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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Exploiting the narrow gap of rearrangement between the substituents in the vicinal disubstitution reactions of diaryliodonium salts with pyridine N-sulfonamidates.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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The vicinal disubstitution reactions of diaryliodonium salts with pyridine N-sulfonamidates to give o-pyridinium anilines were fully examined. A reaction pathway of N-arylation occurring at the amidate group followed by a radical rearrangement is proposed. The electronic effects of various substituents in this radical rearrangement were investigated.
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Caveolin modulates integrin function and mechanical activation in the cardiomyocyte.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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?1 integrins (?1) transduce mechanical signals in many cells, including cardiac myocytes (CM). Given their close localization, as well as their role in mechanotransduction and signaling, we hypothesized that caveolin (Cav) proteins might regulate integrins in the CM. ?1 localization, complex formation, activation state, and signaling were analyzed using wild-type, Cav3 knockout, and Cav3 CM-specific transgenic heart and myocyte samples. Studies were performed under basal and mechanically loaded conditions. We found that: 1) ?1 and Cav3 colocalize in CM and coimmunoprecipitate from CM protein lysates; 2) ?1 is detected in a subset of caveolae; 3) loss of Cav3 caused reduction of ?1D integrin isoform and active ?1 integrin from the buoyant domains in the heart; 4) increased expression of myocyte Cav3 correlates with increased active ?1 integrin in adult CM; 5) in vivo pressure overload of the wild-type heart results in increased activated integrin in buoyant membrane domains along with increased association between active integrin and Cav3; and 6) Cav3-deficient myocytes have perturbed basal and stretch mediated signaling responses. Thus, Cav3 protein can modify integrin function and mechanotransduction in the CM and intact heart.-Israeli-Rosenberg, S., Chen, C., Li, R., Deussen, D. N., Niesman, I. R., Okada, H., Patel, H. H., Roth, D. M., Ross, R. S. Caveolin modulates integrin function and mechanical activation in the cardiomyocyte.
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Optree: a learning-based adaptive watershed algorithm for neuron segmentation.
Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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We present a new algorithm for automatic and interactive segmentation of neuron structures from electron microscopy (EM) images. Our method selects a collection of nodes from the watershed mergng tree as the proposed segmentation. This is achieved by building a onditional random field (CRF) whose underlying graph is the merging tree. The maximum a posteriori (MAP) prediction of the CRF is the output segmentation. Our algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art methods. Both the inference and the training are very efficient as the graph is tree-structured. Furthermore, we develop an interactive segmentation framework which selects uncertain regions for a user to proofread. The uncertainty is measured by the marginals of the graphical model. Based on user corrections, our framework modifies the merging tree and thus improves the segmentation globally.
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[Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients' perioperative and long-term oxygenation status after uvulopalatopharyngealplasty].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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To explore the perioperative and long-term oxygenation status after uvulopalatopharyngealplasty (UPPP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and evaluate the predictive performance of STOP-BANG questionnaire and modified Epworth sleepiness scale (mESS) scales.
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Systematic Proteomic Approach to Characterize the Impacts of Chemical Interactions on Protein and Cytotoxicity Responses to Metal Mixture Exposures.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Chemical interactions have posed a big challenge in toxicity characterization and human health risk assessment of environmental mixtures. To characterize the impacts of chemical interactions on protein and cytotoxicity responses to environmental mixtures, we established a systems biology approach integrating proteomics, bioinformatics, statistics, and computational toxicology to measure expression or phosphorylation levels of 21 critical toxicity pathway regulators and 445 downstream proteins in human BEAS-2B cells treated with 4 concentrations of nickel, 2 concentrations each of cadmium and chromium, as well as 12 defined binary and 8 defined ternary mixtures of these metals in vitro. Multivariate statistical analysis and mathematical modeling of the metal-mediated proteomic response patterns showed a high correlation between changes in protein expression or phosphorylation and cellular toxic responses to both individual metals and metal mixtures. Of the identified correlated proteins, only a small set of proteins including HIF-1? is likely to be responsible for selective cytotoxic responses to different metals and metals mixtures. Furthermore, support vector machine learning was utilized to computationally predict protein responses to uncharacterized metal mixtures using experimentally generated protein response profiles corresponding to known metal mixtures. This study provides a novel proteomic approach for characterization and prediction of toxicities of metal and other chemical mixtures.
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Promoting siRNA delivery via enhanced cellular uptake using an arginine-decorated amphiphilic dendrimer.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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RNA interference (RNAi) with small interfering RNA (siRNA) is expected to offer an attractive means to specifically and efficiently silence disease-associated genes for treating various diseases provided that safe and efficient delivery systems are available. In this study, we have established an arginine-decorated amphiphilic dendrimer composed of a hydrophobic alkyl chain and a hydrophilic PAMAM dendron bearing arginine terminals as nonviral vector for siRNA delivery. Indeed, this dendrimer proved to be very effective at delivering siRNAs in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells and in human hematopoietic CD34+ stem cells, leading to improved gene silencing compared to the corresponding nonarginine decorated dendrimer. Further investigation confirmed that this dendrimer was granted with the capacity to form stable nanoparticles with siRNA and significantly enhance cellular uptake of siRNA. In addition, this dendrimer revealed no discernible cytotoxicity. All these findings demonstrate that decoration of the dendrimer surface with arginine residues is indeed a useful strategy to improve the delivery ability of dendrimers.
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Treatment of the Secondary Defect on the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Using the Medial Plantar Hallucal Artery Dorsal Perforator Flap.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Injuries or burns to the dorsum of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint may develop scar formation, resulting in hyperextension contracture. Surgical correction of the deformity often produces a secondary defect. The purpose of this study is to report on the use of the medial plantar hallucal artery dorsal perforator flap for the treatment of such defect. From February 2010 to June 2011, 16 patients were treated. The mean preoperative hyperextension of the first MTP joint was 48 degrees. The mean size of the defects was 3.6 × 6 cm. The mean flap size was 4 × 6.5 cm. The mean pedicle length was 4 cm. All flaps survived completely. Patient follow-up lasted a mean of 14 months. At the final follow-up, the mean hyperextension of the first MTP joint was 9 degrees. After surgery, the mean Foot Function Index improved from 62 to 7. Almost all patients were satisfied with the results. Transferring the medial plantar hallucal artery dorsal perforator flap is a useful and reliable technique for the reconstruction of the secondary defect on the first MTP joint.
