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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Elucidation of Substituted Ester Group Position in Octenylsuccinic Anhydride Modified Sugary Maize Soluble Starch.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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The octenylsuccinic groups in esterification-modified sugary maize soluble starches with a low (0.0191) or high (0.0504) degree of substitution (DS) were investigated by amyloglucosidase hydrolysis followed by a combination of chemical and physical analysis. The results showed the zeta-potential remained at approximately the same value regardless of excessive hydrolysis. The weight-average molecular weight decreased rapidly and reached 1.22 × 10(7) and 1.60 × 10(7) g/mol after 120 min for low-DS and high-DS octenylsuccinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch, respectively. The pattern of z-average radius of gyration as well as particle size change was similar to that of Mw, and z-average radius of gyration decreased much more slowly, especially for high-DS OSA starch. Compared to native starch, two characteristic absorption peaks at 1726.76 and 1571.83 cm(-1) were observed in FT-IR spectra, and the intensity of absorption peaks increased with increasing DS. The NMR results showed that OSA starch had several additional peaks at 0.8-3.0 ppm and a shoulder at 5.56 ppm for OSA substituents, which were grafted at O-2 and O-3 positions in soluble starch. The even distribution of OSA groups in the center area of soluble starch particle has been directly shown under CLSM. Most substitutions were located near branching points of soluble starch particles for a low-DS modified starch, whereas the substituted ester groups were located near branching points as well as at the nonreducing ends in OSA starch with a high DS.
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A novel systems pharmacology model for herbal medicine injection: a case using reduning injection.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Compared with the traditional oral administration form, injection administration is basically superior in terms of both biological availability and therapeutic effects. However, few researches have focused on the traditional Chinese medicinal injection due to the complicated constituents and the intricate mechanism of action.
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Osteoblast-derived Wnt-1-induced secreted protein 1 increases VCAM-1 expression and enhances prostate cancer metastasis by down-regulating miR-126.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Bone metastases of prostate cancer (PCa) may cause intractable pain. Wnt-1-induced secreted protein 1 (WISP-1) belongs to the CCN family (CTGF/CYR61/NOV) that plays a key role in bone formation. We found that osteoblast-conditioned medium (OBCM) stimulates migration and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM)-1 expression in human PCa (PC3 and DU145) cells. Osteoblast transfection with WISP-1 shRNA reduced OBCM-mediated PCa migration and VCAM-1 expression. Stimulation of PCa with OBCM or WISP-1 elevated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and p38 phosphorylation. Either FAK and p38 inhibitors or siRNA abolished osteoblast-derived WISP-1-induced migration and VCAM-1 expression. Osteoblast-derived WISP-1 inhibited miR-126 expression. Moreover, miR-216 mimic reversed the WISP-1-enhanced migration and VCAM-1 expression. This study suggests that osteoblast-derived WISP-1 promotes migration and VCAM-1 expression in human PCa cells by down-regulating miR-126 expression via ?v?1 integrin, FAK, and p38 signaling pathways. Thus, WISP-1 may be a new molecular therapeutic target in PCa bone metastasis.
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Intra- and post-operational changes in pupils induced by local application of cisternal papaverine during cerebral aneurysm operations.
Turk Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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To investigate the effect of locally administered intracisternal papaverine on the pupils during cerebral aneurysm clipping.
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Rescue of cardiac failing and remodeling by inhibition of PP1? is associated with suppression of the ASF-mediated splicing of CaMKII?
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Our previous studies show that protein phosphatase 1? (PP1?) exacerbates cardiomyocyte apoptosis through promotion of Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ? (CaMKII?) splicing. Here we determine the role of PP1? in abdominal aorta constriction (AAC)-induced hypertrophy and remodeling in rat heart. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and echocardiographic (Echo) measurements were used to evaluate the model of cardiac hypertrophy. Sirius red staining and invasive hemodynamic/ cardiac index measurements were used to evaluate the effects of PP1? or inhibitor 1 of PP1 (I1PP1) transfection. Western blot, RT-PCR, and co-immunoprecipitation were applied to investigate the molecular mechanisms. Transfection of PP1? increased the value of heart mass index (HMI), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and cardiac fibrosis, and simultaneously decreased the value of maximal left ventricular pressure increase (+dP/dtmax) and decline (-dP/dtmax) rate, ejection fraction (EF), and fractional shortening (FS), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), as well as left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP). Transfection of I1PP1, however, exhibited opposite effects on above indexes. Overexpression of PP1? potentiated CaMKII?C production and decreased CaMKII?B production in hypertrophic heart. In contrast, inhibition of PP1? re-balanced the CaMKII? splicing. Furthermore, CaMKII activity was found to be augmented or attenuated by PP1? overexpression or inhibition, respectively. Further mechanistic studies showed that AAC stress specifically increased the association of alternative splicing factor (ASF) with PP1?, but not with PP1?. Overexpression of PP1?, but not I1PP1, further potentiated this association. In conclusion, these results suggest that PP1? alters the cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling likely through promotion of the ASF-mediated splicing of CaMKII?. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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[Effect of electroacupuncture stimulation of "Feishu" (BL 13) on lung index, serum and lung IL-10 and TNF-alpha levels in mice with viral pneumonia].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Feishu" (BL13) on lung pathological changes, and levels of pulmonary and serum IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in viral pneumonia mice, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improvement of viral pneumonia.
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Metal-organic frameworks based on the [1,1':3',1''-terphenyl]-3,3'',5,5''-tetracarboxylic acid ligand: syntheses, structures and magnetic properties.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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The solvothermal reactions of [1,1':3',1''-terphenyl]-3,3'',5,5''-tetracarboxylic acid (H4TPTA) with transition metal cations afforded five novel coordination polymers in the presence of three pyridine ligands (4,4'-bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine, 2,2'-bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine and phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), namely [M(TPTA)0.5(4,4'-bpy)0.5(H2O)2]n (M = Co for (1), Ni for (2)), {[Mn2(TPTA)(2,2'-bpy)H2O]·1.5H2O}n (3), and [M(H2TPTA)(phen)]n (M = Mn for (4), Co for (5)). Their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Polymers 1 and 2 are isomorphous and exhibit 3D 4-fold interpenetrated networks with the point Schläfli symbol of (4(2)·10(4)) (4·10(2)). Polymer 3 shows a 2D layer framework. Polymers 4 and 5 are also isomorphous and each displays a one-dimensional (1D) chain, which further forms a 2D supramolecular architecture via inter-chain ?···? interactions. Moreover, variable-temperature magnetic susceptibilities of polymers 3-5 exhibit overall weak antiferromagnetic coupling between the adjacent M(II) ions.
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Bacterial Cellulose Production from the Litchi Extract by Gluconacetobacter Xylinus.
Prep. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Although litchi has both nutrient and edible value, the extremely short preservation time limited its further market promotion. To explore processed litchi products with longer preservation time, litchi extract was selected as an alternative feedstock for production of bacterial cellulose (BC). After two weeks' static fermentation, 2.53 g/L of the BC membrane was obtained. The trace elements including magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) in the litchi extract were partly absorbed in the BC membrane, but no potassium (K) element was detected in it curiously. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs exhibited an ultra fine network nanostructure for the BC produced in the litchi extract. Analysis of the infrared spectrograms confirmed the pellicles to be a cellulosic material. Interestingly, X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the BC membrane obtained from litchi extract had higher crystallinity of 94.0% than that from HS medium. Overall, the work showed the potential of producing high value-added polymer from litchi resources.
