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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Self-assembled synthesis of hierarchical Zn2GeO4 core-shell microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Hierarchically spherical materials with a core-shell structure are of special interest for a variety of promising applications. Although some advanced synthetic methods have been reported, the development of a facile strategy to fabricate hierarchically spherical materials with a core-shell structure is still desirable. Herein, hierarchical Zn2GeO4 core-shell microspheres, with stacked nanoparticles at the core and well-aligned rods at the shell, are successfully synthesized through a triethylenetetramine (TETA)-induced self-assembly route. They exhibit relatively high photocatalytic activity and stability towards degradation of organic pollutants under UV light irradiation. In addition, other diverse hierarchical Zn2GeO4 macrocrystals can be successfully prepared by rationally tuning the reaction parameters. The present synthetic strategy may allow access to fabricating other multifunctional materials with special artistical morphologies.
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Plasmon-enhanced fluorescence of PbS quantum dots for remote near-infrared imaging.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Gold nanoparticles with nanoscale protrusions can be synthesized by seed-mediated growth in favor of tuning the surface plasmon band towards the near-infrared regime. Electromagnetic field enhancement makes significant contribution to improve fluorescence emission of PbS quantum dots in the near-infrared window, identifying their application in remote imaging by collecting the scattered fluorescence of their hybrids.
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miR168 influences phase transition, leaf epinasty, and fruit development via SlAGO1s in tomato.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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In Arabidopsis thaliana, ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) interacts with miR168 to modulate the small RNA regulatory pathway. However, the underlying mechanism of regulation and relationship between AGO1 and miR168 is poorly understood in the cash crop Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). We previously found that SlAGO1A and SlAGO1B were cleaved by miR168 in tomato. In this study, we show that SlAGO1A and SlAGO1B accumulate in miR168-sponge transgenic plants, and that expression of miR168-resistant SlAGO1A (4m-SlAGO1A) and SlAGO1B (4m-SlAGO1B) in tomato results in a series of defects affecting growth rate, floral timing, leaves, and fruit. Accumulation of miR156 was found when 4m-SlAGO1A was at an early developmental stage compared to the wild type and original SlAGO1A transgenic plants, and miR172 was highly expressed in adult 4m-SlAGO1A compared to the controls. In addition, the expression of multiple small RNAs was altered in 4m-SlAGO1A. Taken together, our data provide novel insights into the interaction between SlAGO1s and miR168 in determining growth rate, phase change, leaf epinasty, fruit initiation and expansion, and other developmental processes in tomato.
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Radiographic Hip Involvement in Ankylosing Spondylitis: Factors Associated with Severe Hip Diseases.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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To determine the factors associated with severe radiographic hip involvement in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).
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Noninvasive Allograft Imaging of Acute Rejection: Evaluation of (131)I-anti-CXCL10 mAb.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of iodine-131-labeled anti-CXCL10 mAb as tracer targeted at CXCL10 to detect acute rejection (AR) with mice model. Expression of CXCL10 was proved by RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunochemistry staining. All groups were submitted to whole-body autoradioimaging and ex vivo biodistribution studies after tail vein injection of (131)I-anti-CXCL10 mAb. The highest concentration/expression of CXCL10 was detected in allograft tissue compared with allograft treated with tacrolimus and isograft control. Tacrolimus could obviously inhibit the rejection of allograft. Allograft could be obviously imaged at all checking points, much clearer than the other two groups. The biodistribution results showed the highest uptake of radiotracer in allograft. T/NT (target/nontarget) ratio was 4.15?±?0.25 at 72 h, apparently different from allograft treated with tacrolimus (2.29?±?0.10), P?
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Phase-transition contrast nanocapsules triggered by low-intensity ultrasound.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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A polymeric nanocapsule encapsulated with 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane was developed, in which 2,2,3,3,4,4,4-heptafluoro-1-butyl groups were introduced to the polymer terminal for high loading of liquid fluorocarbon. In vitro experiments demonstrate that its liquid/gas-phase transition can be triggered by mild heating. This nanocapsule can be harnessed as a contrast agent for tumor imaging under diagnostic ultrasound.
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Advancing tandem solar cells by spectrally selective multilayer intermediate reflectors.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Thin-film silicon tandem solar cells are composed of an amorphous silicon top cell and a microcrystalline silicon bottom cell, stacked and connected in series. In order to match the photocurrents of the top cell and the bottom cell, a proper photon management is required. Up to date, single-layer intermediate reflectors of limited spectral selectivity are applied to match the photocurrents of the top and the bottom cell. In this paper, we design and prototype multilayer intermediate reflectors based on aluminum doped zinc oxide and doped microcrystalline silicon oxide with a spectrally selective reflectance allowing for improved current matching and an overall increase of the charge carrier generation. The intermediate reflectors are successfully integrated into state-of-the-art tandem solar cells resulting in an increase of overall short-circuit current density by 0.7 mA/cm2 in comparison to a tandem solar cell with the standard single-layer intermediate reflector.
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Nonlinear volume holography for wave-front engineering.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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The concept of volume holography is applied to the design of an optical superlattice for the nonlinear harmonic generation. The generated harmonic wave can be considered as a holographic image caused by the incident fundamental wave. Compared with the conventional quasi-phase-matching method, this new method has significant advantages when applied to complicated nonlinear processes such as the nonlinear generation of special beams. As an example, we experimentally realized a second-harmonic Airy beam, and the results are found to agree well with numerical simulations.
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Electrical conduction of nanoparticle monolayer for accurate tracking of mechanical stimulus in finger touch sensing.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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A flexible strain gauge is an essential component in advanced human-machine interfacing, especially when it comes to many important mobile and biomedical appliances that require the detection of finger touches. In this paper, we report one such strain gauge made from a strip of nanoparticle monolayer onto a flexible substrate. This proposed gauge operates on the observation that there is a linear relationship between electrical conduction and mechanical displacement in a compressive state. Due to its prompt temporal response, the gauge can accurately track various mechanical stimuli running at the frequencies of interest. Experiments have confirmed that the proposed strain gauge has a strain detection limit as low as 9.4 × 10(-5), and its gauge factor can be as large as 70, making this device particularly suitable for sensitive finger touch sensing. Furthermore, negligible degradation in the gauge's output electrical signal is observed even after 9000 loading/unloading cycles.
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Nanoporous Hollow Transition Metal Chalcogenide Nanosheets Synthesized via the Anion-Exchange Reaction of Metal Hydroxides with Chalcogenide Ions.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Nanoporous hollow transition metal chalcogenides are of special interest for a variety of promising applications. Although some advanced synthetic methods have been reported, the development of a facile and general strategy to fabricate porous hollow nanostructures of transition metal chalcogenides, especially with enhanced electrocatalytic performance, still remains highly challenged. Herein, we report a facile chemical transformation strategy to prepare nanoporous hollow Co3S4 nanosheets via the anion exchange reaction of Co(OH)2 with sulfide ions. The chemical transformation mechanism involves the as-formed layer of nanoporous cobalt sulfide on Co(OH)2 driven by the anion-exchange-reaction and lattice mismatch induced quick strain release, a following diffusion-effect-dominated core-shell hollow intermediate with hollow interiors, and subsequent Ostwald ripening growth of hollow nanosheets at elevated temperatures. This anion-exchange strategy of transition metal hydroxides with chalcogenide ions is also suitable for fabricating nanoporous hollow nanosheets of other metal chalcogenides (e.g., CoSe2, CoTe2, CdS, and NiS). The as-prepared nanoporous hollow Co3S4 nanosheets are found to be highly active and stable for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction.