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A recombinant HCV envelope glycoprotein vaccine elicits antibodies targeting multiple epitopes on the envelope glycoproteins associated with broad cross-neutralization.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Although effective Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) antivirals are on the horizon, a global prophylactic vaccine for HCV remains elusive. The diversity of the virus is a major concern for vaccine development; there are 7 major genotypes of HCV found globally. Therefore, a successful vaccine will need to protect against HCV infection of all genotypes. Despite the diversity, many monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with broadly cross-neutralizing activity have been described suggesting the presence of conserved epitopes that can be targeted to prevent infection. Similarly, a vaccine comprising recombinant envelope glycoproteins (rE1E2) derived from the genotype 1a HCV-1 strain has been shown to be capable of eliciting cross-neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs, chimpanzees, and healthy human volunteers. In order to investigate the basis for this cross-neutralization, epitope mapping of anti-E1E2 antibodies present within antisera from goats and humans immunized with HCV-1 rE1E2 was conducted through peptide mapping and competition studies with a panel of cross-neutralizing mAbs targeting various epitopes within E1E2. The immunized goat antisera was shown to compete with the binding of all mAbs tested (AP33, HC33.4, HC84.26, 1:7, AR3B, AR4A, AR5A, IGH526, A4). Antisera showed the best competition against HC84.26/AR3B and the weakest competition against AR4A. Furthermore, antisera from five immunized human vaccinees were shown to compete with five pre-selected mAbs (AP33, AR3B, AR4A, AR5A, IGH526). These data show that immunization with HCV-1 rE1E2 elicits antibodies targeting multiple cross-neutralizing epitopes. Our results further support the use of such a vaccine antigen to induce cross-genotype neutralization.
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Realization of the meminductor.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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The meminductor was proposed to be a fundamental circuit memdevice parallel with the memristor, linking magnetic flux and current. However, a clear material model or experimental realization of a meminductor has been challenging. Here we demonstrate pinched hysteretic magnetic flux-current signals at room temperature based on the spin Hall magnetoresistance effect in several-nanometer-thick thin films, exhibiting the nonvolatile memorizing property and magnetic energy storage ability of the meminductor. Similar to the parameters of the capacitor, resistor, and inductor, meminductance, LM, is introduced to characterize the capability of the prepared meminductor. Our findings present an indispensable element of memdevices and open an avenue for nanoscale meminductor design and manufacture, which might contribute to low-power electronic circuits, information storage, and artificial intelligence.
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Two birds with one stone: dendrimer surface engineering enables tunable periphery hydrophobicity and rapid endosomal escape.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Multifunctional thermosensitive dendrimeric nanocarriers were generated via tailored surface modification. Such design not only facilitated the rapid endosomal escape of dendrimers, but also achieved tunable surface hydrophobicity, which could be employed to achieve on-demand cargo release. These smart dendrimers are promising for enhancing intracellular drug delivery.
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Genetic polymorphisms of VIP variants in the Tajik ethnic group of northwest China.
BMC Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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BackgroundIndividual response to medications varies significantly among different populations, and great progress in understanding the molecular basis of drug action has been made in the past 50 years. The field of pharmacogenomics seeks to elucidate inherited differences in drug disposition and effects. While we know that different populations and ethnic groups are genetically heterogeneous, we have not found any pharmacogenomics information regarding minority groups, such as the Tajik ethnic group in northwest China.ResultsWe genotyped 85 Very Important Pharmacogene (VIP) variants selected from PharmGKB in 100 unrelated, healthy Tajiks from the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and compared our data with HapMap data from four major populations around the world: Han Chinese (CHB), Japanese in Tokyo (JPT), Utah Residents with Northern and Western European Ancestry (CEU), and Yorubia in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI). We found that Tajiks differed from CHB, JPT and YRI in 30, 32, and 32 of the selected VIP genotypes respectively (p¿<¿0.005), while differences between Tajiks and CEU were found in only 6 of the genotypes (p¿<¿0.005). Haplotype analysis also demonstrated differences between the Tajiks and the other four populations.ConclusionOur results contribute to the pharmacogenomics database of the Tajik ethnic group and provide a theoretical basis for safer drug administration that may be useful for diagnosing and treating disease in this population.
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Polymorphisms in the TERT gene are associated with lung cancer risk in the Chinese Han population.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate among cancers; however, its nosogenesis is still unclear. Genome-wide association studies have shown that the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene, located in the chromosome 5p15.33 region, is one of the genes associated with the risk of lung cancer. In this case-control study, we genotyped 11 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the TERT gene to evaluate their association with lung cancer risk in the Han Chinese population. Two tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found to be associated with lung cancer risk on using the ?2-test: rs4246742 [odds ratio (OR)=0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-0.98; P=0.03] and rs2853672 (OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.01-1.57; P=0.045). By using SNPStats software we also found rs2242652 (OR=1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.13; P=0.04) in the dominant model and rs2736098 (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.06-1.80; P=0.017), rs2853672 (OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.11-1.80; P=0.0048), and rs4246742 (OR=0.75, 95% CI 0.58-0.97; P=0.029) in the log-additive model. 'T/C-T/T' of rs10069690 conferred an increased risk for male sex in the dominant model (OR=1.80, 95% CI, 1.05-3.08; P=0.03) and 'TC' increased risk for male sex in the overdominant model (OR=1.85, 95% CI, 1.08-3.17; P=0.031). Our findings, combined with previous studies, suggest that polymorphisms in the TERT gene contribute to the risk for lung cancer in the Chinese Han population.
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[Study on prediction of compound-target-disease network of chuanxiong rhizoma based on random forest algorithm].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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To collect small molecule drugs and their drug target data such as enzymes, ion channels, G-protein-coupled receptors and nuclear receptors from KEGG database as the training sets, in order to establish drug-target interaction models based on the random forest algorithm. The accuracies of the models were evaluated by the 10-fold cross-validation test, showing that the predicted success rates of the four drug target models were 71.34%, 67.08%, 73.17% and 67.83%, respectively. The models were adopted to predict the targets of 26 chemical components and establish the compound-target-disease network. The results were well verified by literatures. The models established in this paper are highly accurate, and can be used to discover potential targets in other traditional Chinese medicine ingredients.
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Ghrelin and obestatin plasma levels and ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene polymorphisms in small for gestational age infants.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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To investigate plasma ghrelin and obestatin levels, and ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene polymorphisms, in sequentially enrolled small for gestational age (SGA) infants.