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Tetrahydroxystilbene Glucoside Protects Against Oxidized LDL-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction via Regulating Vimentin Cytoskeleton and its Colocalization with ICAM-1 and VCAM-1.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Background: Endothelial cell dysfunction triggered by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is the main event occurring during the development of atherosclerosis. 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-?-D-glucoside (TSG), an active component of the rhizome extract from Polygonum multiflorum, exhibits significant anti-atherosclerotic activity. However, the protective effects of TSG against oxLDL-induced endothelial dysfunction have not been clarified. We investigated the cytoprotective effects of TSG in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and explored underlying mechanisms. Methods and Results: TSG pretreatment markedly attenuated oxLDL-mediated loss of cell viability, release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cell apoptosis, and monocyte adhesion. OxLDL increased vimentin mRNA and protein levels, vimentin cleavage, caspase-3 activation, adhesion molecules levels and their colocalization with vimentin in HUVECs. These alterations were attenuated by pretreatment with TSG. Meanwhile, TSG inhibited both the expression of TGF?1 and the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3, and TSG suppressed the nuclear translocation of Smad4 induced by oxLDL. Using shRNA, oxLDL-induced cell apoptosis and monocyte adhesion were significantly inhibited by vimentin suppression in HUVECs. Conclusions: These results suggest that TSG protects HUVECs against oxLDL-induced endothelial dysfunction through inhibiting vimentin expression and cleavage, and the expression of adhesion molecules and their colocalization with vimentin. The interruption of TGF?/Smad pathway and caspase-3 activation appears to be responsible for the downregulation of TSG on vimentin expression and fragmentation, respectively. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Association of polymorphisms in AGTR1 and AGTR2 genes with primary aldosteronism in the Chinese Han population.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Polymorphisms in angiotensin II type-1/2 receptor genes (AGTR1/AGTR2) may be involved in the pathogenesis of primary aldosteronism. The present study aims to reveal some loci susceptible to the disease on the genes in a group of Chinese Han nationality.
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CD82 Restrains Pathological Angiogenesis by Altering Lipid Raft Clustering and CD44 Trafficking in Endothelial Cells.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Angiogenesis is crucial for many pathological processes and becomes a therapeutic strategy against diseases ranging from inflammation to cancer. The regulatory mechanism of angiogenesis remains unclear. Although tetraspanin CD82 is widely expressed in various endothelial cells (ECs), its vascular function is unknown.
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Retinal vein occlusion in retinal racemose hemangioma: a case report and literature review of ocular complications in this rare retinal vascular disorder.
BMC Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Retinal racemose hemangioma (RRH) is a rare congenital disorder that often co-occurs with other ocular complications. In this study, we present a case of RRH complicated with retinal vein obstruction in three branches and provide a review of ocular complications and associations with RRH.
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Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cause G1 phase arrest through the activation of the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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In daily life, humans are exposed to the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) generated by electric appliances, and public concern is increasing regarding the biological effects of such exposure. Numerous studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the biological effects of ELF-EMF exposure. Here we show that ELF-EMFs activate the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in HaCaT cells, inhibiting cell proliferation. To present well-founded results, we comprehensively evaluated the biological effects of ELF-EMFs at the transcriptional, protein, and cellular levels. Human HaCaT cells from an immortalized epidermal keratinocyte cell line were exposed to a 1.5 mT, 60 Hz ELF-EMF for 144 h. The ELF-EMF could cause G1 arrest and decrease colony formation. Protein expression experiments revealed that ELF-EMFs induced the activation of the ATM/Chk2 signaling cascades. In addition, the p21 protein, a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1 and G2/M, exhibited a higher level of expression in exposed HaCaT cells compared with the expression of sham-exposed cells. The ELF-EMF-induced G1 arrest was diminished when the CHK2 gene expression (which encodes checkpoint kinase 2; Chk2) was suppressed by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). These findings indicate that ELF-EMFs activate the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in HaCaT cells, resulting in cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Based on the precise control of the ELF-EMF exposure and rigorous sham-exposure experiments, all transcriptional, protein, and cellular level experiments consistently supported the conclusion. This is the first study to confirm that a specific pathway is triggered by ELF-EMF exposure.
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Cadmium induced oxalic acid secretion and its role in metal uptake and detoxification mechanisms in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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This study examines the role of oxalic acid in the uptake of Cd and participation in detoxification process in Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Cd-induced oxalic acid secretion was observed with growth inhibition and enzyme inactivation (LiP and MnP) of P. chrysosporium. The peak value of oxalic acid concentration was 16.6 mM at initial Cd concentration of 100 mg L(-1). During the short-term uptake experiments, the uptake of Cd was enhanced and accelerated in the presence of oxalic acid and resulted in alleviated growth and enzyme inhibition ratios. The formation of a metal-oxalate complex therefore may provide a detoxification mechanism via effect on metal bioavailability, whereby many fungi can survive and grow in environments containing high concentrations of toxic metals. The present findings will advance the understanding of fungal resistance to metal stress, which could show promise for a more useful application of microbial technology in the treatment of metal-polluted waste.
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Characterization of microfluidic shear-dependent epithelial cell adhesion molecule immunocapture and enrichment of pancreatic cancer cells from blood cells with dielectrophoresis.
Biomicrofluidics
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Current microfluidic techniques for isolating circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from cancer patient blood are limited by low capture purity, and dielectrophoresis (DEP) has the potential to complement existing immunocapture techniques to improve capture performance. We present a hybrid DEP and immunocapture Hele-Shaw flow cell to characterize DEP's effects on immunocapture of pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-1, PANC-1, and BxPC-3) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with an anti-EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) antibody. By carefully specifying the applied electric field frequency, we demonstrate that pancreatic cancer cells are attracted to immunocapture surfaces by positive DEP whereas PBMCs are repelled by negative DEP. Using an exponential capture model to interpret our capture data, we show that immunocapture performance is dependent on the applied DEP force sign and magnitude, cell surface EpCAM expression level, and shear stress experienced by cells flowing in the capture device. Our work suggests that DEP can not only repel contaminating blood cells but also enhance capture of cancer cell populations that are less likely to be captured by traditional immunocapture methods. This combination of DEP and immunocapture techniques to potentially increase CTC capture purity can facilitate subsequent biological analyses of captured CTCs and research on cancer metastasis and drug therapies.
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Time-dependent effects of waterborne copper exposure influencing hepatic lipid deposition and metabolism in javelin goby Synechogobius hasta and their mechanism.
Aquat. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The present study was conducted to determine the time-course of waterborne chronic copper (Cu) exposure effects influencing hepatic lipid deposition and metabolism in javelin goby Synechogobius hasta and their mechanisms. S. hasta were exposed to four waterborne Cu concentrations (2 (control), 18, 38 and 55 ?g Cu/l) for 60 days. Sampling occurred on day 30 and day 60, respectively. Survival decreased and hepatic Cu content increased with increasing Cu levels. On day 30, Cu exposure increased hepatic lipid content, viscerosomatic index (VSI) and hepatosomatic index (HSI), and activities of lipogenic enzymes (6PGD, G6PD, ME, ICDH and FAS) as well as the mRNA levels of 6PGD, G6PD, ME, FAS, ACC?, LPL, PPAR? and SREBP-1 in the liver. However, the mRNA levels of ATGL, HSL and PPAR? declined following Cu exposure. On day 60, Cu exposure reduced hepatic lipid content, HSI, VSI, activities of G6PD, ME, ICDH and FAS, and the mRNA expression of 6PGD, G6PD, ME, FAS and SREBP-1, but increased mRNA expression of CPT 1, HSL and PPAR?. The differential Pearson correlation between transcriptional changes of genes encoding transcription factors (PPAR?, PPAR? and SREBP-1), and the activities and mRNA expression of enzymes involved in lipogenesis and lipolysis were observed on day 30 and day 60, respectively. Cu exposure for 30 days induced hepatic lipid accumulation by stimulating lipogenesis and inhibiting lipolysis. However, 60-day Cu exposure reduced hepatic lipid content by inhibiting lipogenesis and stimulating lipolysis. To our knowledge, for the first time, the present study provided experimental evidence that waterborne chronic Cu exposure differentially influenced genes involved in lipogenic and lipolytic metabolic pathway and the enzymes encoded in a duration-dependent manner in fish, and provided new insight into the relationship between metal toxicity and lipid metabolism.
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WY14643 produces anti-depressant-like effects in mice via the BDNF signaling pathway.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Current anti-depressants are clinically effective only after several weeks of administration and always produce side effects.
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Application of molecularly imprinted polymers in wastewater treatment: a review.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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Molecularly imprinted polymers are synthetic polymers possessing specific cavities designed for target molecules. They are prepared by copolymerization of a cross-linking agent with the complex formed from a template and monomers that have functional groups specifically interacting with the template through covalent or noncovalent bonds. Subsequent removal of the imprint template leaves specific cavities whose shape, size, and functional groups are complementary to the template molecule. Because of their predetermined selectivity, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can be used as ideal materials in wastewater treatment. Especially, MIP-based composites offer a wide range of potentialities in wastewater treatment. This paper reviews the latest applications of MIPs in wastewater treatment, highlights the development of MIP-based composites in wastewater, and offers suggestions for future success in the field of MIPs.