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[Drug susceptibility of wild-type and mutant H7N9 neuraminidase to zanamivir and oseltamivir].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the drug susceptibility of wild-type and mutant avian influenza A (H7N9) virus neuraminidase (NA) to oseltamivir and zanamivir. Codon optimized DNA of H7N9 (A/ Hangzhou/1/2013) NA was synthesized and constructed into the pcDNA3.1/His vector (NA(H7N9-WT)). Mutant NA(H7N9-H274Y) and NA(H7N9-R292K) plasmids were constructed by directed mutagenesis PCR using NA(H7N9-WT) plasmid as the template followed by sequencing. NA plasmids were transfected into 293T cells and cell lysates containing NAs were collected 48 h post-transfection. Wild-type and mutant NAs were analyzed by Western blotting and their activities were tested by the 4-MUNANA-based assay. All three NAs were expressed and enzymatic activities were confirmed. The effects of oseltamivir and zanamivir on all three NAs were then tested. It showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of oseltamivir carboxylate on NA(H7N9-WT), NA(H7N9-H274Y) and NA(H7N9-R292K) were 1.6 nM, 15.1 nM, and > 1 000 nM with fold changes of 9 and > 625, respectively. The IC50 values of zanamivir on NA(H7N9-WT), NA(H7N9-H274Y), and NA(H7N9-R292K) were 1.1 nM, 1.4 nM, and 38.0 nM with fold changes of 1.3 and 34, respectively. These results indicated that oseltamivir and zanamivir could significantly inhibit NA(H7N9-WT). NA(H7N9-R292K) showed high-level resistance to both drugs (34-fold and 625-fold) and NA(H7N9-H274Y) was sensitive to both (1.3-fold and 9-fold). These results indicated that both oseltamivir and zanamivir could be used for patients infected with the H7N9 virus. However, when patients carried the H7N9 virus with a NA R292K mutation, other medications would be preferred over oseltamivir or zanamivir.
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[Investigation of plasma parameters of the square pattern with two kinds of spatiotemporal symmetry in dielectric barrier discharge].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Two kinds of square patterns with different spatiotemporal symmetry were observed in dielectric barrier discharge, and their plasma parameters were measured by using optical emission spectra. It was found that the spatiotemporal symmetry of the square pattern at lower gas pressure is different from the one at higher gas pressure. Six spectral lines in the emission spectrum of the N2 second positive band were chosen to estimate the vibrational temperature, and the ratio of I391.4/I394.1 was used to represent the average electron energy. The excitation temperature was determined by the ratio of I763.2/I772.1. Furthermore, the width and shift of Ar I 696.54 nm were used to estimate the electron density. The results show that the vibrational temperature, excitation temperature and electron energy of the square pattern at lower gas pressure are higher than those at higher gas pressure, while the electron density is lower than that at higher gas pressure.
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Human CD133-positive hematopoietic progenitor cells initiate growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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The tumour-specific 'pre-metastatic niche' has emerged as a potential driving force for tumour metastasis and has been confirmed using mouse models of cancer metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) have been shown to play an important role in metastasis, forming a 'pre-metastatic niche' at designated sites for distant tumour progression. Here, CD133+ human umbilical hematopoietic progenitor cells (HUHPCs) were purified from human umbilical cord blood and expanded in vitro. We studied the effects of CD133+ HUHPCs on the growth and metastasis of four colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines by using cell-to-cell co-culture. Our results revealed that CD133+ HUHPCs promoted the proliferation and invasion of CRC cells in vitro and enhanced tumour growth and metastasis in vivo. Moreover, CD133+ HUHPCs were observed in the pre-metastatic liver tissue using immunohistochemical analysis after co-injection of SW480/EGFP(+) cells and HUHPCs. Further experiments were therefore conducted to uncover the molecular mechanisms by which CD133+ HUHPCs influenced colon carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Extracted proteins were separated using the two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis technology. Among the differentially expressed proteins, mitogen-activated protein 4 kinase 4, stromal cell-derived factor-1, matrix metallopeptidase 9, calumenin, peripherin, leucine zipper, putative tumour suppressor 1 and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase attracted our attention. Western blot analysis further confirmed the differential expression of these proteins. Altogether, these results suggest that CD133+ HUHPCs may induce proliferation or metastasis of CRC cells and impact their derived proteins by providing a pre-metastatic microenvironment.
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Cx43 phosphorylation on S279/282 and intercellular communication are regulated by IP 3 /IP 3 receptor signaling.
Cell Commun. Signal
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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BackgroundInositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) plays a pivotal role in the Ca2+ release process in a variety of cell types. Additionally, IP3R is distributed in ventricular intercalated discs, but its function(s) in this particular site remains unknown. Connexin (Cx43), the predominant gap junction (GJ) protein in ventricular myocardium, is linked to several signaling pathways that regulate Cx43 properties by (de)phosphorylation on multiple residues. Here, we investigated the regulatory role of IP3R in cell-cell communication and the mechanism(s) underlying this effect.ResultsIn neonatal rat and adult mouse ventricular myocytes IP3R co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated with Cx43 in GJ plaques detected by immunostaining and western blot assays. Blocking IP3R with antagonists or silencing pan-IP3R expression with shRNA hindered the 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-CFDA) diffusion through GJs and desynchronized Ca2+ transients among confluent neonatal myocytes in culture, whereas stimulation of IP3R with IP3 ester or ATP exerted the opposite effect. Likewise, 6-CFDA propagation through GJs was modulated by IP3R activation or inhibition in cell pairs of isolated adult cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, IP3R activation or IP3R suppression promoted or suppressed, respectively, Cx43 phosphorylation on S279/282. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that expression of a mutant Cx43-S282A (alanine) inhibited S279/282 phosphorylation and GJ permeability, while the S279A mutant showed the opposite effect in ventricular myocytes. Expression of these mutants in HEK293 cells revealed that cells with a dual S279/282 mutation failed to express exogenous Cx43, whereas cells with a single S279 or S282 mutation displayed Cx43 overexpression with increased phosphorylation of S279/282 and promotion of intercellular communication.ConclusionsThese results demonstrated, for the first time, that IP3R physically interacts with Cx43 and participates in the regulation of Cx43 phosphorylation on S279/282, thereby affecting GJ intercellular communication in ventricular myocytes.
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Water-Carbon Trade-off in China's Coal Power Industry.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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The energy sector is increasingly facing water scarcity constraints in many regions around the globe, especially in China, where the unprecedented large-scale construction of coal-fired thermal power plants is taking place in its extremely arid northwest regions. As a response to water scarcity, air-cooled coal power plants have experienced dramatic diffusion in China since the middle 2000s. By the end of 2012, air-cooled coal-fired thermal power plants in China amounted to 112 GW, making up 14% of China's thermal power generation capacity. But the water conservation benefit of air-cooled units is achieved at the cost of lower thermal efficiency and consequently higher carbon emission intensity. We estimate that in 2012 the deployment of air-cooled units contributed an additional 24.3-31.9 million tonnes of CO2 emissions (equivalent to 0.7-1.0% of the total CO2 emissions by China's electric power sector), while saving 832-942 million m(3) of consumptive water use (about 60% of the total annual water use of Beijing) when compared to a scenario with water-cooled plants. Additional CO2 emissions from air-cooled plants largely offset the CO2 emissions reduction benefits from Chinese policies of retiring small and outdated coal plants. This water-carbon trade-off is poised to become even more significant by 2020, as air-cooled units are expected to grow by a factor of 2-260 GW, accounting for 22% of China's total coal-fired power generation capacity.
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Asymmetric environmental effects on the structure and vibrations of cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2] in condensed phases.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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We report the structural and vibrational properties of anticancer drug cisplatin (cis-[Pt(NH3)2Cl2]) in gas phase, in solid phase, and in aqueous solution using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics, and effective normal modes analysis. In contrast with the gas-phase case, asymmetric hydrogen bonding environments are found in both solid phase and aqueous solution. It is shown that the discrepancy of the molecular geometry between previous gas phase calculations and the X-ray crystal structure can be resolved by considering intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the calculations of solid phase. In addition, our simulations in solid phase and aqueous solution reveal that asymmetric environmental effects lead to several spectral features observed in experiments, such as the blue-shift in the N-H stretching region and the frequency splitting of NH3 symmetric deformation modes. Furthermore, a similar decoupling and localization of several vibrational modes of cisplatin is found in solid phase and aqueous solution, in comparison to those of O-H stretching modes of water molecules in liquid water [ J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2013 , 4 ( 19 ), 3245 - 3250 ].
