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Highly efficient hydrogen production can be achieved by three-dimensional (3D) architectures of CdS quantum dots (QDs) incorporated in the porous assembly of marigold-like ZnIn2S4 heterostructures coupled with graphene, leading to an efficient electron transfer between them and the enhancement of the ZnIn2S4 photostability. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectra, and photoluminescence spectra. Especially, 3 wt% CdS QDs decorated ZnIn2S4 heteroarchitectures showed a high rate of H2-production at 1.9 mmol h(-1), more 2.7 times than that of ZnIn2S4. The rate was further increased to 2.7 mmol h(-1) with a high quantum efficiency of 56% using the 3 wt% CdS QDs decorated ZnIn2S4 composites coupled with 1 wt% graphene (about 4 times higher than that of the pure ZnIn2S4). Moreover, the CdS QDs/graphene/ZnIn2S4 exhibited strong durability due to the high hydrothermal stability of the flower-like structure and the inhibition of CdS leaching owing to its strong interaction with ZnIn2S4. The excellent photocatalytic performance is ascribed to the enhanced light absorption and the improved separation of photogenerated carriers. This finding highlights the validity of 3D semiconductor heterostructures as effective building blocks for exploring efficient visible-light-active photocatalysts.
Related JoVE Video
Development of a Whole-Cell Biocatalyst/Biosensor by Display of Multiple Heterologous Proteins on the Escherichia coli Cell Surface for the Detoxification and Detection of Organophosphates.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper reports the codisplay of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) and methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion on the cell surface of Escherichia coli using the truncated ice nucleation protein (INPNC) and Lpp-OmpA as the anchoring motifs. The surface localization of both OPH and MPH-GFP was demonstrated by cell fractionation, Western blot analysis, protease accessibility experiment, and immunofluorescence microscopy. Anchorage of the foreign proteins on the outer membrane neither inhibits cell growth nor affects cell viability. The recombinant strain can be used as a whole-cell biocatalyst and showed a broader substrate range than strains expressing either OPH or MPH. A mixture of six organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) (0.2 mM each) could be degraded completely within 5 h. The broader substrate specificity in combination with the rapid degradation rate makes the recombinant strain a promising candidate for detoxification of OPs. The fluorescence of surface-displayed GFP is very sensitive to environmental pH change. Because hydrolysis of OPs by OPH or MPH generates protons, the recombinant E. coli could be used as a whole-cell biosensor for the rapid detection of OPs by evaluating fluorescence changes as a function of OP concentrations.
Related JoVE Video
Visible light-mediated oxidative quenching reaction to electron-rich epoxides: highly regioselective synthesis of ?-bromo (di)ketones and mechanism study.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel and simple procedure was developed for the regioselective synthesis of ?-bromo (di)ketones from electron-rich epoxides via visible light photoredox catalysis. Through optimization of solvent and light source, the reaction can be rapidly achieved under mild conditions. Moreover, the possible reaction mechanism was proposed and further supported by control experiments.
Related JoVE Video
Overnutrition stimulates intestinal epithelium proliferation through ?-catenin signaling in obese mice.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. And overnutrition is a leading cause of obesity. After most nutrients are ingested, they are absorbed in the small intestine. Signals from ?-catenin are essential to maintain development of the small intestine and homeostasis. In this study, we used a hyperphagia db/db obese mouse model and a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model to investigate the effects of overnutrition on intestinal function and ?-catenin signaling. The ?-catenin protein was upregulated along with inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3? in the intestines of both db/db and HFD mice. Proliferation of intestinal epithelial stem cells, villi length, nutrient absorption, and body weight also increased in both models. These changes were reversed by caloric restriction in db/db mice and by ?-catenin inhibitor JW55 (a small molecule that increases ?-catenin degradation) in HFD mice. Parallel, in vitro experiments showed that ?-catenin accumulation and cell proliferation stimulated by glucose were blocked by the ?-catenin inhibitor FH535. And the GSK-3 inhibitor CHIR98014 in an intestinal epithelial cell line increased ?-catenin accumulation and cyclin D1 expression. These results suggested that, besides contribution to intestinal development and homeostasis, GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling plays a central role in intestinal morphological and functional changes in response to overnutrition. Manipulating the GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling pathway in intestinal epithelium might become a therapeutic intervention for obesity induced by overnutrition.
Related JoVE Video
In vitro three-dimensional development of mouse molar tooth germs in a rotary cell culture system.
Int J Paediatr Dent
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In vitro tooth germ cultivation is an effective method to explore the mechanism of odontogenesis. The three-dimensional rotary cell culture system (RCCS) is typically used to culture simulated organs such as cartilage, skin, and bone. In this study, we established an in vitro tooth germ culture model using RCCS to investigate whether RCCS could provide an appropriate environment for tooth germ development in vitro.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.