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The wheat aquaporin gene TaAQP7 confers tolerance to cold stress in transgenic tobacco.
Z. Naturforsch., C, J. Biosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Aquaporin proteins (AQPs) have been shown to be involved in abiotic stress responses. However, the precise role of AQPs, especially in response to cold stress, is not understood in wheat (Triticum aestivum). In the present study, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that TaAQP7 expression increased in leaves, but decreased in roots after cold treatment. Expression of TaAQP7 in tobacco plants resulted in increased root elongation and better growth compared with wild-type (WT) plants under cold stress. Moreover, after cold treatment, the transgenic tobacco lines exhibited higher chlorophyll contents, lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and less ion leakage (IL) than WT plants. Thus, expression of TaAQP7 enhanced cold stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Taken together, our results suggest that TaAQP7 confers cold stress tolerance by relieving membrane damage in the transgenic plants.
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Systems pharmacology-based approach for dissecting the addition and subtraction theory of traditional Chinese medicine: An example using Xiao-Chaihu-Decoction and Da-Chaihu-Decoction.
Comput. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Addition and subtraction theory (AST), a basic theory of herb combination in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is often used to add or subtract the "fundamental formulae" to generate more targeted prescriptions. This theory plays a core role in individualized medicine and compound compatibility of TCM. However, the mechanisms underlying AST have largely remained elusive.
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Predictors of failure of conservative treatment among patients with emphysematous pyelonephritis.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a severe necrotizing infection of the renal parenchyma and perirenal tissues that is caused by gas-producing bacterial pathogens. Percutaneous drainage is now the gold standard of definitive management. The aim of this study is to analyze the predictors associated with failure of conservative treatment among patients with EPN and offer the recommendation of appropriate empirical antibiotic regimen.
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Multifunctional "Smart" Particles Engineered from Live Immunocytes: Toward Capture and Release of Cancer Cells.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Multifunctional "smart" particles with magnetic, topographic, cell-targeting, and stimulus-responsive properties are obtained using a "live template" strategy. These particles exhibit improved efficiency in capture of target cancer cells by introducing synergistic topographic interaction, and enable the release of captured cells with high viability via reduction of disulfide bonds. Diverse multifunctional particles could be designed using the "live template" strategy.
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Template-Induced Diverse Metal-Organic Materials as Catalysts for the Tandem Acylation-Nazarov Cyclization.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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In our continuing quest to develop a metal-organic framework (MOF)-catalyzed tandem pyrrole acylation-Nazarov cyclization reaction with ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids for the synthesis of cyclopentenone[b]pyrroles, which are key intermediates in the synthesis of natural product (±)-roseophilin, a series of template-induced Zn-based (1-3) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been solvothermally synthesized and characterized. Structural conversions from non-porous MOF 1 to porous MOF 2, and back to non-porous MOF 3 arising from the different concentrations of template guest have been observed. The anion-? interactions between the template guests and ligands could affect the configuration of ligands and further tailor the frameworks of 1-3. Futhermore, MOFs 1-3 have shown to be effective heterogeneous catalysts for the tandem acylation-Nazarov cyclization reaction. In particular, the unique structural features of 2, including accessible catalytic sites and suitable channel size and shape, endow 2 with all of the desired features for the MOF-catalyzed tandem acylation-Nazarov cyclization reaction, including heterogeneous catalyst, high catalytic activity, robustness, and excellent selectivity. A plausible mechanism for the catalytic reaction has been proposed and the structure-reactivity relationship has been further clarified. Making use of 2 as a heterogeneous catalyst for the reaction could greatly increase the yield of total synthesis of (±)-roseophilin.
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Diabetes mellitus with poor glycemic control increases bladder cancer recurrence risk in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.
Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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The association of diabetes mellitus (DM) and bladder cancer recurrence following radical nephroureterectomies (RNUs) in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients was investigated.
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Effects of Benzo[a]pyrene Exposure on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Angiogenesis, Metastasis, and NF-?B Signaling.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) is a common environmental and foodborne pollutant. Although the carcinogenicity of high-dose of B(a)P has been extensively reported, the adverse effects of long-term B(a)P exposure at lower environmental dosage on cancer development are less understood.
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System-level multi-target drug discovery from natural products with applications to cardiovascular diseases.
Mol. Divers.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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The term systems pharmacology describes a field of study that uses computational and experimental approaches to broaden the view of drug actions rooted in molecular interactions and advance the process of drug discovery. The aim of this work is to stick out the role that the systems pharmacology plays across the multi-target drug discovery from natural products for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Firstly, based on network pharmacology methods, we reconstructed the drug-target and target-target networks to determine the putative protein target set of multi-target drugs for CVDs treatment. Secondly, we reintegrated a compound dataset of natural products and then obtained a multi-target compounds subset by virtual-screening process. Thirdly, a drug-likeness evaluation was applied to find the ADME-favorable compounds in this subset. Finally, we conducted in vitro experiments to evaluate the reliability of the selected chemicals and targets. We found that four of the five randomly selected natural molecules can effectively act on the target set for CVDs, indicating the reasonability of our systems-based method. This strategy may serve as a new model for multi-target drug discovery of complex diseases.
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Hormone-sensitive lipase in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco: molecular characterization, mRNA tissue expression and transcriptional regulation by leptin in vivo and in vitro.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Hormone-sensitive lipase (hsl) plays a pivotal role in regulation of lipolysis in mammals, but information is very scarce about its gene structure and function in fish. In this study, two distinct hsl cDNAs, designated hsl1 and hsl2, were firstly isolated and characterized from yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. The validated cDNAs encoding for hsl1 and hsl2 were 2739 and 2629bp in length, encoding peptides of 679 and 813 amino acid residues, respectively, and shared 57.7% amino acid identity. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that hsl1 and hsl2 derived from paralogous genes that might have arisen during a teleost-specific genome duplication event. Both hsl mRNAs were expressed in a wide range of tissues, but the abundance of each hsl mRNA showed the tissue- and developmental stage-dependent expression patterns. Intraperitoneal injection in vivo and incubation in vitro of recombinant human leptin (rb-hLEP) stimulated the mRNA expression of hsl2, but not hsl1, in the liver and hepatocytes of P. fulvidraco, respectively, suggesting that two hsl isoforms might serve different roles in lipid metabolism. To our knowledge, for the first time, the present study provides evidence that two hsl mRNAs are differentially expressed with and among tissues during different developmental stages and also differentially regulated by leptin both in vivo and in vitro, which serves to increase our understanding on hsl physiological function in fish.
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Synthesis of gold-cellobiose nanocomposites for colorimetric measurement of cellobiase activity.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Gold-cellobiose nanocomposites (GCNCs) were synthesized by reducing gold salt with a polysaccharide, cellobiose. Here, cellobiose acted as a controller of nucleation or stabilizer in the formation of gold nanoparticles. The obtained GCNCs were characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy; Zetasizer and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometer. Moreover, 6-Mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH) was modified on GCNCs, and the MCH-GCNCs were used to determine the cellobiase activity in compost extracts based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) property of MCH-GCNCs. The degradation of cellobiose on MCH-GCNCs by cellobiase could induce the aggregation, and the SPR absorption wavelength of MCH-GCNCs correspondingly red shifted. Thus, the absorbance ratio of treated MCH-GCNCs (A650/A520) could be used to estimate the cellobiase activity, and the probe exhibited highly sensitive and selective detection of the cellobiase activity with a wide linear from 3.0 to 100.0U L(-1) within 20 min. Meanwhile, a good linear relationship with correlation coefficient of R2=0.9976 was obtained. This approach successfully showed the suitability of gold nanocomposites as a colorimetric sensor for the sensitive and specific enzyme activity detection.
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Kainate receptor activation induces glycine receptor endocytosis through PKC deSUMOylation.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Surface expression and regulated endocytosis of glycine receptors (GlyRs) play a critical function in balancing neuronal excitability. SUMOylation (SUMO modification) is of critical importance for maintaining neuronal function in the central nervous system. Here we show that activation of kainate receptors (KARs) causes GlyR endocytosis in a calcium- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner, leading to reduced GlyR-mediated synaptic activity in cultured spinal cord neurons and the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cord slices. This effect requires SUMO1/sentrin-specific peptidase 1 (SENP1)-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC, indicating that the crosstalk between KARs and GlyRs relies on the SUMOylation status of PKC. SENP1-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC is involved in the kainate-induced GlyR endocytosis and thus plays an important role in the anti-homeostatic regulation between excitatory and inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels. Altogether, we have identified a SUMOylation-dependent regulatory pathway for GlyR endocytosis, which may have important physiological implications for proper neuronal excitability.