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Selective and Ratiometric Fluorescent Trapping and Quantification of Protein Vicinal Dithiols and in Situ Dynamic Tracing in Living Cells.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Protein vicinal dithiols play fundamental roles in intracellular redox homeostasis due to their involvement in protein synthesis and function through the reversible vicinal dithiol oxidation to disulfide. To provide quantitative information about the global distribution and dynamic changes of protein vicinal dithiols in living cells, we have designed and synthesized a ratiometric fluorescent probe (VTAF) for trapping of vicinal dithiol-containing proteins (VDPs) in living cells. VTAF exhibits a ratiometric fluorescence signal upon single excitation, which enables self-calibration of the fluorescence signal and quantification of endogenous vicinal dithiols of VDPs. Its potential for in situ dynamic tracing of changes of protein vicinal dithiols under different cellular redox conditions was exemplified. VTAF facilitated the direct observation of subcellular distribution of endogenous VDPs via ratiometric fluorescence imaging and colocalization assay. And the results suggested that there are abundant VDPs in mitochondria. Moreover, some redox-sensitive VDPs are also present on cell surface which can respond to redox stimulus. This ratiometric fluorescence technique presents an important extension to previous fluorescence intensity-based probes for trapping and quantifying protein vicinal dithiols in living cells, as well as its visible dynamic tracing of VDPs.
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A newly identified myomegalin isoform functions in Golgi microtubule organization and ER-Golgi transport.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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The Golgi of mammalian cells is known to be a major microtubule-organizing site that requires microtubules for its organization and protein trafficking. However, the mechanisms underlying the microtubule organization of the Golgi remain obscure. We used immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry to identify a widely expressed isoform of the poorly characterized muscle protein myomegalin. This newly identified isoform, myomegalin variant 8 (MMG8), localized predominantly to cis-Golgi networks by interacting with AKAP450 (also known as AKAP9), and this interaction with AKAP450 was required for the stability of both proteins. Disrupting MMG8 expression affected endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi trafficking and caused Golgi fragmentation. Furthermore, MMG8 associated with ?-tubulin complexes and with the microtubule plus-end tracking protein EB1 (also known as MAPRE1), and was required for the Golgi localization of these two molecules. On the Golgi, ?-tubulin complexes mediated microtubule nucleation, whereas EB1 functioned in ER-to-Golgi trafficking. These results indicate that MMG8 participates in Golgi microtubule organization and thereby plays a crucial role in the organization and function of the Golgi.
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Anatomy of the Sural Nerve with an Emphasis on the Incision for Medial Displacement Calcaneal Osteotomy.
J Foot Ankle Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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An inappropriately positioned skin incision for medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy can put the sural nerve at risk; however, unanimous agreement has not been reached about the optimal strategy for making this incision. In the present cadaveric study, 20 cadaveric specimens were dissected to describe the anatomic course of the sural nerve within the operative area and to provide a more practical reference for surgeons to make a safe incision. The following points were used in the analyses: point A, the tip of the lateral malleolus; point B, the inferior margin of the calcaneus on the plumb line through point A; point C, the posteroinferior margin of the calcaneus; and point D, the lateral border of the Achilles tendon on the same level (collinear) with point A. With careful dissection, the distances of the sural nerve to points A and B in the vertical direction (lines D1 and D2, respectively), to points A and C in the diagonal direction (lines D3 and D4, respectively), and to points A and D in the horizontal direction (lines D5 and D6, respectively) were measured. The landmarks were identified and the distances measured by 3 independent researchers. The median ratio of D1 to D1+D2, D3 to D3+D4, and D5 to D5+D6 was 0.36 (range 0.20 to 0.47), 0.26 (range 0.19 to 0.32), and 0.43 (range 0.34 to 0.52), respectively. Accordingly, we believe it is relatively safe to make an oblique incision that runs through the point that is no less than one third of the distance from the tip of the lateral malleolus to the posteroinferior margin of the calcaneus.
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miRNA-646 suppresses osteosarcoma cell metastasis by downregulating fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2).
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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MicroRNAs are short regulatory RNAs that play crucial roles in cancer development and progression. MicroRNA-646 (miR-646) is downregulated in many human cancers, and increasing evidence indicates that it functions as a tumor suppressor. However, the role of miR-646 in osteosarcoma remains unclear. Expression levels of miR-646 in osteosarcoma cell lines and patient tissues were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and the clinicopathological significance of the resultant data was later analyzed. Next, we investigated the role of miR-646 to determine its potential roles on osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. A luciferase reporter assay was conducted to confirm the target gene of miR-646, and the results were validated in the osteosarcoma cell line. In this study, we found that miR-646 was downregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines and osteosarcoma tissues compared with normal osteoblast cell line NHOst and paired adjacent nontumor tissue. We found that a lower expression of miR-646 was associated with metastasis. In osteosarcoma cells, overexpression of miR-646 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. In contrast, downregulation of miR-646 expression promoted osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Next, we identified that the FGF2 gene is a novel direct target of miR-646 in osteosarcoma cells. Moreover, enforced expression of FGF2 partially reversed the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration, and invasion that was caused by miR-646. Our study demonstrated that miR-646 might be a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma via the regulation of FGF2, which provided a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target.
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TNF-?-308G/A polymorphism contributes to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome risk: evidence based on 10 case-control studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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The aim of our study was to investigate the association between the TNF-?-308G/A polymorphism and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).
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Two new zinc(II) coordination complexes with helix characteristics showing both interpenetration and self-catenation features: a platform for the synthesis of chiral and catenated structures assembled by length-modulated dicarboxylates.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Two new zinc coordination complexes, namely [Zn2(tib)4/3(L(1))2]·DMA (1) and [Zn2(tib)4/3(L(2))2]·H2O (2) (tib = 1,3,5-tris(1-imidazolyl)benzene, H2L(1) = biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, H2L(2) = 4,4'-(2,2'-oxybis(ethane-2,1-diyl)bis(oxy))dibenzoic acid and DMA = N,N-dimethylacetamide), are obtained using achiral mixed ligands and characterized using elemental analysis, IR and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1 and 2 both display intriguing structural features of both interpenetration and self-catenation. By careful inspection of the two structures, we found that the Zn(ii) cations, the tib ligands, and the dicarboxylic anions show the same coordination modes or analogous configurations. Compound 1 is chiral, which was confirmed by measuring the optical rotation of the bulk samples using solid-state circular dichroism (CD). It is comprised of two crystallographically independent interpenetrated 3D motifs, each containing interlaced triple-stranded right- and left-handed Zn-L(1)-Zn helical chains and chiral 2D [Zn(tib)2/3] layers. Both motifs display binodal (3,4)-coordinated 3D self-catenated networks with the point symbol (10(3))2(10(6))3 and the vertex symbols [10(13)·10(13)·10(13)] and [10(7)·10(7)·10(8)·10(10)·10(11)·10(11)]. However, the two types of helical chains are not racemic due to the differences between the two kinds of L(1) anions, and the two types of chiral 2D [Zn(tib)2/3](2+) layers are not enantiomeric either due to the different configurations of the tib ligands. Therefore, the two motifs are not enantiomers. Compound 2 is achiral, containing Zn-L(2)-Zn zigzag chains that span into three directions and chiral 2D [Zn(tib)2/3] layers. The overall 3D network is a new binodal (3,4)-coordinated self-catenated network with the point symbol (10(3))2(10(6))3 and the vertex symbols [10(7)·10(7)·10(7)] and [10(2)·10(4)·10(5)·10(5)·10(5)·10(5)]. Two of these networks interpenetrate. Their chiral and achiral structures are mainly modulated by the length of the dicarboxylates. As expected, compounds 1 and 2 show photoluminescence behaviors and compound 1 shows a ferroelectric behavior. Thermogravimetric studies of 1 and 2 have also been performed. We examined all 48 known structures containing the tib ligand and drew the conclusion that the metal + tib combination, modulated by the prolonged L ligands, can be a good basis for new chiral and catenated structures.