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Toll-Like Receptor 4 Polymorphisms in Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections of Han Chinese Neonates.
Am J Perinatol
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Background?Human toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important receptor in innate immunity, particularly against gram-negative bacterial infection (GNBI). In our study, we evaluated associations of TLR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with GNBI in Han Chinese neonates. Patients and Methods?Polymorphisms in TLR4 were genotyped in 201 neonates with GNBI and 279 gestational age and birth weight-matched controls without GNBI. Polymorphism analyses were applied to allele frequencies of the detected TLR4 SNPs and their associations with various clinical entities, including premature birth and GNBI were assessed. Results?A total of six SNPs with more than 5% frequency were found in several promoter sequences, including rs10759931, rs2737190, rs10116253, rs10983755, rs1927914, and rs10759932. Mutation allele frequencies ranged from 23 to 41%. There were no SNPs with a frequency greater than 5% in exon analyses. Allele G rs2737190 mutations and GGCGGC haplotypes were more frequent among preterm GNBI neonates (odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.71 and OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.19-3.00, respectively). No specific alleles or haplotypes were associated with GNBI status among term neonates. Conclusion?In this study population of Han Chinese, there was a significant association between an ethnical unique SNP in the TLR4 promoter region and preterm neonatal GNBIs.
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Diapause induction and termination in the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) enters the photoperiodic induction of diapause as 3rd or 4th instar nymphs. The photoperiodic response curves in this planthopper showed a typical long-day response type with a critical daylength of approximately 11 h at 25 °C, 12 h at 22 and 20 °C and 12.5 h at 18 °C, and diapause induction was almost abrogated at 28 °C. The third stage was the most sensitive stage to photoperiod. The photoperiodic response curve at 20 °C showed a gradual decline in diapause incidence in ultra-long nights, and continuous darkness resulted in 100% development. The required number of days for a 50% response was distinctly different between the short- and long-night cycles, showing that the effect of one short night was equivalent to the effect of three long nights at 18 °C. The rearing day length of 12 h evoked a weaker intensity of diapause than did 10 and 11 h. The duration of diapause was significantly longer under the short daylength of 11 h than it was under the long daylength of 15 h. The optimal temperature for diapause termination was 26 and 28 °C. Chilling at 5 °C for different times did not shorten the duration of diapause but significantly lengthened it when chilling period was included. In autumn, 50% of the nymphs that hatched from late September to mid-October entered diapause in response to temperatures below 20 °C. The critical daylength in the field was between 12 h 10 min and 12 h 32 min (including twilight), which was nearly identical to the critical daylength of 12.5 h at 18 °C. In spring, overwintering nymphs began to emerge in early March-late March when the mean daily temperature rose to 10 °C or higher.
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Revisiting the NMR solution structure of the Cel48S type-I dockerin module from Clostridium thermocellum reveals a cohesin-primed conformation.
J. Struct. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Dockerin modules of the cellulosomal enzyme subunits play an important role in the assembly of the cellulosome by binding tenaciously to cohesin modules of the scaffoldin subunit. A previously reported NMR-derived solution structure of the type-I dockerin module from Cel48S of Clostridium thermocellum, which utilized two-dimensional homonuclear (1)H-(1)H NOESY and three-dimensional (15)N-edited NOESY distance restraints, displayed substantial conformational differences from subsequent structures of dockerin modules in complex with their cognate cohesin modules, raising the question whether the source of the observed differences resulted from cohesin-induced structural rearrangements. Here, we determined the solution structure of the Cel48S type-I dockerin based on (15)N- and (13)C-edited NOESY-derived distance restraints. The structure adopted a fold similar to X-ray crystal structures of dockerin modules in complex with their cohesin partners. A unique cis-peptide bond between Leu-65 and Pro-66 in the Cel48S type-I dockerin module was also identified in the present structure. Our structural analysis of the Cel48S type-I dockerin module indicates that it does not undergo appreciable cohesin-induced structural alterations but rather assumes an inherent calcium-dependent cohesin-primed conformation.
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Bilirubin nomograms for identification of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in healthy term and late-preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
World J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Hyperbilirubinemia occurs in most healthy term and late-preterm infants, and must be monitored to identify those who might develop severe hyperbilirubinemia. Total serum bilirubin (TSB) or transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) nomograms have been developed and validated to identify neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. This study aimed to review previously published studies and compare the TcB nomograms with the TSB nomogram, and to determine if the former has the same predictive value for significant hyperbilirubinemia as TSB nomogram does.
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Two coordination polymers constructed from a multidentate carboxylic acid ligand with a tertiary amine serve as acid-base catalysts for the synthesis of chloropropene carbonate from CO2 under atmospheric pressure.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Two new coordination polymers, [Ni(H2O)(Hpdcd)(H2O)2]·DMF (1) and [Co(H2O)(Hpdcd)(H2O)2]·DMF (2) (H3pdcd = 1-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,5-dimethyl, 1H-pyrrole-3,4-dicarboxylic acid), which were designed based on a tertiary amine ligand, were synthesized and characterized using multiple spectroscopy techniques, including single-crystal X-ray diffraction. These two 1D linear chains possess the properties of both a Lewis acid and organic base, which was confirmed by temperature programmed desorption of ammonia and on-line mass spectrometry (NH3-TPD-MS), and selective sorption for carbon dioxide. Due to their acid-base properties, the compounds exhibited high catalytic activity, in the absence of co-catalysts, for solvent-free synthesis of chloropropene carbonate from CO2 and epichlorohydrin under atmospheric CO2 pressure. The yields of chloropropene carbonate were 88% and 87% for 1 and 2, respectively, under the optimized conditions.
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Efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of inulin to 2,3-butanediol by thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is an important starting material for the manufacture of bulk chemicals. For efficient and large-scale production of 2,3-BD through fermentation, low-cost substrates are required. One such substrate, inulin, is a polydisperse fructan found in a wide variety of plants. In this study, a levanase with high inulinase activity and high pH and temperature stability was identified in Bacillus licheniformis strain ATCC 14580. B. licheniformis strain ATCC 14580 was found to efficiently produce 2,3-BD from fructose at 50°C. Then, the levanase was used for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of inulin to 2,3-BD. A fed-batch SSF yielded 103.0 g/liter 2,3-BD in 30 h, with a high productivity of 3.4 g/liter · h. The results suggest that the SSF process developed with the thermophilic B. licheniformis strain used might be a promising alternative for efficient 2,3-BD production from the favorable substrate inulin.