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KSbB2O6 and BaSb2B4O12: novel boroantimonates with 3D anionic architectures composed of 1D chains of SbO6 octahedra and B2O5 groups.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Two new boroantimonates, namely, KSbB2O6 and BaSb2B4O12, have been successfully synthesized through high-temperature solid state reactions. Their structures feature two types of novel anionic 3D frameworks composed of 1D chains of corner-sharing SbO6 octahedra that are interconnected by B2O5 groups. The 1D chains of corner-sharing SbO6 octahedra in polar KSbB2O6 (space group Cc) are extended along the c-axis, whereas those in the centrosymmetric BaSb2B4O12 (space group C2/c) are propagated along the [101] direction. The K(+) ions are located at the 1D tunnels of the anionic frameworks along both b- and c-axis, whereas Ba(2+) ions are located at the 1D tunnels of the anionic frameworks along both the a- and c-axis. KSbB2O6 is a polar material that displays weak SHG response, whereas BaSb2B4O12 is centrosymmetric and not SHG active. Studies on their optical properties, thermal stability, and band structure calculations based on DFT methods have been also performed.
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XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln polymorphisms and arsenic methylation capacity are associated with urothelial carcinoma.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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The association between DNA repair gene polymorphisms and bladder cancer has been widely studied. However, few studies have examined the correlation between urothelial carcinoma (UC) and arsenic or its metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine the association between polymorphisms of the DNA repair genes, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln, with urinary arsenic profiles and UC. To this end, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study with 324 UC patients and 647 age- and gender-matched non-cancer controls. Genomic DNA was used to examine the genotype of XRCC1 Arg194Trp, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met, and XPD Lys751Gln by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP). Urinary arsenic profiles were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) linked with hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln and 194 Arg/Trp and Trp/Trp genotypes were significantly related to UC, and the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were 1.68 (1.03-2.75) and 0.66 (0.48-0.90), respectively. Participants with higher total urinary arsenic levels, a higher percentage of inorganic arsenic (InAs%) and a lower percentage of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA%) had a higher OR of UC. Participants carrying XRCC1 risk diplotypes G-C/G-C, A-C/A-C, and A-T/G-T, and who had higher total arsenic levels, higher InAs%, or lower DMA% compared to those with other XRCC1 diplotypes had a higher OR of UC. Our results suggest that the XRCC1 399 Gln/Gln and 194 Arg/Arg DNA repair genes play an important role in poor arsenic methylation capacity, thereby increasing the risk of UC in non-obvious arsenic exposure areas.
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Carbon dot loading and TiO? nanorod length dependence of photoelectrochemical properties in carbon dot/TiO? nanorod array nanocomposites.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Photoelectrochemcial (PEC) properties of TiO2 nanorod arrays (TNRA) have been extensively investigated as they are photostable and cost-effective. However, due to the wide band gap, only the UV part of solar light can be employed by TiO2. To enhance the photoresponse of TNRA in the visible range, carbon dots (C dots) were applied as green sensitizer in this work by investigating the effects of C dot loading and length of TiO2 nanorod on the PEC properties of TNRA/C dot nanocomposites. As the C dot loading increases, the photocurrent density of the nanocomposites was enhanced and reached a maximum when the concentration of the C dots was 0.4 mg/mL. A further increase in the C dot concentration decreased the photocurrent, which might be caused by the surface aggregation of C dots. A compromise existed between charge transport and charge collection as the length of TiO2 nanorod increased. The incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the TNRA/C dot nanocomposites in the visible range was up to 1.2-3.4%. This work can serve as guidance for fabrication of highly efficient photoanode for PEC cells based on C dots.
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The stannylphosphide anion reagent sodium bis(triphenylstannyl) phosphide: synthesis, structural characterization, and reactions with indium, tin, and gold electrophiles.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Treatment of P4 with in situ generated [Na][SnPh3] leads to the formation of the sodium monophosphide [Na][P(SnPh3)2] and the Zintl salt [Na]3[P7]. The former was isolated in 46% yield as the crystalline salt [Na(benzo-15-crown-5)][P(SnPh3)2] and used to prepare the homoleptic phosphine P(SnPh3)3, isolated in 67% yield, as well as the indium derivative (XL)2InP(SnPh3)2 (XL = S(CH2)2NMe2), isolated in 84% yield, and the gold complex (Ph3P)AuP(SnPh3)2. The compounds [Na(benzo-15-crown-5)][P(SnPh3)2], P(SnPh3)3, (XL)2InP(SnPh3)2, and (Ph3P)AuP(SnPh3)2 were characterized using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The bonding in (Ph3P)AuP(SnPh3)2 was dissected using natural bond orbital (NBO) methods, in response to the observation from the X-ray crystal structure that the dative P:?Au bond is slightly shorter than the shared electron-pair P-Au bond. The bonding in (XL)2InP(SnPh3)2 was also interrogated using (31)P and (13)C solid-state NMR and computational methods. Co-product [Na]3[P7] was isolated in 57% yield as the stannyl heptaphosphide P7(SnPh3)3, following salt metathesis with ClSnPh3. Additionally, we report that treatment of P4 with sodium naphthalenide in dimethoxyethane at 22 °C is a convenient and selective method for the independent synthesis of Zintl ion [Na]3[P7]. The latter was isolated as the silylated heptaphosphide P7(SiMe3)3, in 67% yield, or as the stannyl heptaphosphide P7(SnPh3)3 in 65% yield by salt metathesis with ClSiMe3 or ClSnPh3, respectively.
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Association between alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in patients with hypertension: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
Mayo Clin. Proc.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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To conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality (ACM) in relation to alcohol consumption in patients with hypertension, focusing on clarifying dose-response associations.
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Methyl salicylate lactoside inhibits inflammatory response of fibroblast-like synoviocytes and joint destruction in collagen-induced arthritis in mice.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Methyl salicylate 2-O-?-d-lactoside (MSL), whose chemical structure is similar to that of salicylic acid, is a natural product derivative isolated from a traditional Chinese herb. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of MSL in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and explore its underlying mechanism.
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Rapid generation of cell gradients by utilizing solely nanotopographic interactions on a bio-inert glass surface.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The control of cell gradients is critical for understanding many biological systems and realizing the unique functionality of biomimetic implants. Herein, we report a nanotopographic gradient strategy that can rapidly generate cell gradients on a nanodendritic silica substrate without any chemical modification. We can achieve controllable cell gradients within only half an hour of cell incubation solely induced by the topographic effect of the gradient nanodendrites. We also demonstrate that cell gradients can be modulated by the combination of nanotopographic and chemical gradients. The results reveal that the enhanced topographic interactions between the nanodentritic structure and nanoscaled filopodia of the cells mainly contribute to the generation of cell gradients.
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Two new potamid crabs, Yuexipotamon arcophallus new genus, new species and Minutomon shanweiense new genus, new species, (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) from southern China.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Two new Chinese genera and species of freshwater crabs, Yuexipotamon arcophallus, new genus, new species, and Minutomon shanweiense, new genus, new species, are described from Zhaoqing City and Shanwei City, respectively. The former is superficially closest to Huananpotamon Dai & Ng, 1994, while the latter resembles Sinopotamon Bott, 1967, and Mediapotamon Dai, 1995. The two new genera, however, possess distinctive combinations of carapace, third maxilliped, male thoracic sternal and first gonopodal characters that easily distinguish them from other genera. Notes on the general biology of the two new species are also given.
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Effects of copper and cadmium on lipogenic metabolism and metal element composition in the javelin goby (Synechogobius hasta) after single and combined exposure.
Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The present study was performed to determine the effects of single and combined exposure of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on lipogenic metabolism and metal element composition of javelin goby Synechogobius hasta. Two hundred and forty uniform-sized S. hasta (initial mean weight 20.3 ± 0.3 g [mean ± SEM throughout]; initial body length 15.2 ± 0.2 cm) were randomly assigned to 12 fiberglass tanks (water volume 300 l) with 20 fish/tank. The fish were exposed to four treatments with different Cu and Cd concentration for 30 days, respectively: (1) control (without extra Cu and Cd addition), (2) Cu (nominal concentrations of 77 ?g/l), (3) Cd (79 ?g/l), and (4) Cu + Cd (Cu/Cd coexposure). Growth decreased, but hepatosomatic index, viscerosomatic index, and lipid content increased after metal exposure. Staining with Oil Red O and haematoxylin and eosin showed extensive alterations in liver of metals-exposed fish. Metal exposure influenced the accumulation of metal elements (Cu, Cd, iron, zinc, and manganese) in several tissues (muscle, gill, intestine, liver, and spleen) and increased hepatic 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and fatty acid synthase activities. The results of the present study indicated that the changes in lipogenic metabolism and metal element compositions of fish under Cu and Cd coexposure could not be explained by synergism of the addition of the effects observed in singly Cu- or Cd-exposed fish. To our knowledge the present study, for the first time, investigated the effects of Cu and Cd coexposure on hepatic lipogenic metabolism and metal element compositions in a wide range of tissues and organs in fish, which provided new evidence for Cu and Cd interactions in fish.
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Developmental and activity-dependent expression of LanCL1 confers antioxidant activity required for neuronal survival.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases with neuronal activity that accompanies synaptic development and function. Transcription-related factors and metabolic enzymes that are expressed in all tissues have been described to counteract neuronal ROS to prevent oxidative damage. Here, we describe the antioxidant gene LanCL1 that is prominently enriched in brain neurons. Its expression is developmentally regulated and induced by neuronal activity, neurotrophic factors implicated in neuronal plasticity and survival, and oxidative stress. Genetic deletion of LanCL1 causes enhanced accumulation of ROS in brain, as well as development-related lipid, protein, and DNA damage; mitochondrial dysfunction; and apoptotic neurodegeneration. LanCL1 transgene protects neurons from ROS. LanCL1 protein purified from eukaryotic cells catalyzes the formation of thioether products similar to glutathione S-transferase. These studies reveal a neuron-specific glutathione defense mechanism that is essential for neuronal function and survival.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel bis-aromatic amides as novel PTP1B inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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A series of bis-aromatic amides was designed, synthesized, and evaluated as a new class of inhibitors with IC50 values in the micromolar range against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Among them, compound 15 displayed an IC50 value of 2.34±0.08 ?M with 5-fold preference over TCPTP. More importantly, the treatment of CHO/HIR cells with compound 15 resulted in increased phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR), which suggested extensive cellular activity of compound 15. These results provided novel lead compounds for the design of inhibitors of PTP1B as well as other PTPs.
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Pinocembrin improves cognition and protects the neurovascular unit in Alzheimer related deficits.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Amyloid-? (A?) peptides accumulate in the brain and initiate a cascade of pathologic events in Alzheimer's disease. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been implicated to mediate A?-induced perturbations in the neurovascular unit (NVU). We demonstrated that pinocembrin exhibits neuroprotection through inhibition of the A? and/or RAGE pathway, but the therapeutic role and mechanism involved are not ascertained. Here, we report that a 3-month treatment with pinocembrin prevents the cognition decline in APP/PS1 transgenic mice without altering A? burden and oxidative stress. Instead, pinocembrin is effective in conferring neurovascular protection through maintenance of neuropil ultrastructure, reduction of glial activation and levels of inflammatory mediators, preservation of microvascular function, improving the cholinergic system by conserving the ERK-CREB-BDNF pathway, and modulation of RAGE-mediated transduction. Furthermore, in an in vitro model, pinocembrin provides the NVU protection against fibrillar A?????, accompanied by regulation of neurovascular RAGE pathways. Our findings indicate that pinocembrin improves cognition, at least in part, attributable to the NVU protection, and highlights pinocembrin as a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention and/or treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
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Beneficial Effect of Acetic Acid on the Xylose Utilization and Bacterial Cellulose Production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.
Indian J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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In this work, acetic acid was found as one promising substrate to improve xylose utilization by Gluconacetobacter xylinus CH001. Also, with the help of adding acetic acid into medium, the bacterial cellulose (BC) production by G. xylinus was increased significantly. In the medium containing 3 g l(-1) acetic acid, the optimal xylose concentration for BC production was 20 g l(-1). In the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose, the xylose utilization and BC production by G. xylinus were stimulated by acetic acid within certain concentration. The highest BC yield (1.35 ± 0.06 g l(-1)) was obtained in the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose and 3 g l(-1) acetic acid after 14 days. This value was 6.17-fold higher than the yield (0.21 ± 0.01 g l(-1)) in the medium only containing 20 g l(-1) xylose. The results analyzed by FE-SEM, FTIR, and XRD showed that acetic acid affected little on the microscopic morphology and physicochemical characteristics of BC. Base on the phenomenon observed, lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates (xylose and acetic acid are main carbon sources present in it) could be considered as one potential substrate for BC production.
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Explorations of new second-order nonlinear optical materials in the ternary rubidium iodate system: noncentrosymmetric ?-RbIO3(HIO3)2 and centrosymmetric Rb3(IO3)3(I2O5)(HIO3)4(H2O).
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Two new rubidium iodates, namely, ?-RbIO3(HIO3)2 (1, P1) and Rb3(IO3)3(I2O5)(HIO3)4(H2O) (2, P21/c), have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction and their structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 exhibits IO3(-) anions and neutral HIO3 molecules which are interconnected by Rb(+) cations into three-dimensional structure. Compound 2 features a two-dimensional layered structure formed by IO3(-) anions and neutral HIO3 and dimeric I2O5 molecules interconnected by Rb(+) cations. Large bulk crystal of 1 with dimensions of several millimeters has been grown. UV-vis-NIR transmission spectroscopy measurements on a slab of a polished crystal of 1 indicated that the crystal possesses a short-wavelength absorption edge onset at 305 nm. Powder second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements on sieved crystals revealed that 1 is a type I phase-matchable material with an SHG response about 1.5 times that of KH2PO4. The Vickers hardness of crystal of 1 has been measured to be 110 HV, and the laser-induced damage threshold has been confirmed to be 18.26 J/cm(2) with a laser wavelength of 1064 nm and a pulse duration of 10 ns. Moreover, thermal stabilities and vibrational spectra for both 1 and 2 have also been studied.
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Heavy metal-induced glutathione accumulation and its role in heavy metal detoxification in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Phanerochaete chrysosporium are known to be vital hyperaccumulation species for heavy metal removal with admirable intracellular bioaccumulation capacity. This study analyzes the heavy metal-induced glutathione (GSH) accumulation and the regulation at the intracellular heavy metal level in P. chrysosporium. P. chrysosporium accumulated high levels of GSH, accompanied with high intracellular concentrations of Pb and Cd. Pb bioaccumulation lead to a narrow range of fluctuation in GSH accumulation (0.72-0.84 ?mol), while GSH plummeted under Cd exposure at the maximum value of 0.37 ?mol. Good correlations between time-course GSH depletion and Cd bioaccumulation were determined (R (2) > 0.87), while no significant correlations have been found between GSH variation and Pb bioaccumulation (R (2) < 0.38). Significantly, concentration-dependent molar ratios of Pb/GSH ranging from 0.10 to 0.18 were observed, while molar ratios of Cd/GSH were at the scope of 1.53-3.32, confirming the dominant role of GSH in Cd chelation. The study also demonstrated that P. chrysosporium showed considerable hypertolerance to Pb ions, accompanied with demand-driven stimulation in GSH synthesis and unconspicuous generation of reactive oxygen stress. GSH plummeted dramatically response to Cd exposure, due to the strong affinity of GSH to Cd and the involvement of GSH in Cd detoxification mechanism mainly as Cd chelators. Investigations into GSH metabolism and its role in ameliorating metal toxicity can offer important information on the application of the microorganism for wastewater treatment.
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Structural investigation of a neutral extracellular glucan from Lactobacillus reuteri SK24.003.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The structural features of a neutral extracellular glucan derived from Lactobacillus reuteri SK24.003 were investigated. Colonies of the strain SK24.003 exhibited a creamy and slimy morphological appearance on MRS solid medium and were identified as L. reuteri via 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The exopolysaccharide produced from sucrose was composed exclusively of glucose, and the weight-average molecular weight was 4.31 × 10(7)g/mol. The polysaccharide exhibited an ?-(1?4) backbone with an ?-(1?6) branch at every fourth residue, as deduced from both NMR and GC-MS data. The exopolysaccharide acted as a natural steel corrosion inhibitor. The results suggested that a novel ?-glucan produced by L. reuteri SK24.00 could be broadly used in food and material field.