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Protective Effect of CpG-Oligodeoxynucleotides Against Low- and High-LET Irradiation.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Background/Aims: CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) are synthetic DNA sequences containing unmethylated cytosine-guanine motifs with potent immunomodulatory effects. Previous reports showed a powerful protective effect of CpG-ODN against the damage induced by low-LET ?-rays. In this study, we explored whether CpG-ODN also protects against the damage induced by high-LET irradiation. Parallel experiments were performed with low-LET irradiation. Methods: RAW264.7 cells were incubated with 1 ?M of CpG-ODN after ?-ray or carbon-beam irradiation. Cell death was then measured by PI/DAPI double staining, cell survival was assessed by colony-formation assays, DNA damage was evaluated by comet assays, cell cycle was monitored by flow cytometry, and the levels of apoptosis-related proteins were detected by western blots. Results: When irradiated cells were treated with the CpG-ODN, cell viability decreased, cell survival increased, DNA damage and G2/M-phase arrest were ameliorated, and apoptosis was inhibited. Conclusions: The CpG-ODN showed protective effects against low-LET ?-ray and high-LET carbon-beam irradiation. These effects might be associated with the repair of DNA damage and inhibition of apoptosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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[Using mixture design to optimize preparation technology of gankeshuangqing dispersible tablets].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To study the preparation process and the best prescription of Gankeshuangqing dispersible tablets.
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A new Nb?? cluster based on tungstophosphate, [{Nb?O?(OH)?}{Nb?P?W??O??}?]³??.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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A structurally intriguing polyanion, [{Nb4O6(OH)4}{Nb6P2W12O61}4](36-) (2), was directly formed by controlling the reaction parameters and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analyses. Polyanion 2 is the first niobium-substituted Wells-Dawson-based tetramer and contains the largest Nb28 cluster encapsulated by four hexalacunary Wells-Dawson frameworks. The activities of compounds Na12[H24-2]·24H2O (2a), K12[H2P2W12O48]·24H2O, and K7[HNb6O19]·13H2O against three human tumor cell lines were investigated in vitro. The preliminary results revealed that 2a could efficiently inhibit the growth of the human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, the activity of 2a is significantly better than those of the simple reagents.
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Denitrification of groundwater using a sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrifying anaerobic fluidized-bed MBR: performance and bacterial community structure.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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This paper investigates a novel sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrifying anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (AnFB-MBR) that has the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification systems. The AnFB-MBR produced consistent high-quality product water when fed by a synthetic groundwater with NO3 (-)-N ranging 25-80 mg/L and operated at hydraulic retention times of 0.5-5.0 h. A nitrate removal rate of up to 4.0 g NO3 (-)-N/Lreactord was attained by the bioreactor, which exceeded any reported removal capacity. The flux of AnFB-MBR was maintained in the range of 1.5-15 L m(-2) h(-1). Successful membrane cleaning was practiced with cleaning cycles of 35-81 days, which had no obvious effect on the AnFB-MBR performance. The (15)?N-tracer analyses elucidated that nitrogen was converted into (15)?N2-N and (15)?N-biomass accounting for 88.1-93.1 % and 6.4-11.6 % of the total nitrogen produced, respectively. Only 0.3-0.5 % of removed nitrogen was in form of (15)N2O-N in sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification process, reducing potential risks of a significant amount of N2O emissions. The sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrifying bacterial consortium was composed mainly of bacteria from Proteobacteria, Chlorobi, and Chloroflexi phyla, with genera Thiobacillus, Sulfurimonas, and Ignavibacteriales dominating the consortium. The pyrosequencing assays also suggested that the stable microbial communities corresponded to the elevated performance of the AnFB-MBR. Overall, this research described relatively high nitrate removal, acceptable flux, indicating future potential for the technology in practice.
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TrkB kinase activity maintains synaptic function and structural integrity at adult neuromuscular junctions.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Activation of the tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB) by brain-derived neurotrophic factor acutely regulates synaptic transmission at adult neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The role of TrkB kinase activity in the maintenance of NMJ function and structure at diaphragm muscle NMJs was explored using a chemical-genetic approach that permits reversible inactivation of TrkB kinase activity in TrkB(F616A) mice by 1NMPP1. Inhibiting TrkB kinase activity for 7 days resulted in significant, yet reversible, impairments in neuromuscular transmission at diaphragm NMJs. Neuromuscular transmission failure following 2 min of repetitive phrenic nerve stimulation increased from 42% in control to 59% in 1NMPP1-treated TrkB(F616A) mice (P = 0.010). Recovery of TrkB kinase activity following withdrawal of 1NMPP1 treatment improved neuromuscular transmission (P = 0.006). Electrophysiological measurements at individual diaphragm NMJs documented lack of differences in quantal content in control and 1NMPP1-treated mice (P = 0.845). Morphological changes at diaphragm NMJs were modest following inhibition and recovery of TrkB kinase activity. Three-dimensional reconstructions of diaphragm NMJs revealed no differences in volume at motor end plates (labeled by ?-bungarotoxin; P = 0.982) or presynaptic terminals (labeled by synaptophysin; P = 0.515). Inhibition of TrkB kinase activity by 1NMPP1 resulted in more compact NMJs, with increased apposition of presynaptic terminals and motor end plates (P = 0.017) and reduced fragmentation of motor end plates (P = 0.005). Recovery of TrkB kinase activity following withdrawal of 1NMPP1 treatment resulted in postsynaptic remodeling likely reflecting increased gutter depth (P = 0.007), without significant presynaptic changes. These results support an essential role for TrkB kinase activity in maintaining synaptic function and structural integrity at NMJs in the adult mouse diaphragm muscle.
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Tumor vascular homing endgolin-targeted radioimmunotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Endoglin is a proliferation-associated cell membrane antigen and overexpressed in the angiogenic vasculature of solid tumors. However, the applications of endoglin (ENG)-targeted radioimmunotheray in hepatocellular carcinoma have not been reported yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was the visualization of both the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor burden and therapeutic effect with ENG-targeted (131)I-anti-ENG mAb (A8), via in vivo noninvasive fluorescence imaging (NIFLI) of SMMC7721-green fluorescent protein (GFP) cells. A8 showed a dose-dependent, time-dependent suppression on the proliferation of SMMC7721-GFP cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Tube formation assay showed that (131)I-A8 markedly inhibits HUVECs to form extensive and enclosed tube networks. The results showed that the radiochemical purity of (131)I-A8 was 92.8 % and (131)I-A8 maintained more stable in serum than in saline and had high affinity against SMMC7721-GFP cells. The pharmacokinetics of (131)I-A8 was in accordance with the two-compartment model, with a rapid distribution phase and a slow decline phase. NIFLI exhibited a good relation between the fluorescent signal and tumor volume in vivo. Furthermore, treatment with (131)I-A8 resulted in significant tumor-growth suppression on the basis of the reducing fluorescent signal and a remarkably decreased tumor weight in treated animals. These results were further verified by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry staining. Our findings indicate that (131)I-A8 can be used as ENG-targeted therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma, and noninvasive fluorescence imaging provides valuable information on tumor burden and effectiveness of therapy.
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Pyrene-Based Quantitative Detection of the 5-Formylcytosine Loci Symmetry in the CpG Duplex Content during TET-Dependent Demethylation.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Methylcytosine (5mC) is mostly symmetrically distributed in CpG sites. Ten-eleven-translocation (TET) proteins are the key enzymes involved in active DNA demethylation through stepwise oxidation of 5mC. However, oxidation pathways of TET enzymes in the symmetrically methylated CpG context are still elusive. Employing the unique fluorescence properties of pyrene group, we designed and synthesized a sensitive fluorescence-based probe not only to target 5-formylcytosine (5fC) sites, but also to distinguish symmetric from asymmetric 5fC sites in the double stranded DNA context during TET-dependent 5mC oxidation process. Using this novel probe, we revealed dominant levels of symmetric 5fC among total 5fC sites during in vitro TET-dependent 5mC oxidation and novel mechanistic insights into the TET-dependent 5mC oxidation in the mCpG context.
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Persistent hepatitis C virus infections and hepatopathological manifestations in immune-competent humanized mice.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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The majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection develops chronic infection, which causes steatosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, understanding HCV chronicity and pathogenesis is hampered by its narrow host range, mostly restricted to human and chimpanzee. Recent endeavour to infect a variety of humanized mice has not been able to achieve persistent HCV infection unless the essential innate immune responsive genes are knocked out. Nevertheless, such immune-compromised humanized mice still lacked HCV infection-induced hepatopathogenesis. Here we report that transgenic mice in ICR background harboring both human CD81 and occludin genes (C/O(Tg)) are permissive to HCV infection at a chronicity rate comparable to humans. In this mouse model, HCV accomplishes its replication cycle, leading to sustained viremia and infectivity for more than 12 months post infection with expected fibrotic and cirrhotic progression. Host factors favorable for HCV replication, and inadequate innate immune-response may contribute to the persistence. Lastly, NS3/4 protease inhibitor telaprevir can effectively inhibit de novo RNA synthesis and acute HCV infection of C/O(Tg) mice. Thus, chronic HCV infection with complete replication cycle and hepatopathologic manifestations is recapitulated, for the first time, in immune-competent mice. This model will open a new venue to study the mechanisms of chronic hepatitis C and develop better treatments.