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Efficient production of 2,3-butanediol from corn stover hydrolysate by using a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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In this study, a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain X10 was newly isolated for 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Strain X10 could utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously without carbon catabolite repression. In addition, strain X10 possesses high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors including furfural, vanillin, formic acid, and acetic acid. In a fed-batch fermentation, 74.0g/L of 2,3-BD was obtained from corn stover hydrolysate, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 94.6%. Thus, this thermophilic B. licheniformis strain is a candidate for the development of efficient industrial production of 2,3-BD from corn stover hydrolysate.
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IFN-? CA microsatellite polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus Infection and severity.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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IFN-?, an essential cytokine in the viral cell-mediated immune response, has been associated with the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and to the severity of the infection. The aim of this study was to investigate whether IFN-? CA microsatellite (rs3138557) polymorphism was associated with susceptibility to RSV in Chinese Han children and with the severity of the infection.
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Biostability in distribution systems in one city in southern China: characteristics, modeling and control strategy.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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This study investigated the bacterial regrowth in drinking water distribution systems receiving finished water from an advanced drinking water treatment plant in one city in southern China. Thirteen nodes in two water supply zones with different aged pipelines were selected to monitor water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), chloramine residual, assimilable organic carbon (AOC), and heterotrophic plate counts (HPC). Regression and principal component analyses indicated that HPC had a strong correlation with chloramine residual. Based on Chick-Watson's Law and the Monod equation, biostability curves under different conditions were developed to achieve the goal of HPC < or = 100 CFU/mL. The biostability curves could interpret the scenario under various AOC concentrations and predict the required chloramine residual concentration under the condition of high AOC level. The simulation was also carried out to predict the scenario with a stricter HPC goal (< or = 50 CFU/mL) and determine the required chloramine residual. The biological regrowth control strategy was assessed using biostability curve analysis. The results indicated that maintaining high chloramine residual concentration was the most practical way to achieve the goal of HPC < or = 100 CFU/mL. Biostability curves could be a very useful tool for biostability control in distribution systems. This work could provide some new insights towards biostability control in real distribution systems.
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[Effect of low-molecular-weight heparin combined with doxorubicin on hepatocellular cancer cell migration in vitro].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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To investigate the anti-cancer effect of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) combined with doxorubicin and explore the mechanism.
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Optimization of a Multilayer Neural Network by Using Minimal Redundancy Maximal Relevance-Partial Mutual Information Clustering With Least Square Regression.
IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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In this paper, an optimized multilayer feed-forward network (MLFN) is developed to construct a soft sensor for controlling naphtha dry point. To overcome the two main flaws in the structure and weight of MLFNs, which are trained by a back-propagation learning algorithm, minimal redundancy maximal relevance-partial mutual information clustering (mPMIc) integrated with least square regression (LSR) is proposed to optimize the MLFN. The mPMIc can determine the location of hidden layer nodes using information in the hidden and output layers, as well as remove redundant hidden layer nodes. These selected nodes are highly related to output data, but are minimally correlated with other hidden layer nodes. The weights between the selected hidden layer nodes and output layer are then updated through LSR. When the redundant nodes from the hidden layer are removed, the ideal MLFN structure can be obtained according to the test error results. In actual applications, the naphtha dry point must be controlled accurately because it strongly affects the production yield and the stability of subsequent operational processes. The mPMIc-LSR MLFN with a simple network size performs better than other improved MLFN variants and existing efficient models.
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Biofilm bacterial communities in urban drinking water distribution systems transporting waters with different purification strategies.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Biofilm formation in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) has many adverse consequences. Knowledge of microbial community structure of DWDS biofilm can aid in the design of an effective control strategy. However, biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS and the impact of drinking water purification strategy remain unclear. The present study investigated the composition and diversity of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDSs transporting waters with different purification strategies (conventional treatment and integrated treatment). High-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis illustrated a large shift in the diversity and structure of biofilm bacterial community in real DWDS. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Cyanobacteria were the major components of biofilm bacterial community. Proteobacteria (mainly Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria) predominated in each DWDS biofilm, but the compositions of the dominant proteobacterial classes and genera and their proportions varied among biofilm samples. Drinking water purification strategy could shape DWDS biofilm bacterial community. Moreover, Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that Actinobacteria was positively correlated with the levels of total alkalinity and dissolved organic carbon in tap water, while Firmicutes had a significant positive correlation with nitrite nitrogen.
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DNA phosphorothioate modifications influence the global transcriptional response and protect DNA from double-stranded breaks.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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The modification of DNA by phosphorothioate (PT) occurs when the non-bridging oxygen in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA is replaced with sulfur. This DNA backbone modification was recently discovered and is governed by the dndABCDE genes in a diverse group of bacteria and archaea. However, the biological function of DNA PT modifications is poorly understood. In this study, we employed the RNA-seq analysis to characterize the global transcriptional changes in response to PT modifications. Our results show that DNA without PT protection is susceptible to DNA damage caused by the dndFGHI gene products. The DNA double-stranded breaks then trigger the SOS response, cell filamentation and prophage induction. Heterologous expression of dndBCDE conferring DNA PT modifications at GPSA and GPST prevented the damage in Salmonella enterica. Our data provide insights into the physiological role of the DNA PT system.
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[Observation of long-term efficacy and life quality in allergic rhinitis treated with acupoint catgut embedding therapy combined with acupuncture-moxibustion therapy].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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To observe the impacts of acupoint catgut embedding therapy and acupuncture-moxibustion therapy on the long-term efficacy and patient's life quality in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.
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Inhibitors of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthases: Synthesis, Molecular Docking, and Implications.
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) catalyze the formation of biodegradable PHAs that are considered to be ideal alternatives to non-biodegradable synthetic plastics. However, study of PhaCs has been challenging because the rate of PHA chain elongation is much faster than that of initiation. This difficulty, along with lack of a crystal structure, has become the main hurdle to understanding and engineering PhaCs for economical PHA production. Here we report the synthesis of two carbadethia CoA analogues-sT-CH2 -CoA (26?a) and sTet-CH2 -CoA (26?b)-as well as sT-aldehyde (saturated trimer aldehyde, 29), as new PhaC inhibitors. Study of these analogues with PhaECAv revealed that 26?a/b and 29 are competitive and mixed inhibitors, respectively. Both the CoA moiety and extension of PHA chain will increase binding affinity; this is consistent with our docking study. Estimation of the Kic values of 26?a and 26?b predicts that a CoA analogue incorporating an octameric hydroxybutanoate (HB) chain might facilitate the formation of a kinetically well-behaved synthase.