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All-Wales licensed premises intervention (AWLPI): a randomised controlled trial to reduce alcohol-related violence.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Alcohol-related violence in and in the vicinity of licensed premises continues to place a considerable burden on the United Kingdom's (UK) health services. Robust interventions targeted at licensed premises are therefore required to reduce the costs of alcohol-related harm. Previous evaluations of interventions in licensed premises have a number of methodological limitations and none have been conducted in the UK. The aim of the trial was to determine the effectiveness of the Safety Management in Licensed Environments intervention designed to reduce alcohol-related violence in licensed premises, delivered by Environmental Health Officers, under their statutory authority to intervene in cases of violence in the workplace.
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Distinct Epidermal Keratinocytes Respond to Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Differently.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Following an increase in the use of electric appliances that can generate 50 or 60 Hz electromagnetic fields, concerns have intensified regarding the biological effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) on human health. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested the carcinogenic potential of environmental exposure to ELF-EMFs, specifically at 50 or 60 Hz. However, the biological mechanism facilitating the effects of ELF-EMFs remains unclear. Cellular studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the biological effects of ELF-EMFs. The inconsistent results might have been due to diverse cell types. In our previous study, we indicated that 1.5 mT, 60 Hz ELF-EMFs will cause G1 arrest through the activation of the ATM-Chk2-p21 pathway in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether ELF-EMFs cause similar effects in a distinct epidermal keratinocyte, primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK), by using the same ELF-EMF exposure system and experimental design. We observed that ELF-EMFs exerted no effects on cell growth, cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and the activation of ATM signaling pathway in NHEK cells. We demonstrated that the 2 epidermal keratinocytes responded to ELF-EMFs differently. To further validate this finding, we simultaneously exposed the NHEK and HaCaT cells to ELF-EMFs in the same incubator for 168 h and observed the cell growths. The simultaneous exposure of the two cell types results showed that the NHEK and HaCaT cells exhibited distinct responses to ELF-EMFs. Thus, we confirmed that the biological effects of ELF-EMFs in epidermal keratinocytes are cell type specific. Our findings may partially explain the inconsistent results of previous studies when comparing results across various experimental models.
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Local delivery of fluorescent dye for fiber-optics confocal microscopy of the living heart.
Front Physiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Fiber-optics confocal microscopy (FCM) is an emerging imaging technology with various applications in basic research and clinical diagnosis. FCM allows for real-time in situ microscopy of tissue at sub-cellular scale. Recently FCM has been investigated for cardiac imaging, in particular, for discrimination of cardiac tissue during pediatric open-heart surgery. FCM relies on fluorescent dyes. The current clinical approach of dye delivery is based on systemic injection, which is associated with high dye consumption, and adverse clinical events. In this study, we investigated approaches for local dye delivery during FCM imaging based on dye carriers attached to the imaging probe. Using three-dimensional confocal microscopy, automated bench tests, and FCM imaging we quantitatively characterized dye release of carriers composed of open-pore foam only and foam loaded with agarose hydrogel. In addition, we compared local dye delivery with a model of systemic dye delivery in the isolated perfused rodent heart. We measured the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of images acquired in various regions of the heart. Our evaluations showed that foam-agarose dye carriers exhibited a prolonged dye release vs. foam-only carriers. Foam-agarose dye carriers allowed reliable imaging of 5-9 lines, which is comparable to 4-8 min of continuous dye release. Our study in the living heart revealed that the SNR of FCM images using local and systemic dye delivery is not different. However, we observed differences in the imaged tissue microstructure with the two approaches. Structural features characteristic of microvasculature were solely observed for systemic dye delivery. Our findings suggest that local dye delivery approach for FCM imaging constitutes an important alternative to systemic dye delivery. We suggest that the approach for local dye delivery will facilitate clinical translation of FCM, for instance, for FCM imaging during pediatric heart surgery.
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Nuclear-encoded factors associated with the chloroplast transcription machinery of higher plants.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Plastid transcription is crucial for plant growth and development. There exist two types of RNA polymerases in plastids: a nuclear-encoded RNA polymerase (NEP) and plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP). PEP is the major RNA polymerase activity in chloroplast. Its core subunits are encoded by the plastid genome, and these are embedded into a larger complex of nuclear-encoded subunits. Biochemical and genetics analysis identified at least 12 proteins are tightly associated with the core subunit, while about 34 further proteins are associated more loosely generating larger complexes such as the transcriptionally active chromosome (TAC) or a part of the nucleoid. Domain analyses and functional investigations suggested that these nuclear-encoded factors may form several functional modules that mediate regulation of plastid gene expression by light, redox, phosphorylation, and heat stress. Genetic analyses also identified that some nuclear-encoded proteins in the chloroplast that are important for plastid gene expression, although a physical association with the transcriptional machinery is not observed. This covers several PPR proteins including CLB19, PDM1/SEL1, OTP70, and YS1 which are involved in the processing of transcripts for PEP core subunit as well as AtECB2, Prin2, SVR4-Like, and NARA5 that are also important for plastid gene expression, although their functions are unclear.
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Robot-assisted nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma: the Taiwan Robot Urological Surgery Team (TRUST) experience.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To report Taiwan's experience in robot-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (RANU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC).
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Increased risk of acute coronary syndrome among patients with urinary stone disease: a nationwide population-based cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Urinary stones (US) are associated with systemic metabolic and endocrine disorders that share risk factors typically associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
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Orexin-A promotes cell migration in cultured rat astrocytes via Ca2+-dependent PKC? and ERK1/2 signals.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Orexin-A is an important neuropeptide involved in the regulation of feeding, arousal, energy consuming, and reward seeking in the body. The effects of orexin-A have widely studied in neurons but not in astrocytes. Here, we report that OX1R and OX2R are expressed in cultured rat astrocytes. Orexin-A stimulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and then induced the migration of astrocytes via its receptor OX1R but not OX2R. Orexin-A-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and astrocytes migration are Ca2+-dependent, since they could be inhibited by either chelating the extracellular Ca2+ or blocking the pathway of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). Furthermore, both non-selective protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor and PKC? selective inhibitor, but not PKC? inhibitor, prevented the increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and the migration of astrocytes, indicating that the Ca2+-dependent PKC? acts as the downstream of the OX1R activation and mediates the orexin-A-induced increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cell migration. In conclusion, these results suggest that orexin-A can stimulate ERK1/2 phosphorylation and then facilitate the migration of astrocytes via PLC-PKC? signal pathway, providing new knowledge about the functions of the OX1R in astrocytes.
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TCMSP: a database of systems pharmacology for drug discovery from herbal medicines.
J Cheminform
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Modern medicine often clashes with traditional medicine such as Chinese herbal medicine because of the little understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action of the herbs. In an effort to promote integration of both sides and to accelerate the drug discovery from herbal medicines, an efficient systems pharmacology platform that represents ideal information convergence of pharmacochemistry, ADME properties, drug-likeness, drug targets, associated diseases and interaction networks, are urgently needed.
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Porous Fluorine-Doped ?-Fe2O3 Hollow Spheres: Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Their Application in Photocatalysis.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Porous fluorine-doped maghemite(?-Fe2O3) hollow spheres have been prepared by facile route based on solvothermal reaction and sequential calcinations. The composition and morphology of the as-prepared samples were characterized by various techniques. The SEM and TEM results showed that the as-synthesized products exhibited a spherical morphology with porous hollow structures. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectra display that the optical performance of ?-Fe2O3 products are related to their structure and the fluorine concentrations. The porous hollow structured fluorine-doped ?-Fe2O3 spheres exhibit ferromagnetic properties with relatively high saturation magnetization at room temperature. According to the experimental results, a formation mechanism of the fluorine-doped ?-Fe2O3 hollow spheres has been presented. Under UV light irradiation, the photocatalytic degradation activities of the as-synthesized fluorine-doped ?-Fe2O3 samples for RhB dye were 2-5 times higher than that of the undoped sample. The prepared fluorine-doped ?-Fe2O3 hollow spheres will also aroused great interest for their application in catalysis, separation technology, sensors, nanotechnology, and biomedical fields.