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Adipocyte ALK7 links nutrient overload to catecholamine resistance in obesity.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Obesity is associated with blunted ?-adrenoreceptor (?-AR)-mediated lipolysis and lipid oxidation in adipose tissue, but the mechanisms linking nutrient overload to catecholamine resistance are poorly understood. We report that targeted disruption of TGF-? superfamily receptor ALK7 alleviates diet-induced catecholamine resistance in adipose tissue, thereby reducing obesity in mice. Global and fat-specific Alk7 knock-out enhanced adipose ?-AR expression, ?-adrenergic signaling, mitochondrial biogenesis, lipid oxidation, and lipolysis under a high fat diet, leading to elevated energy expenditure, decreased fat mass, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Conversely, activation of ALK7 reduced ?-AR-mediated signaling and lipolysis cell-autonomously in both mouse and human adipocytes. Acute inhibition of ALK7 in adult mice by a chemical-genetic approach reduced diet-induced weight gain, fat accumulation, and adipocyte size, and enhanced adipocyte lipolysis and ?-adrenergic signaling. We propose that ALK7 signaling contributes to diet-induced catecholamine resistance in adipose tissue, and suggest that ALK7 inhibitors may have therapeutic value in human obesity.
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Ghrelin promotes hepatic lipogenesis by activation of mTOR-PPAR? signaling pathway.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Although ghrelin has been demonstrated to stimulate energy intake and storage through a central mechanism, its effect on hepatic lipid metabolism remains largely uncharacterized. Ghrelin receptor antagonism or gene deletion significantly decreased obesity-associated hepatic steatosis by suppression of de novo lipogenesis, whereas exogenous ghrelin stimulated lipogenesis, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation in mice. The effects of ghrelin were mediated by direct activation of its receptor on hepatocytes. Cultured hepatocytes responded to ghrelin with increased lipid content and expression of lipogenesis-related genes. Ghrelin increased phosphorylation of S6, the downstream target of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in cultured hepatocytes, whereas ghrelin receptor antagonism reduced hepatic phosphorylation of S6 in db/db mice. Inhibition of mTOR signaling by rapamycin markedly attenuated ghrelin-induced up-regulation of lipogenesis in hepatocytes, whereas activation of hepatic mTOR signaling by deletion of TSC1 increased hepatic lipogenesis. By interacting with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), mTOR mediates the ghrelin-induced up-regulation of lipogenesis in hepatocytes. The stimulatory effect of ghrelin on hepatic lipogenesis was significantly attenuated by PPAR? antagonism in cultured hepatocytes and in PPAR? gene-deficient mice. Our study indicates that ghrelin activates its receptor on hepatocytes to promote lipogenesis via a mechanism involving the mTOR-PPAR? signaling pathway.
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A biological micro actuator: graded and closed-loop control of insect leg motion by electrical stimulation of muscles.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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In this study, a biological microactuator was demonstrated by closed-loop motion control of the front leg of an insect (Mecynorrhina torquata, beetle) via electrical stimulation of the leg muscles. The three antagonistic pairs of muscle groups in the front leg enabled the actuator to have three degrees of freedom: protraction/retraction, levation/depression, and extension/flexion. We observed that the threshold amplitude (voltage) required to elicit leg motions was approximately 1.0 V; thus, we fixed the stimulation amplitude at 1.5 V to ensure a muscle response. The leg motions were finely graded by alternation of the stimulation frequencies: higher stimulation frequencies elicited larger leg angular displacement. A closed-loop control system was then developed, where the stimulation frequency was the manipulated variable for leg-muscle stimulation (output from the final control element to the leg muscle) and the angular displacement of the leg motion was the system response. This closed-loop control system, with an optimized proportional gain and update time, regulated the leg to set at predetermined angular positions. The average electrical stimulation power consumption per muscle group was 148 µW. These findings related to and demonstrations of the leg motion control offer promise for the future development of a reliable, low-power, biological legged machine (i.e., an insect-machine hybrid legged robot).
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Rapamycin protects kidney against ischemia reperfusion injury through recruitment of NKT cells.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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NKT cells play a protective role in ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, of which the trafficking in the body and recruitment in injured organs can be influenced by immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, we investigated the effects of rapamycin on kidneys exposed to IR injury in early stage and on trafficking of NKT cells in a murine model.
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Facile synthesis 3D flexible core-shell graphene/glass fiber via chemical vapor deposition.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Direct deposition of graphene layers on the flexible glass fiber surface to form the three-dimensional (3D) core-shell structures is offered using a two-heating reactor chemical vapor deposition system. The two-heating reactor is utilized to offer sufficient, well-proportioned floating C atoms and provide a facile way for low-temperature deposition. Graphene layers, which are controlled by changing the growth time, can be grown on the surface of wire-type glass fiber with the diameter from 30 nm to 120 um. The core-shell graphene/glass fiber deposition mechanism is proposed, suggesting that the 3D graphene films can be deposited on any proper wire-type substrates. These results open a facile way for direct and high-efficiency deposition of the transfer-free graphene layers on the low-temperature dielectric wire-type substrates.
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A reduction in both visceral and subcutaneous fats contributes to increased adiponectin by lifestyle intervention in the Diabetes Prevention Program.
Acta Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine, confers protection against type 2 diabetes. Although adiponectin is secreted exclusively from fat, contributions of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) versus subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) to adiponectin levels have not been fully understood. We aimed to examine correlations between changes in VAT and SAT volumes and changes in adiponectin levels.
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Ultrathin core-sheath fibers for liposome stabilization.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Ultrathin core-sheath fibers with small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) in the core were prepared by coaxial electrospinning. SUVs/sodium hyaluranate (HA-Na)/water and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/ethanol solutions were used as core and sheath fluid in electrospinning, respectively. The ultrathin fibers were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). The SUVs were successfully encapsulated in the core HA-Na matrix of the ultrathin fibers and are in the elliptic shape. The SUVs encapsulated in the core matrix of the ultrathin fibers have an excellent stability. The SUVs embedded in the ultrathin fibers are stable. When the ultrathin fibers were re-dissolved in water after one-month storage at room temperature, the rehydrated SUVs have the similar size and size distribution as the as-prepared SUVs. The liposome-loaded ultrathin fiber mats have the promising applications in wound healing materials.
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Blockade of epidermal growth factor receptor/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway by Icariside II results in reduced cell proliferation of osteosarcoma cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Icariside II is considered one of the most important natural flavonoids with multiple bioactivities from traditional Chinese medicine Yin Yanghuo (YYH) or Horny Goat Weed (Epimedium koreanum Nakai). Previous studies show that Icariside II exhibits potent cytotoxicity against a broad spectrum of human cancer cells through various signaling transduction pathways. However, there are few reports about the effect of Icariside II on osteosarcoma cell. In this study, we found that Icariside II decreased cell proliferation in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells and human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells. In addition, Icariside II inactivated EGFR/mTOR signaling pathway, including EGFR, PI3K/AKT/PRAS40, Raf/MEK/ERK as well as mTOR. Furthermore, Icariside II inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced activation of EGFR/mTOR signaling pathway. Pretreatment of EGF partially reversed cell viability decreased by Icariside II. Importantly, Icariside II inhibited the proliferation of transplantable tumors and EGFR/mTOR signaling pathway in sarcoma-180 bearing mice. In summary, these results indicate that Icariside II inhibits the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo via EGFR/mTOR signaling pathway.
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Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1/GDF15) as a novel diagnostic serum biomarker in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1/GDF15) has been identified as a potential novel biomarker for detection of pancreatic cancer (PCa). However, the diagnostic value of serum MIC-1 for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), particularly for those at the early stage, and the value for treatment response monitoring have not yet been investigated.