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Clinical Characteristics Related to Central Lymph Node Metastasis in cN0 Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study of 916 Patients.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Background. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a form of thyroid cancer with high risk of cervical lymph node metastasis. Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and the predictive factors for occult ipsilateral central lymph node (CLN) metastasis in the patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Methods. A total of 916 PTC patients (1017 lesions) undergoing central lymph node dissection in our hospital from 2005 to 2011 were enrolled. The relationship between CLN metastasis and clinical factors such as gender, age, tumor size, tumor number, capsule invasion, and tumor location was analyzed. Results. Occult CLN metastasis was observed in 52.41% (533/1017) of PTC lesions, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that age ? 35 years, tumor size > 1.5?cm, present capsule invasion/extracapsular invasion, and tumor located in upper/middle pole/whole lobe were risk factors of CLN metastasis. Conclusions. Tumor located in upper/middle pole/whole lobe, less than 35 years old, tumor size > 1.5?cm, and present capsule invasion/extracapsular invasion were risk factors of CLN metastasis. We recommend performing ipsilateral prophylactic CLN dissection in cN0 PTC patients.
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[Research advances in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (AP-ROP) is a special kind of ROP, which is characterized by ill-defined, dilated and tortuous vessels in the posterior portion of the eye and rapidly progresses to severe ROP with retinal detachment. As more and more AP-ROP cases, who usually have poor prognosis, have been found, this disease has been increasingly noted. Which premature infants are at risks? How to make earlier diagnosis? Is there any better treatment protocols? There is much research about AP-ROP and this article summarizes the risks, screening, diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
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Substrate curvature gradient drives rapid droplet motion.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Making small liquid droplets move spontaneously on solid surfaces is a key challenge in lab-on-chip and heat exchanger technologies. Here, we report that a substrate curvature gradient can accelerate micro- and nanodroplets to high speeds on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. Experiments for microscale water droplets on tapered surfaces show a maximum speed of 0.42??m/s, 2 orders of magnitude higher than with a wettability gradient. We show that the total free energy and driving force exerted on a droplet are determined by the substrate curvature and substrate curvature gradient, respectively. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we predict nanoscale droplets moving spontaneously at over 100??m/s on tapered surfaces.
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Cu-catalyzed arylcarbocyclization of alkynes with diaryliodonium salts through C-C bond formation on inert C(sp3)-H bond.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Copper-catalyzed arylcarbocyclization reaction of alkynes was realized with diaryliodonium salts through C-C bond formation on an inert C(sp3)-H bond. This method provides an efficient cyclization of alkyl alkynes to generate carbocycles with good step-economy. Theoretical study revealed an interesting Cu-catalyzed concerted pathway of the C-C bond formation.
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Adaptive Amphiphilic Dendrimer-Based Nanoassemblies as Robust and Versatile siRNA Delivery Systems.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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siRNA delivery remains a major challenge in RNAi-based therapy. Here, we report for the first time that an amphiphilic dendrimer is able to self-assemble into adaptive supramolecular assemblies upon interaction with siRNA, and effectively delivers siRNAs to various cell lines, including human primary and stem cells, thereby outperforming the currently available nonviral vectors. In addition, this amphiphilic dendrimer is able to harness the advantageous features of both polymer and lipid vectors and hence promotes effective siRNA delivery. Our study demonstrates for the first time that dendrimer-based adaptive supramolecular assemblies represent novel and versatile means for functional siRNA delivery, heralding a new age of dendrimer-based self-assembled drug delivery in biomedical applications.
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The role of interleukin family in perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-induced immunotoxicity.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a prominent perfluorinated compound (PFC), has been widely detected in natural water bodies worldwide. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) was exposed to nominal concentrations of PFOA (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/L) for 21 d. After exposure, each fish was decapitated, and the spleen was removed to detect the expression patterns of P65 transcription factor, myeloid differentiation 88, relative interleukins (ILs), and antibody genes. PFOA can stimulate pro-inflammatory cytokine at a low exposure concentration (0.05 mg/L) and can inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine at higher exposure concentrations (? 0.1mg/L). The results of linear correlation analysis indicate that Myd88/NF-?B pathway is one of the important pathways to mediate inflammatory cytokine (IL-1? and IL-21) in zebrafish spleen. Additionally, the relative mRNA expression level of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) at 1mg/L PFOA group was decreased to 56% of its corresponding level in the control. IL secretion disorder is possibly closely related to PFOA-induced TLR2 damage in zebrafish spleen. Furthermore, data show that the trends of PFOA-induced IL secretion have a relationship with Ig-secreting trend. This study demonstrates that PFOA can affect IL expression level through NF-?B, and ILs have an important function in the mediation of Ig secretion.
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The First Five-Membered-Heterocycle-Fused Subphthalocyanine Analogues: Chiral?Tri(benzo[b]thiopheno)subporphyrazines.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
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Two tri(benzo[b]thiopheno)subporphyrazine regioisomers with C3 and C1 molecular symmetry have been isolated from the cyclotrimerization of benzo[b]thiophene-2,3-dicarbonitrile as the first five-membered-heterocycle-fused subphthalocyanine analogues. Optical resolution of both regioisomers was achieved by using a chiral HPLC technique, affording the first chiral subphthalocyanine analogues.
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Bilaterally innervated dorsal digital flap for sensory reconstruction of digits.
Injury
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Providing sensory coverage in digits continues to be a challenging problem. This study reports the sensory reconstruction of digits with bilaterally innervated dorsal digital flaps and compares the results between dual- and single-innervated flaps.
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Horseradish peroxidase-encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles for enzyme-prodrug cancer therapy.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Among various enzyme-based therapies, enzyme-prodrug therapy (EPT) promises minimized side effects in that it activates non-toxic prodrugs locally where the enzymes are placed. The success of such an approach requires high enzyme stability against both structural denaturation and potential immunogenicity. This work examines the efficiency of nanoparticles for enzyme protection in EPT applications. Specifically, horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles (HRP-CSNP) were constructed and examined with respect to stability enhancement. HRP-CSNP retained enzyme activity and had improved stability at 37 °C in the presence of a denaturant, urea. The nanoparticles effectively bound to the surface of human breast cancer cell Bcap37 and led to over 80 % cell death when applied with a prodrug indole-3-acetic acid.