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PP1? functionally augments the alternative splicing of CaMKII? through interacting with ASF.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ? (CaMKII?) are up-regulated in heart disorders. Alterative splicing factor (ASF), a major splice factor for CaMKII? splicing, can be regulated by both protein kinase and phosphatase. Here we determine the role of PP1 isoforms in ASF-mediated splicing of CaMKII? in cells. We found that (1) PP1?, but not ? or ? isoform, enhanced the splicing of CaMKII? in HEK293T cells; (2) PP1? promoted the function of ASF, evidenced by the existence of ASF-PP1? association as well as the PP1? overexpression- or silencing-mediated change in CaMKII? splicing in ASF-transfected HEK293T cells; (3) CaMKII? splicing was promoted by overexpression of PP1? and impaired by application of PP1 inhibitor 1 (I1PP1) or pharmacological inhibitor tautomycetin in primary cardiomyocytes; (4) CaMKII? splicing and enhancement of ASF-PP1? association induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion (OGD/R) were potentiated by overexpression of PP1? and suppressed by inhibition of PP1? with I1PP1 or tautomycetin in primary cardiomyocytes; (5) Functionally, overexpression and inhibition of PP1? respectively potentiated or suppressed the apoptosis and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which were associated with the enhanced activity of CaMKII in OGD/R-stimulated cardiomyocytes; (6) CaMKII was required for the OGD/R induced- and PP1? exacerbated-apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, evidenced by a specific inhibitor of CaMKII KN93, but not its structural analog KN92, attenuating the apoptosis and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in OGD/R and PP1?-treated cells. In conclusion, our results show that PP1? promotes the alternative splicing of CaMKII? through its interacting with ASF, exacerbating OGD/R-triggered apoptosis in primary cardiomyocytes.
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Enhancement of photoacoustic tomography by ultrasonic computed tomography based on optical excitation of elements of a full-ring transducer array.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is a hybrid technique that combines optical excitation and ultrasonic detection to provide high-resolution images in deep tissues. In the image reconstruction, a constant speed of sound (SOS) is normally assumed. This assumption, however, is often not strictly satisfied in deep tissue imaging, due to acoustic heterogeneities within the object and between the object and the coupling medium. If these heterogeneities are not accounted for, they will cause distortions and artifacts in the reconstructed images. In this Letter, we incorporated ultrasonic computed tomography (USCT), which measures the SOS distribution within the object, into our full-ring array PACT system. Without the need for ultrasonic transmitting electronics, USCT was performed using the same laser beam as for PACT measurement. By scanning the laser beam on the array surface, we can sequentially fire different elements. As a first demonstration of the system, we studied the effect of acoustic heterogeneities on photoacoustic vascular imaging. We verified that constant SOS is a reasonable approximation when the SOS variation is small. When the variation is large, distortion will be observed in the periphery of the object, especially in the tangential direction.
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Artemisinin rewires the protein interaction network in cancer cells: network analysis, pathway identification, and target prediction.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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Artemisinin and related compounds (artemisinins), as a frontline treatment for malaria, have been used to save millions of lives. Their potential application in cancer treatment is promising. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms of action of artemisinins are still controversial. In particular, the system-level influence of artemisinins on protein interactions and regulatory networks remains unknown, limiting progress in development of this class of compounds as anticancer drugs. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of action of artemisinins in cancer therapy through an analysis based on biological networks. According to experimental evidence from more than 400 literature studies, 558 key proteins were derived and the artemisinins-rewired protein interaction network was constructed. Topological properties were analyzed to show that the protein network was a scale-free biological system. And the modularity analysis and pathway identification were performed. Five key pathways including PI3K-Akt, T cell receptor, Toll-like receptor, TGF-beta and insulin signaling pathways were involved in artemisinins-mediated anticancer effects; their identification was confirmed by microarray data. Based on these results, predictions were made about the targets of artemisinins in various pathways. These results provide a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of artemisinins and will contribute to the development and application of this class of compounds in cancer treatment.
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Explorations of a series of second order nonlinear optical materials based on monovalent metal gold(III) iodates.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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The syntheses, crystal structures, and characterizations of a series of monovalent metal gold(III) iodates, namely, ?-NaAu(IO3)4, ?-NaAu(IO3)4, RbAu(IO3)4, ?-CsAu(IO3)4, ?-CsAu(IO3)4, and AgAu(IO3)4 are reported. Their structures feature Au(IO3)4(-) anions that are separated by alkali metal ions or silver(I) ions. The Au(IO3)4(-) anions in the polar ?-NaAu(IO3)4, RbAu(IO3)4, and ?-CsAu(IO3)4 are polar with all four iodate groups being located only above (or below) the AuO4 square plane (cis- configuration). ?-NaAu(IO3)4, RbAu(IO3)4, and ?-CsAu(IO3)4 display moderate strong Second-Hamonic Generation (SHG) responses of 1.17 ×, 1.33 ×, and 1.17 × KTP (KTiOPO4), respectively, and all three materials are type-I phase-matchable. The Au(IO3)4(-) anions in centrysymmetric ?-NaAu(IO3)4, ?-CsAu(IO3)4, and AgAu(IO3)4 are nonpolar with the four iodate groups of the Au(IO3)4(-) anion being located both above and below the AuO4 square plane (trans- configuration). IR and UV spectra, luminescent and ferroelectric properties have also been measured. Theoretical calculations of their optical properties based on density functional theory (DFT) methods were performed by using the CASTEP total-energy code.
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AtECB1/MRL7, a Thioredoxin-Like Fold Protein with Disulfide Reductase Activity, Regulates Chloroplast Gene Expression and Chloroplast Biogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) is closely associated with numerous factors to form PEP complex for plastid gene expression and chloroplast development. However, it is not clear how PEP complex are regulated in chloroplast. Here, one thioredoxin-like fold protein, Arabidopsis early chloroplast biogenesis 1 (AtECB1), an allele of MRL7, was identified to regulate PEP function and chloroplast biogenesis. The knockout lines for AtECB1 displayed albino phenotype and impaired chloroplast development. The transcripts of PEP-dependent plastid genes were barely detected, suggesting that the PEP activity is almost lost in atecb1-1. Although AtECB1 was not identified in PEP complex, a yeast two-hybrid assay and pull-down experiments demonstrated that it can interact with Trx Z and FSD3, two intrinsic subunits of PEP complex, respectively. This indicates that AtECB1 may play a regulatory role for PEP-dependent plastid gene expression through these two subunits. AtECB1 contains a ??????? structure in the thioredoxin-like fold domain and lacks the typical C-X-X-C active site motif. Insulin assay demonstrated that AtECB1 harbors disulfide reductase activity in vitro using the purified recombinant AtECB1 protein. This showed that this thioredoxin-like fold protein, AtECB1 also has the thioredoxin activity. AtECB1 may play a role in thioredoxin signaling to regulate plastid gene expression and chloroplast development.
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Angiogenesis inhibitor therapies for advanced renal cell carcinoma: Toxicity and treatment patterns in clinical practice from a global medical chart review.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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The aim of this study was to assess the treatment patterns and safety of sunitinib, sorafenib and bevacizumab in real-world clinical settings in US, Europe and Asia. Medical records were abstracted at 18 community oncology clinics in the US and at 21 tertiary oncology centers in US, Europe and Asia for 883 patients ?18 years who had histologically/cytologically confirmed diagnosis of advanced RCC and received sunitinib (n=631), sorafenib (n=207) or bevacizumab (n=45) as first?line treatment. No prior treatment was permitted. Data were collected on all adverse events (AEs) and treatment modifications, including discontinuation, interruption and dose reduction. Treatment duration was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Demographics were similar across treatment groups and regions. Median treatment duration ranged from 6.1 to 10.7 months, 5.1 to 8.5 months and 7.5 to 9.8 months for sunitinib, sorafenib and bevacizumab patients, respectively. Grade 3/4 AEs were experienced by 26.0, 28.0 and 15.6% of sunitinib, sorafenib and bevacizumab patients, respectively. Treatment discontinuations occurred in 62.4 (Asia) to 63.1% (US) sunitinib, 68.8 (Asia) to 90.0% (Europe) sorafenib, and 66.7 (Asia) to 81.8% (US) bevacizumab patients. Globally, treatment modifications due to AEs occurred in 55.1, 54.2 and 50.0% sunitinib, sorafenib and bevacizumab patients, respectively. This study in a large, global cohort of advanced RCC patients found that angiogenesis inhibitors are associated with high rates of AEs and treatment modifications. Findings suggest an unmet need for more tolerable agents for RCC treatment.