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A novel method for dendritic spines detection based on directional morphological filter and shortest path.
Comput Med Imaging Graph
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Dendritic spines are tiny membranous protrusions from neuron's dendrites. They play a very important role in the nervous system. A number of mental diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and mental retardation are revealed to have close relations with spine morphologies or spine number changes. Spines have various shapes, and spine images are often not of good quality; hence it is very challenging to detect spines in neuron images. This paper presents a novel pipeline to detect dendritic spines in 2D maximum intensity projection (MIP) images and a new dendrite backbone extraction method is developed in the pipeline. The strategy for the backbone extraction approach is that it iteratively refines the extraction result based on directional morphological filtering and improved Hessian filtering until a satisfactory extraction result is obtained. A shortest path method is applied along a backbone to extract the boundary of the dendrites. Spines are then segmented from the dendrites outside the extracted boundary. Touching spines will be split using a marker-controlled watershed algorithm. We present the results of our algorithm on real images and compare our algorithm with two other spine detection methods. The results show that the proposed approach can detect dendrites and spines more accurately. Measurements and classification of spines are also made in this paper.
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Detection of uric acid depositing in tophaceous gout using a new dual energy spectral CT technology.
J Xray Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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To assess the feasibility and diagnostic value of detecting uric acid depositing among patients with tophaceous gout using a dual energy CT based Gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) technology for qualitative analysis of uric acid.
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Efficient Coupling of Solar Energy to Catalytic Hydrogenation by Using Well-Designed Palladium Nanostructures.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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A Ru(3+) -mediated synthesis for the unique Pd concave nanostructures, which can directly harvest UV-to-visible light for styrene hydrogenation, is described. The catalytic efficiency under 100 mW?cm(-2) full-spectrum irradiation at room temperature turns out to be comparable to that of thermally (70?°C) driven reactions. The yields obtained with other Pd nanocrystals, such as nanocubes and octahedrons, are lower. The nanostructures reported here have sufficient plasmonic cross-sections for light harvesting in a broad spectral range owing to the reduced shape symmetry, which increases the solution temperature for the reaction by the photothermal effect. They possess a large quantity of atoms at corners and edges where local heat is more efficiently generated, thus providing active sites for the reaction. Taken together, these factors drastically enhance the hydrogenation reaction by light illumination.
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[Construction of colorectal cancer cell line stably expressing mir-101 and identification of the target gene of mir-101].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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To construct a colorectal cancer cell line stably expressing mir-101 and identify the target gene of mir-101.
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Survivin-targeting Artificial MicroRNAs Mediated by Adenovirus Suppress Tumor Activity in Cancer Cells and Xenograft Models.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Survivin is highly expressed in most human tumors and fetal tissue, and absent in terminally differentiated cells. It promotes tumor cell proliferation by negatively regulating cell apoptosis and facilitating cell division. Survivin's selective expression pattern suggests that it might be a suitable target for cancer therapy, which would promote death of transformed but not normal cells. This was tested using artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) targeting survivin. After screening, two effective amiRNAs, which knocked down survivin expression, were identified and cloned into a replication-defective adenoviral vector. Tumor cells infected with the recombinant vector downregulated expression of survivin and underwent apoptotic cell death. Further studies showed that apoptosis was associated with increases in caspase 3 and cleaved Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, and activation of the p53 signaling pathway. Furthermore, amiRNA treatment caused blockade of mitosis and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. In vivo, survivin-targeting amiRNAs expressed by adenoviral vectors effectively delayed growth of hepatocellular and cervical carcinomas in mouse xenograft models. These results indicate that silencing of survivin by amiRNA has potential for treatment of cancer.
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Dissolution mechanism of cellulose in N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride: revisiting through molecular interactions.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Understanding the interactions between solvent molecules and cellulose at a molecular level is still not fully achieved in cellulose/N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc)/LiCl system. In this paper, cellobiose was used as the model compound of cellulose to investigate the interactions in cellulose/DMAc/LiCl solution by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), (13)C, (35)Cl, and (7)Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and conductivity measurements. It was found that when cellulose is dissolved in DMAc/LiCl cosolvent system, the hydroxyl protons of cellulose form strong hydrogen bonds with the Cl(-), during which the intermolecular hydrogen bonding networks of cellulose is broken with simultaneous splitting of the Li(+)-Cl(-) ion pairs. Simultaneously, the Li(+) cations are further solvated by free DMAc molecules, which accompany the hydrogen-bonded Cl(-) to meet electric balance. Thereafter, the cellulose chains are dispersed in molecular level in the solvent system to form homogeneous solution. This work clarifies the interactions in the cellulose/DMAc/LiCl solution at molecular level and the dissolution mechanism of cellulose in DMAc/LiCl, which is important for understanding the principle for selecting and designing new cellulose solvent systems.
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Dynamic evolution of clonal epialleles revealed by methclone.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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We describe methclone, a novel method to identify epigenetic loci that harbor large changes in the clonality of their epialleles (epigenetic alleles). methclone efficiently analyzes genome-wide DNA methylation sequencing data. We quantify the changes using a composition entropy difference calculation and also introduce a new measure of global clonality shift, loci with epiallele shift per million loci covered, which enables comparisons between different samples to gauge overall epiallelic dynamics. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of methclone in capturing functional epiallele shifts in leukemia patients from diagnosis to relapse. methclone is open-source and freely available at https://code.google.com/p/methclone.
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Multifunctional non-viral gene vectors with enhanced stability, improved cellular and nuclear uptake capability, and increased transfection efficiency.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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We have developed a new multifunctional, non-viral gene delivery platform consisting of cationic poly(amine-co-ester) (PPMS) for DNA condensation, PEG shell for nanoparticle stabilization, poly(?-glutamic acid) (?-PGA) and mTAT (a cell-penetrating peptide) for accelerated cellular uptake, and a nuclear localization signal peptide (NLS) for enhanced intracellular transport of DNA to the nucleus. In vitro study showed that coating of the binary PPMS/DNA polyplex with ?-PGA promotes cellular uptake of the polyplex particles, particularly by ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive cells through the GGT-mediated endocytosis pathway. Conjugating PEG to the ?-PGA led to the formation of a ternary PPMS/DNA/PGA-g-PEG polyplex with decreased positive charges on the surface of the polyplex particles and substantially higher stability in serum-containing aqueous medium. The cellular uptake rate was further improved by incorporating mTAT into the ternary polyplex system. Addition of the NLS peptide was designed to facilitate intracellular delivery of the plasmid to the nucleus--a rate-limiting step in the gene transfection process. As a result, compared with the binary PPMS/LucDNA polyplex, the new mTAT-quaternary PPMS/LucDNA/NLS/PGA-g-PEG-mTAT system exhibited reduced cytotoxicity, remarkably faster cellular uptake rate, and enhanced transport of DNA to the nucleus. All these advantageous functionalities contribute to the remarkable gene transfection efficiency of the mTAT-quaternary polyplex both in vitro and in vivo, which exceeds that of the binary polyplex and commercial Lipofectamine™ 2000/DNA lipoplex. The multifunctional mTAT-quaternary polyplex system with improved efficiency and reduced cytotoxicity represents a new type of promising non-viral vectors for the delivery of therapeutic genes to treat tumors.
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Low-dose decitabine induces MAGE-A expression and inhibits invasion via suppression of NF-?B2 and MMP2 in Eca109 cells.
Biomed. Pharmacother.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Decitabine, a demethylating drug, is the first-line treatment for myelodysplastic syndromes and gains better overall survival, which is based on epigenetic mechanism. Activated by promoter demethylation, melanoma-associated antigens-A (MAGE-A), cancer-testis antigens are attractive targets for immunotherapy. Our purpose was to investigate whether decitabine could show anti-tumor effects for esophageal cancer and explore its mechanism. In addition, we aimed to examine its modulation for most MAGE-A members. The results showed the baseline expression were MAGE-A2, -3,-9, and -10 in Eca109 cells and decitabine (0.5 ?M) could induce MAGE-A8 and -A4 whereas reduce MAGE-A9 and -A10. Moreover, decitabine (0.5 ?M) inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasive ability by 15%, 34% and 47.2%, respectively and decreased expressions of NF-?B2 and MMP2. Our results demonstrated that low-dose decitabine induced the expression of MAGE-A8 and -A4, and inhibited cell invasion through decreasing expression of MMP2 and NF-?B2, which provides possibilities for combing decitabine with immunotherapy targeting MAGE-A to treat advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
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[Case-control study on modified femoral prosthesis in reducing the incidence of patellar clunk syndrome after the initial posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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To explore therapeutic effects of modified femoral prosthesis applied in the initial posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty.