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Operational performance, biomass and microbial community structure: impacts of backwashing on drinking water biofilter.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Biofiltration has been widely used to reduce organic matter and control the formation of disinfection by-products in drinking water. Backwashing might affect the biofilters' performance and the attached microbiota on filter medium. In this study, the impacts of backwashing on the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and N-nitrosamine precursors by a pilot-scale biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration system were investigated. The impacts of backwashing on biomass and microbial community structure of BAC biofilm were also investigated. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis showed that backwashing reduced nearly half of the attached biomass on granular activated carbon (GAC) particles, followed by a recovery to the pre-backwashing biomass concentration in 2 days after backwashing. Backwashing was found to transitionally improve the removal of DOC, DON and N-nitrosamine precursors. MiSeq sequencing analysis revealed that backwashing had a strong impact on the bacterial diversity and community structure of BAC biofilm, but they could gradually recover with the operating time after backwashing. Phylum Proteobacteria was the largest bacterial group in BAC biofilm. Microorganisms from genera Bradyrhizobium, Hyphomicrobium, Microcystis and Sphingobium might contribute to the effective removal of nitrogenous organic compounds by drinking water biofilter. This work could add some new insights towards the operation of drinking water biofilters and the biological removal of organic matter.
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Grb2-associated binder 1 is essential for cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Basic Res. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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We have shown recently that endothelial Grb-2-associated binder 1 (Gab1), an intracellular scaffolding adaptor, has a protective effect against limb ischemia via mediating angiogenic signaling pathways. However, the role of Gab1 in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. In this study, we show that Gab1 is required for cardioprotection against I/R injury. I/R injury led to remarkable phosphorylation of Gab1 in cardiomyocytes. Compared with controls, the mice with cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Gab1 gene (CGKO mice) exhibited an increase in infarct size and a decrease in cardiac function after I/R injury. Consistently, in hearts of CGKO mice subjected to I/R, the activation of caspase 3 and myocardial apoptosis was markedly enhanced whereas the activation of protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which are critical for cardiomyocyte survival, was attenuated. Oxidative stress is regarded as a major contributor to myocardial I/R injury. To examine the role of Gab1 in oxidative stress directly, isolated adult cardiomyocytes were subject to oxidant hydrogen peroxide and the cardioprotective effects of Gab1 were confirmed. Furthermore, we found that the phosphorylation of Gab1 and Gab1-mediated activation of Akt and MAPK by oxidative stress was suppressed by ErbB receptor and Src kinase inhibitors, accompanied by an increase in apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, our results suggest that Gab1 is essential for cardioprotection against I/R oxidative injury via mediating survival signaling.
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Connecting endoplasmic reticulum stress to autophagy through IRE1/JNK/beclin-1 in breast cancer cells.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Current experimental results indicate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), which rebuilds ER homeostasis, through which tumor cells can become resistant chemotherapeutic agents. Autophagy is a form of programmed cell death, but it can also play a cytoprotective role in tumor cells, indicating that it has an inverse function. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether tunicamycin (TM) induces autophagy, as well as whether the inhibition of autophagy enhances the apoptosis ofbreast cancer cells induced by TM. In addition, we wished to investigate the mechanisms through which specific UPR targets control autophagy. We found that MCF-7 and MDA-MB?231 breast cancer cells were insensitive to TM at a relatively low concentration. As shown by western blot analysis, treatment with TM increased the expression of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), beclin-1, IRE1?, p-JNK and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3); the expression of p62 increased at an early time point during treatment and subsequently decreased. We also used the specific inhibitor of autophagy, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), to elucidate the role of autophagy in ER stress in the breast cancer cells treated with TM. The transformation of LC3-I to LC3-II which was induced by TM, was reversed following treatment with 3-MA. The inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA treatment enhanced the inhibitory and apoptotic rates of TM in the breast cancer cells, as shown by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. TM increased the misfolded proteins that lead to the activation of ER stress-mediated protection and induced apoptosis paralleled by autophagy in breast cancer cells which was regulated by IRE1/JNK/beclin-1. Autophagy attenuates ER stress by clearing ubiquitinated proteins and decreasing apoptosis, which plays a protective role. The inhibition of autophagy or the promotion of ER stress may be used as therapeutic targets to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs.
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Direct and reversed dorsal digital island flaps: A review of 65 cases.
Injury
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Reconstruction of soft tissue defects in fingers continues to be a challenging problem. The purpose of this study is to report the reconstruction of small-to-moderate defects of fingers with dorsal digital island flap (DDIF) and to evaluate the efficacy of use of the flap.
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Identification of mRNA-like non-coding RNAs and validation of a mighty one named MAR in Panax ginseng.
J Integr Plant Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Increasing evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play significant roles in plants. However, little is known about lncRNAs in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, an economically significant medicinal plant species. A total of 3,688 mRNA-like non-coding RNAs (mlncRNAs), a class of lncRNAs, were identified in P. ginseng. Approximately 40% of the identified mlncRNAs were processed into small RNAs, implying their regulatory roles via small RNA-mediated mechanisms. Eleven miRNA-generating mlncRNAs also produced siRNAs, suggesting the coordinated production of miRNAs and siRNAs in P. ginseng. The mlncRNA-derived small RNAs might be 21-, 22-, or 24-nt phased and could be generated from both or only one strand of mlncRNAs, or from super long hairpin structures. A full-length mlncRNA, termed MAR (multiple-function-associated mlncRNA), was cloned. It generated the most abundant siRNAs. The MAR siRNAs were predominantly 24-nt and some of them were distributed in a phased pattern. A total of 228 targets were predicted for 71 MAR siRNAs. Degradome sequencing validated 68 predicted targets involved in diverse metabolic pathways, suggesting the significance of MAR in P. ginseng. Consistently, MAR was detected in all tissues analyzed and responded to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. It sheds light on the function of mlncRNAs in plants.
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Targeted delivery of Dicer-substrate siRNAs using a dual targeting peptide decorated dendrimer delivery system.
Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Small interfering RNAs (siRNA) are emerging as novel therapeutic agents, providing competent delivery systems that are available. Dendrimers, a special family of synthetic macromolecules, represent an exciting delivery platform by virtue of their well-defined dendritic structure and unique multivalency and cooperativity confined within a nanoscale volume. Here, we report a Dicer-substrate siRNA (dsiRNA) which, when delivered using a structurally flexible triethanolamine-core poly(amidoamine) dendrimer of generation 5 as the nanocarrier, gives rise to a much greater RNAi response than that produced with conventional siRNA. Further decoration of the dsiRNA/dendrimer complexes with a dual targeting peptide simultaneously promoted cancer cell targeting through interacting with integrins and cell penetration via the interaction with neuropilin-1 receptors, which led to improved gene silencing and anticancer activity. Altogether, our results disclosed here open a new avenue for therapeutic implementation of RNAi using dendrimer nanovector based targeted delivery.
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Robust pedestrian tracking and recognition from FLIR video: a unified approach via sparse coding.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Sparse coding is an emerging method that has been successfully applied to both robust object tracking and recognition in the vision literature. In this paper, we propose to explore a sparse coding-based approach toward joint object tracking-and-recognition and explore its potential in the analysis of forward-looking infrared (FLIR) video to support nighttime machine vision systems. A key technical contribution of this work is to unify existing sparse coding-based approaches toward tracking and recognition under the same framework, so that they can benefit from each other in a closed-loop. On the one hand, tracking the same object through temporal frames allows us to achieve improved recognition performance through dynamical updating of template/dictionary and combining multiple recognition results; on the other hand, the recognition of individual objects facilitates the tracking of multiple objects (i.e., walking pedestrians), especially in the presence of occlusion within a crowded environment. We report experimental results on both the CASIAPedestrian Database and our own collected FLIR video database to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed joint tracking-and-recognition approach.
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Diagnosis and treatment of carcinosarcoma of the renal pelvis: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Carcinosarcoma is a rare type of renal pelvis malignancy, the diagnosis of which requires the presence of malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. The prognosis of this disease is extremely poor due to its rapid progression and widespread metastases. The present study describes a case of carcinosarcoma involving the right renal pelvis in a 73-year-old female who presented with intermittent hematuria and right-flank pain that had persisted for one month. Computed tomography revealed a 2.4×2.5 cm mass in the right renal pelvis, which was diagnosed as a right renal pelvic tumor. Laparoscopic radical resection of the right kidney and ureter was performed. Following surgery, immunohistochemical analysis showed positive reactions for epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with carcinosarcoma. Thus, immunohistochemical analysis is a critical method for the accurate diagnosis of carcinosarcoma.
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Correlation between DNA methylation and gene expression in the brains of patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
Bipolar Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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Aberrant DNA methylation and gene expression have been reported in postmortem brain tissues of psychotic patients, but until now there has been no systematic evaluation of synergistic changes in methylation and expression on a genome-wide scale in brain tissue.
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Bacterial communities associated with an occurrence of colored water in an urban drinking water distribution system.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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This study aimed to investigate bacterial community in an urban drinking water distribution system (DWDS) during an occurrence of colored water. Variation in the bacterial community diversity and structure was observed among the different waters, with the predominance of Proteobacteria. While Verrucomicrobia was also a major phylum group in colored water. Limnobacter was the major genus group in colored water, but Undibacterium predominated in normal tap water. The coexistence of Limnobacter as well as Sediminibacterium and Aquabacterium might contribute to the formation of colored water.
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Dimethylamine biodegradation by mixed culture enriched from drinking water biofilter.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Dimethylamine (DMA) is one of the important precursors of drinking water disinfection by-product N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Reduction of DMA to minimize the formation of carcinogenic NDMA in drinking water is of practical importance. Biodegradation plays a major role in elimination of DMA pollution in the environment, yet information on DMA removal by drinking water biofilter is still lacking. In this study, microcosms with different treatments were constructed to investigate the potential of DMA removal by a mixed culture enriched from a drinking water biofilter and the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources. DMA could be quickly mineralized by the enrichment culture. Amendment of a carbon source, instead of a nitrogen source, had a profound impact on DMA removal. A shift in bacterial community structure was observed with DMA biodegradation, affected by carbon and nitrogen sources. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum group in DMA-degrading microcosms. Microorganisms from a variety of bacterial genera might be responsible for the rapid DMA mineralization.
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A comparison of the life-history traits between diapause and direct development individuals in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.
J. Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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In order to understand the differences of life-history traits between diapause and direct development individuals in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the development time, body size, growth rate, and adult longevity were investigated between the two populations, which were induced under 12:12 L:D and 16:8 L:D photoperiods, respectively, at 20, 22, and 25°C. The results indicated that the larval development time, pupal weight, adult weight, and growth rate were significantly different between diapause and direct developing individuals. The diapause developing individuals had a significantly higher pupal and adult weight and a longer larval time compared with direct developing individuals. However, the growth rate in diapause developing individuals was lower than that in the direct developing individuals. Analysis by GLM showed that larval time, pupal and adult weight, and growth rate were significantly influenced by both temperature and developmental pathway. The pupal and adult weights were greater in males than females in both developmental pathways, exhibiting sexual size dimorphism. The dimorphism in adult weight was more pronounced than in pupal weight because female pupae lost more weight at metamorphosis compared to male pupae. Protogyny was observed in both developmental pathways. However, the protogyny phenomenon was more pronounced at lower temperatures in direct developing individuals, whereas it was more pronounced in diapause developing individuals when they experienced higher temperatures in their larval stage and partial pupal period. The adult longevity of diapause developing individuals was significantly longer than that of direct developing individuals. The results reveal that the life-history strategy was different between diapause and direct developing individuals.
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Individualized management of pregnant women with high hepatitis B virus DNA levels.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Hepatitis B is a major health concern in the Asia-Pacific region, and is endemic in China, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may cause hepatic cirrhosis and liver cancer. It is estimated that there are more than 350 million chronic HBV carriers worldwide, of whom approximately one quarter will die of chronic hepatitis B-related liver diseases. HBV is transmitted horizontally through blood and blood products or by sexual transmission, and vertically from mother to infant. Perinatal infection is the predominant mode of transmission in countries with a high prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriage, and perinatal transmission leads to high rates of chronic infection. Therefore, it is important to prevent the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV. Research has shown that pregnant women with high HBV DNA levels have an increased risk of MTCT. However, most of the obstetrics guidelines do not make a distinction between pregnant women with high HBV DNA levels and those who are HBsAg positive only. This review addresses the management of pregnant women with high levels of HBV viremia, in terms of antiviral therapy, use of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG), the combined application of hepatitis B vaccine and HBIG, choice of delivery mode and feeding practices.