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Bioconversion of Corncob Acid Hydrolysate into Microbial Oil by the Oleaginous Yeast Lipomyces starkeyi.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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For the first time, corncob acid hydrolysate was used for microbial oil production by the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi. After hydrolysis by dilute sulfuric acid, corncob could turn into an acid hydrolysate with a sugar concentration of about 42.3 g/L. Detoxified by overliming and absorption with activated carbon, the corncob hydrolysate could be used by L. starkeyi efficiently that a total biomass of 17.2 g/L with a lipid content of 47.0 % (corresponding to a lipid yield of 8.1 g/L) and a lipid coefficient of 20.9 could be obtained after cultivation on the corncob hydrolysate for 8 days. Therefore, L. starkeyi is a promising strain for microbial oil production from lignocellulosic biomass. Glucose and xylose were used by L. starkeyi simultaneously during lipid fermentation while arabinose could not be utilized by it. Besides, the lipid composition of L. starkeyi was similar to that of vegetable oils; thus, it is a promising feedstock for biodiesel production.
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Polyacrylamide hybrid nanogels for targeted cancer chemotherapy via co-delivery of gold nanoparticles and MTX.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Cancer-targeting gold/polyacrylamide (Au-PAm) hybrid nanogels were successfully synthesized via water/oil microemulsion polymerization followed by in situ reduction of gold and chemical modification with methotrexate (MTX). The Au nanoparticles range from ~3 to 7 nm and the loading in the hydrogel can be easily controlled. Dynamic light scattering results showed that the hydrodynamic size distribution of these hybrid nanogels is similar to that of blank PAm nanogels (average diameter of ~30 nm), indicating that the Au nanoparticles were mostly incorporated into/onto the nanogels. MTX was used as both a targeting ligand and an anti-cancer drug for chemotherapy. The MTX-functionalized Au-PAm hybrid nanogels (Au-PAm-MTX) at a dosage of 0.5 mg/ml or higher can kill KB cells with high efficacy and suppress recovery of the cancer cells. On the other hand, the viability of macrophages showed no obvious decrease after incubation with Au-PAm-MTX, indicating that such materials are not likely to initiate immune responses in the physiological environment and their circulation life time will be prolonged. Hence, such hybrid nanogels can potentially enable safe and effective cancer chemotherapy via targeted co-delivery of cytotoxic Au NPs and MTX in a single carrier to KB cells while avoiding the macrophages.
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Association between myeloperoxidase G-463A polymorphism and lung cancer risk.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Many epidemiologic studies have investigated the association between myeloperoxidase (MPO) G-463A polymorphism and lung cancer risk, but the results were controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of 25 studies on MPO polymorphism and lung cancer risk published before July 2013. The allele of A was found to be associated with decreased risk of lung cancer compared with G allele (OR, 0.90; 95 % CI, 0.82-0.98) in the general population. The significant association remained in the comparison between AA?+?AG and GG (OR, 0.92; 95 % CI, 0.87-0.98). When it was stratified according to Asian population, the association between MPO polymorphism and lung cancer risk was further strengthened. However, no associations were found in the Caucasian population. This meta-analysis has demonstrated that MPO polymorphism might contribute to individuals susceptibility to lung cancer in Asian population. Caucasian authors could re-investigate the association between MPO polymorphism and lung cancer risk with more specific participants. Future studies focusing on interactions between combined genes and environmental risk factors are warranted.
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Enrichment of prostate cancer cells from blood cells with a hybrid dielectrophoresis and immunocapture microfluidic system.
Biomed Microdevices
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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The isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from cancer patient blood is a technical challenge that is often addressed by microfluidic approaches. Two of the most prominent techniques for rare cancer cell separation, immunocapture and dielectrophoresis (DEP), are currently limited by a performance tradeoff between high efficiency and high purity. The development of a platform capable of these two performance criteria can potentially be facilitated by incorporating both DEP and immunocapture. We present a hybrid DEP-immunocapture system to characterize how DEP controls the shear-dependent capture of a prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP, and the nonspecific adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Characterization of cell adhesion with and without DEP effects was performed in a Hele-Shaw flow cell that was functionalized with the prostate-specific monoclonal antibody, J591. In this model system designed to make nonspecific PBMC adhesion readily apparent, we demonstrate LNCaP enrichment from PBMCs by precisely tuning the applied AC electric field frequency to enhance immunocapture of LNCaPs and reduce nonspecific adhesion of PBMCs with positive and negative DEP, respectively. Our work shows that DEP and immunocapture techniques can work synergistically to improve cancer cell capture performance, and it informs the design of future hybrid DEP-immunocapture systems with improved CTC capture performance to facilitate research on cancer metastasis and drug therapies.
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Identification of nodal tissue in the living heart using rapid scanning fiber-optics confocal microscopy and extracellular fluorophores.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Risks associated with pediatric reconstructive heart surgery include injury of the sinoatrial node (SAN) and atrioventricular node (AVN), requiring cardiac rhythm management using implantable pacemakers. These injuries are the result of difficulties in identifying nodal tissues intraoperatively. Here we describe an approach based on confocal microscopy and extracellular fluorophores to quantify tissue microstructure and identify nodal tissue.
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Underwater-Transparent Nanodendritic Coatings for Directly Monitoring Cancer Cells.
Adv Healthc Mater
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Underwater-transparent nanodendritic coatings are easily fabricated by a three-step template process. After modification with anti-EpCAM, the coatings exhibit the capability for efficiently capturing rare number of cancer cells from whole blood. On the other hand, the unique underwater transparency enables the coatings to directly monitor captured cancer cells by optical imaging.
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Systems pharmacology in drug discovery and therapeutic insight for herbal medicines.
Brief. Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Systems pharmacology is an emerging field that integrates systems biology and pharmacology to advance the process of drug discovery, development and the understanding of therapeutic mechanisms. The aim of the present work is to highlight the role that the systems pharmacology plays across the traditional herbal medicines discipline, which is exemplified by a case study of botanical drugs applied in the treatment of depression. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and clinical knowledge, we propose a large-scale statistical analysis to evaluate the efficiency of herbs used in traditional medicines. Second, we focus on the exploration of the active ingredients and targets by carrying out complex structure-, omics- and network-based systematic investigations. Third, specific informatics methods are developed to infer drug-disease connections, with purpose to understand how drugs work on the specific targets and pathways. Finally, we propose a new systems pharmacology method, which is further applied to an integrated platform (Herbal medicine Systems Pharmacology) of blended herbal medicine and omics data sets, allowing for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of herbal medicines and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for complex human diseases.
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Characterization of a hybrid dielectrophoresis and immunocapture microfluidic system for cancer cell capture.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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The capture of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from cancer patient blood enables early clinical assessment as well as genetic and pharmacological evaluation of cancer and metastasis. Although there have been many microfluidic immunocapture and electrokinetic techniques developed for isolating rare cancer cells, these techniques are often limited by a capture performance tradeoff between high efficiency and high purity. We present the characterization of shear-dependent cancer cell capture in a novel hybrid DEP-immunocapture system consisting of interdigitated electrodes fabricated in a Hele-Shaw flow cell that was functionalized with a monoclonal antibody, J591, which is highly specific to prostate-specific membrane antigen expressing prostate cancer cells. We measured the positive and negative DEP response of a prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP, as a function of applied electric field frequency, and showed that DEP can control capture performance by promoting or preventing cell interactions with immunocapture surfaces, depending on the sign and magnitude of the applied DEP force, as well as on the local shear stress experienced by cells flowing in the device. This work demonstrates that DEP and immunocapture techniques can work synergistically to improve cell capture performance, and it will aid in the design of future hybrid DEP-immunocapture systems for high-efficiency CTC capture with enhanced purity.
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TSG (2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-beta-D-glucoside) suppresses induction of pro-inflammatory factors by attenuating the binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB in microglia.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Induction of pro-inflammatory factors is one of the characteristics of microglia activation and can be regulated by numerous active components of Chinese traditional herbs. Suppression of pro-inflammatory factors is beneficial to alleviate microglia-mediated cell injury. The present study aims to investigate the effect and possible mechanism of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-beta-D-glucoside (TSG) on LPS-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory factors in microglia.
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