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BridgeDb app: unifying identifier mapping services for Cytoscape.
F1000Res
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The BridgeDb app for Cytoscape allows users to map and annotate identifiers of genes, proteins and metabolites in the context of biological networks. The app greatly simplifies the identifier mapping process in Cytoscape by providing a unified interface to different mapping resources and services. The app also provides a programming interface via Cytoscape Commands that can be utilized for identifier mapping by other Cytoscape apps. In this article we provide a technical guide to the BridgeDb app for mapping identifiers in Cytoscape.
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Preparation of multi-functional cellulose containing huge conjugated system and its UV-protective and antibacterial property.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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A novel Schiff base containing huge azo conjugated system and reactive groups, 3,5-bis{2-hydroxyphenyl-5-[(2-sulfate-4-sulfatoethylsulfonyl-azobenzol)methylene amino]}benzoic acid (BHSABA) was applied to modify cellulose. Exhaustion and grafting reactive rate, and grafting quantity of BHSABA on cellulose were calculated. The chemical structure of the modified cellulose was characterized and thermal degradation and morphology were also investigated. The UV protection and antibacterial properties were measured. With increasing the concentration of BHSABA, grafting quantity of BHSABA on cellulose increased from 1.52 × 10(-2)mmol/g to 5.08 × 10(-2)mmol/g. The multi-functional cellulose fabrics had excellent UV-protective property, which possessed very high UPF value and very low ultraviolet transmittance. The UPF values exceeded 50 and the ultraviolet transmittances were all less than 1%. They also exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and after 10 times washing still maintained antibacterial activity. The onsets of degradation slightly decreased. With increasing the grafting quantity of BHSABA on cellulose, mass loss yields of the residues increased. The morphological structure had no noticeable change.
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Transplantation of neurotrophin-3-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for the repair of spinal cord injury.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation has been shown to be therapeutic in the repair of spinal cord injury. However, the low survival rate of transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vivo remains a problem. Neurotrophin-3 promotes motor neuron survival and it is hypothesized that its transfection can enhance the therapeutic effect. We show that in vitro transfection of neurotrophin-3 gene increases the number of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the region of spinal cord injury. These results indicate that neurotrophin-3 can promote the survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into the region of spinal cord injury and potentially enhance the therapeutic effect in the repair of spinal cord injury.
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High performance relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) have drawn much attention in the ferroelectric field because of their excellent piezoelectric properties and high electromechanical coupling coefficients (d33~2000 pC/N, kt~60%) near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). Ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals also possess outstanding performance comparable with PMN-PT single crystals, but have higher phase transition temperatures (rhombohedral to tetragonal Trt, and tetragonal to cubic Tc) and larger coercive field Ec. Therefore, these relaxor-based single crystals have been extensively employed for ultrasonic transducer applications. In this paper, an overview of our work and perspectives on using PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for ultrasonic transducer applications is presented. Various types of single-element ultrasonic transducers, including endoscopic transducers, intravascular transducers, high-frequency and high-temperature transducers fabricated using the PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT crystals and their 2-2 and 1-3 composites are reported. Besides, the fabrication and characterization of the array transducers, such as phased array, cylindrical shaped linear array, high-temperature linear array, radial endoscopic array, and annular array, are also addressed.
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RNA-protein distance patterns in ribosomes reveal the mechanism of translational attenuation.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Elucidating protein translational regulation is crucial for understanding cellular function and drug development. A key molecule in protein translation is ribosome, which is a super-molecular complex extensively studied for more than a half century. The structure and dynamics of ribosome complexes were resolved recently thanks to the development of X-ray crystallography, Cryo-EM, and single molecule biophysics. Current studies of the ribosome have shown multiple functional states, each with a unique conformation. In this study, we analyzed the RNA-protein distances of ribosome (2.5 MDa) complexes and compared these changes among different ribosome complexes. We found that the RNA-protein distance is significantly correlated with the ribosomal functional state. Thus, the analysis of RNA-protein binding distances at important functional sites can distinguish ribosomal functional states and help understand ribosome functions. In particular, the mechanism of translational attenuation by nascent peptides and antibiotics was revealed by the conformational changes of local functional sites.
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Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of 4-azaheterocycle benzenesulfonamide derivatives as new microtubule-targeting agents.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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A series of 1-sulfonyl indolines was synthesized and evaluated for antiproliferative activity. The most potent compounds 9a and 9e showed significant cytotoxicity (IC50 in the range of 0.055-0.105 and 0.039-0.112?M, respectively) against four human cancer cell lines HCT116, PC3, HepG2 and SK-OV-3. The structure-activity relationship of this series of sulfonamides, including the influence of azaheterocycle rings, substituent at the different positions of indoline, and the cyclopropane moiety, was described.
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Non-invasive imaging of allogeneic transplanted skin graft by (131) I-anti-TLR5 mAb.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Although (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG) uptake can be used for the non-invasive detection and monitoring of allograft rejection by activated leucocytes, this non-specific accumulation is easily impaired by immunosuppressants. Our aim was to evaluate a (131) I-radiolabelled anti-Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) mAb for non-invasive in vivo graft visualization and quantification in allogeneic transplantation mice model, compared with the non-specific radiotracer (18) F-FDG under using of immunosuppressant. Labelling, binding, and stability studies were performed. BALB/c mice transplanted with C57BL/6 skin grafts, with or without rapamycin treatment (named as allo-treated group or allo-rejection group), were injected with (131) I-anti-TLR5 mAb, (18) F-FDG, or mouse isotype (131) I-IgG, respectively. Whole-body phosphor-autoradiography and ex vivo biodistribution studies were obtained. Whole-body phosphor-autoradiography showed (131) I-anti-TLR5 mAb uptake into organs that were well perfused with blood at 1 hr and showed clear graft images from 12 hrs onwards. The (131) I-anti-TLR5 mAb had significantly higher graft uptake and target-to-non-target ratio in the allo-treated group, as determined by semi-quantification of phosphor-autoradiography images; these results were consistent with ex vivo biodistribution studies. However, high (18) F-FDG uptake was not observed in the allo-treated group. The highest allograft-skin-to-native-skin ratio (A:N) of (131) I-anti-TLR5 mAb uptake was significantly higher than the ratio for (18) F-FDG (7.68 versus 1.16, respectively). (131) I-anti-TLR5 mAb uptake in the grafts significantly correlated with TLR5 expression in the allograft area. The accumulation of (131) I-IgG was comparable in both groups. We conclude that radiolabelled anti-TLR5 mAb is capable of detecting allograft with high target specificity after treatment with the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin.
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Rapid hydrothermal cooling above the axial melt lens at fast-spreading mid-ocean ridge.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Axial melt lenses sandwiched between the lower oceanic crust and the sheeted dike sequences at fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges are assumed to be the major magma source of oceanic crust accretion. According to the widely discussed "gabbro glacier" model, the formation of the lower oceanic crust requires efficient cooling of the axial melt lens, leading to partial crystallization and crystal-melt mush subsiding down to lower crust. These processes are believed to be controlled by periodical magma replenishment and hydrothermal circulation above the melt lens. Here we quantify the cooling rate above melt lens using chemical zoning of plagioclase from hornfelsic recrystallized sheeted dikes drilled from the East Pacific at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Hole 1256D. We estimate the cooling rate using a forward modelling approach based on CaAl-NaSi interdiffusion in plagioclase. The results show that cooling from the peak thermal overprint at 1000-1050°C to 600°C are yielded within about 10-30 years as a result of hydrothermal circulation above melt lens during magma starvation. The estimated rapid hydrothermal cooling explains how the effective heat extraction from melt lens is achieved at fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges.
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Cryptococcosis in kidney transplant recipients in a Chinese university hospital and a review of published cases.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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Cryptococcosis is a severe fungal infection with a high mortality rate among solid-organ transplant recipients. Today, China is among the countries performing the most kidney transplants worldwide, however data on the association of cryptococcosis with kidney transplantation in mainland China remain scarce and fragmented.
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Main chemical species and molecular structure of deep eutectic solvent studied by experiments with DFT calculation: a case of choline chloride and magnesium chloride hexahydrate.
J Mol Model
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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The infrared spectrum of deep eutectic solvent of choline chloride and magnesium chloride hexahydrate was measured by the FTIR spectroscopy and analyzed with the aid of DFT calculations. The main chemical species and molecular structure in deep eutectic solvent of [MgClm(H2O)6-m]2-m and [ChxCly]x+y complexes were mainly identified and the active ion of magnesium complex during the electrochemical process was obtained. The mechanism of the electrochemical process of deep eutectic solvent of choline chloride and magnesium chloride hexahydrate was well explained by combination theoretical calculations and experimental. Besides, based on our results we proposed a new system for the dehydration study of magnesium chloride hexahydrate.
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Treatment of chronic deltoid ligament injury using suture anchors.
Orthop Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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To explore the efficacy of overlapping suture-anchor fixation for treatment of chronic deltoid ligament injury.
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Comparison operative and conservative management for primary patellar dislocation: an up-to-date meta-analysis.
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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The aim of this review was to compare the clinical outcomes between operative and conservative management for primary patella dislocation (PPD).
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Myeloid Kruppel-like factor 2 deficiency exacerbates neurological dysfunction and neuroinflammation in a murine model of multiple sclerosis.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Cells of the innate immune system are important mediators of multiple sclerosis (MS). We have previously identified Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) as a critical negative regulator of myeloid activation in the setting of bacterial infection and sepsis, but the role of myeloid KLF2 in MS has not been investigated. In this study, myeloid KLF2 deficient mice exhibited more severe neurological dysfunction and increased spinal cord demyelination and neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. This study represents the first description of a significant role of myeloid KLF2 in neuroinflammation, identifying KLF2 as a potential target for further investigation in patients with MS.
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A facile one-step solvothermal synthesis of bismuth phosphate-graphene nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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A facile one-step solvothermal approach was developed to synthesize BiPO4-graphene (BP-RGO) nanocomposites using ethylene glycol/water as the solvent and reducing agent. During the solvothermal reaction, both the effective reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and the growth of rod-shaped BiPO4 as well as its deposition on graphene occurred simultaneously. The as-obtained BP-2%RGO nanocomposite showed the highest photocatalytic activity toward the photodegradation of methyl orange (MO), which was about 2.0 and 1.5 times as high as that of pure BiPO4 and physical mixture of BiPO4 and graphene, respectively. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of BP-2%RGO nanocomposite is attributed to a larger surface area, much increased adsorption capacity, and more effective charge transportations and separations arisen from the introduction of graphene along with the intimate interfacial contact between BiPO4 and graphene. This work highlights the significant effect of solvothermal method and introduction of graphene on the photoactivity of graphene-based nanocomposites. It is expected that this method could aid to fabricate more efficient graphene-based photocatalysts with improved interfacial contact and photocatalytic performance for environmental remediation.
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Tuberculous abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm with renal and vertebral tuberculosis: a case and literature review.
J Infect Dev Ctries
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Tuberculous pseudoaneurysm of the aorta is rare and exposes patients to a very high risk of unpredictable rupture. To our best knowledge, only 32 cases have been reported related to all arterial systems from 1993 to 2013 in the literature. We report a 44-year-old male who presented with an aortic pseudoaneurysm and tuberculosis of the kidney and vertebrae. He underwent endovascular repair and antibiotic therapy for tuberculosis, combined with a bare stent implanted to seal endoleaks after endograft stenting. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient recovered and lived well afterwards. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, management, and mortality of this entity were reviewed and discussed.
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Novel Technique to Narrow the Wide Midface in Asians.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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To develop a novel technique for narrowing the wide midface in Asians using virtual surgical planning (VSP) and 2-bent plate fixation.
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DDX3X regulates cell survival and cell cycle during mouse early embryonic development.
J Biomed Res
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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DDX3X is a highly conserved DEAD-box RNA helicase that participates in RNA transcription, RNA splicing, and mRNA transport, translation, and nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. It is highly expressed in metaphase II (MII) oocytes and is the predominant DDX3 variant in the ovary and embryo. However, whether it is important in mouse early embryo development remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the function of DDX3X in early embryogenesis by cytoplasmic microinjection with its siRNA in zygotes or single blastomeres of 2-cell embryos. Our results showed that knockdown of Ddx3x in zygote cytoplasm led to dramatically diminished blastocyst formation, reduced cell numbers, and an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in blastocysts. Meanwhile, there was an accumulation of p53 in RNAi blastocysts. In addition, the ratio of cell cycle arrest during 2-cell to 4-cell transition increased following microinjection of Ddx3x siRNA into single blastomeres of 2-cell embryos compared with control. These results suggest that Ddx3x is an essential gene associated with cell survival and cell cycle control in mouse early embryos, and thus plays key roles in normal embryo development.
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Long-term outcomes of patients with refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease following a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure: a prospective observational study.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common digestive disease, affecting one third of the world's population. The minimally invasive endoscopic Stretta procedure is being increasingly used as an alternative strategy to manage refractory GERD. However, long-term benefits of this procedure have to be further evaluated in clinical settings. This prospective observational study was therefore conducted to evaluate the outcome of patients with refractory GERD 5 years after the Stretta procedure.
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Controlled release of liposome-encapsulated Naproxen from core-sheath electrospun nanofibers.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Naproxen (NAP) loaded nanofibers of different structures have been successfully prepared by electrospinning. The structures of the nanofibers are NAP and cellulose acetate (CA) mixed nanofibers (NF-1), nanofibers with NAP/CA mixed core and CA sheath (NF-2), and NAP loaded liposomes and sodium hyaluronate (HA-Na) mixed core with CA sheath (NF-3). The structure and morphology of the nanofibers were characterized and the drug release behaviors were investigated. It was found that NAP can disperse in the HA-Na or CA matrix in molecular level without formation of NAP crystals and dimers. The drug release behaviors of NF-1 and NF-2 show a non-Fickian diffusion mechanism, while the NF-3 shows a specific drug release behavior with a burst release within 8h followed by a sustained drug release for 12 days. The particular two-stage drug release behavior of NF-3 nanofibers offers the materials promising applications as wound dressing materials.
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Skewed T-helper (Th)1/2- and Th17/T regulatory?cell balances in patients with renal cell carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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The characterization of CD4+ T-cell subsets reflects the immune status and is important in the maintenance of tumorigenesis and homeostasis. To identify changes in the balance of T helper (Th)1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cells (Treg) in individuals with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the present study investigated a total of 131 patients with RCC and 36 healthy volunteers. The number of CD4+ T?bet+ cells, CD4+ GATA binding protein 3+ cells, CD4+ RAR-related orphan receptor ?t+ cells, CD4+ CD25hi CD127lo CD45RA? cells and CD4+ CD25hi CD127lo CD45RA+ cells, defined as Th1, Th2, Th17, activated and naïve Treg cells, respectively, were detected in the peripheral blood using flow cytometric analysis. In addition, tumor?infiltrating forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)+ cells were examined using immunohistochemistry. Compared with healthy volunteers, a significant decrease in the peripheral percentages of Th1, activated and naïve Treg cells was observed in patients with RCC, while those of the Th2 and Th17 cells were increased. In particular, as the tumor stage and grade progressed, the levels of Th1, activated and naïve Treg cells in the peripheral blood decreased; however, the levels of Th2 and Th17 cells increased. Furthermore, the number of tumor-infiltrating Foxp3+ cells increased with increasing tumor stage. These results demonstrated that the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells was skewed towards the Th2 profile and the balance of Th17 and Treg cells was skewed towards the Th17 profile in the peripheral blood of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and Treg cells were recruited to the tumor sites. Therefore, dysfunctional host anti?tumor immunity was observed in patients with RCC, with a skewed Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg balance.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.