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Human RAD6 Promotes G1-S Transition and Cell Proliferation through Upregulation of Cyclin D1 Expression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Protein ubiquitinylation regulates protein stability and activity. RAD6, an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which that has been substantially biochemically characterized, functions in a number of biologically relevant pathways, including cell cycle progression. In this study, we show that RAD6 promotes the G1-S transition and cell proliferation by regulating the expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1) in human cells. Furthermore, our data indicate that RAD6 influences the transcription of CCND1 by increasing monoubiquitinylation of histone H2B and trimethylation of H3K4 in the CCND1 promoter region. Our study presents, for the first time, an evidence for the function of RAD6 in cell cycle progression and cell proliferation in human cells, raising the possibility that RAD6 could be a new target for molecular diagnosis and prognosis in cancer therapeutics.
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A Critical Role of CDKN3 in Bcr-Abl-Mediated Tumorigenesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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CDKN3 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3), a dual specificity protein phosphatase, dephosphorylates cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and thus functions as a key negative regulator of cell cycle progression. Deregulation or mutations of CDNK3 have been implicated in various cancers. However, the role of CDKN3 in Bcr-Abl-mediated chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) remains unknown. Here we found that CDKN3 acts as a tumor suppressor in Bcr-Abl-mediated leukemogenesis. Overexpression of CDKN3 sensitized the K562 leukemic cells to imanitib-induced apoptosis and dramatically inhibited K562 xenografted tumor growth in nude mouse model. Ectopic expression of CDKN3 significantly reduced the efficiency of Bcr-Abl-mediated transformation of FDCP1 cells to growth factor independence. In contrast, depletion of CDKN3 expression conferred resistance to imatinib-induced apoptosis in the leukemic cells and accelerated the growth of xenograph leukemia in mice. In addition, we found that CDKN3 mutant (CDKN3-C140S) devoid of the phosphatase activity failed to affect the K562 leukemic cell survival and xenografted tumor growth, suggesting that the phosphatase of CDKN3 was required for its tumor suppressor function. Furthermore, we observed that overexpression of CDKN3 reduced the leukemic cell survival by dephosphorylating CDK2, thereby inhibiting CDK2-dependent XIAP expression. Moreover, overexpression of CDKN3 delayed G1/S transition in K562 leukemic cells. Our results highlight the importance of CDKN3 in Bcr-Abl-mediated leukemogenesis, and provide new insights into diagnostics and therapeutics of the leukemia.
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MicroRNAs expression profile in CCR6(+) regulatory T cells.
PeerJ
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Backgroud. CCR6(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cells (CCR6(+) Tregs), a distinct Tregs subset, played an important role in various immune diseases. Recent evidence showed that microRNAs (miRNAs) are vital regulators in the function of immune cells. However, the potential role of miRNAs in the function of CCR6(+) Tregs remains largely unknown. In this study, we detected the expression profile of miRNAs in CCR6(+) Tregs. Materials and Methods. The expression profile of miRNAs as well as genes in CCR6(+) Tregs or CCR6(-) Tregs from Balb/c mice were detected by microarray. The signaling pathways were analyzed using the Keggs pathway library. Results. We found that there were 58 miRNAs significantly upregulated and 62 downregulated up to 2 fold in CCR6(+) Tregs compared with CCR6(-) Tregs. Moreover, 1,391 genes were observed with 3 fold change and 20 signaling pathways were enriched using the Keggs pathway library. Conclusion. The present data showed CCR6(+) Tregs expressed specific miRNAs pattern, which provides insight into the role of miRNAs in the biological function of distinct Tregs subsets.
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In vivo mutational characterization of DndE involved in DNA phosphorothioate modification.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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DNA phosphorothioate (PT) modification is a recently identified epigenetic modification that occurs in the sugar-phosphate backbone of prokaryotic DNA. Previous studies have demonstrated that DNA PT modification is governed by the five DndABCDE proteins in a sequence-selective and RP stereo-specific manner. Bacteria may have acquired this physiological modification along with dndFGH as a restriction-modification system. However, little is known about the biological function of Dnd proteins, especially the smallest protein, DndE, in the PT modification pathway. DndE was reported to be a DNA-binding protein with a preference for nicked dsDNA in vitro; the binding of DndE to DNA occurs via six positively charged lysine residues on its surface. The substitution of these key lysine residues significantly decreased the DNA binding affinities of DndE proteins to undetectable levels. In this study, we conducted site-directed mutagenesis of dndE on a plasmid and measured DNA PT modifications under physiological conditions by mass spectrometry. We observed distinctive differences from the in vitro binding assays. Several mutants with lysine residues mutated to alanine decreased the total frequency of PT modifications, but none of the mutants completely eliminated PT modification. Our results suggest that the nicked dsDNA-binding capacity of DndE may not be crucial for PT modification and/or that DndE may have other biological functions in addition to binding to dsDNA.
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Intratumor IL-17-positive mast cells are the major source of the IL-17 that is predictive of survival in gastric cancer patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is prevalent in tumor tissue and suppresses effective anti-tumor immune responses. However, the source of the increased tumor-infiltrating IL-17 and its contribution to tumor progression in human gastric cancer remain poorly understood. In this study, we enrolled 112 gastric cancer patients, immunofluorescence was used to evaluate the colocalization of CD3, CD4, CD56, CD20, CD68, and mast cell tryptase (MCT) with IL-17. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the distribution of microvessel density (CD34), CD66b(+), CD68(+), and FoxP3(+) cells in different microanatomical areas. Prognostic value was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and a Cox regression model. The results showed that mast cells, but not T cells or macrophages, were the predominant cell type producing IL-17 in gastric cancer. Significant positive correlations were detected between densities of mast cell-derived IL-17 and microvessels, neutrophils, and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Furthermore, we found that the majority of vascular endothelial cells expressing Interleukin-17 receptor (IL-17R). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that increasing intratumor infiltrated mast cells and IL-17(+) cells, as well as MCT(+) IL-17(+) cells, were significantly associated with worse overall survival. These findings indicated that mast cells were the major source of IL-17 in gastric cancer, and intratumor IL-17 infiltration may have promoted tumor progression by enhancing angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment through the axis of IL-17/IL-17R. IL-17-positive mast cells showed a prognostic factor in gastric cancer, indicating that immunotherapy targeting mast cells might be an effective strategy to control intratumor IL-17 infiltration, and consequently reverse immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment, facilitating cancer immunotherapy.
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[Simulation research on the release of internal nutrients affected by different dredging methods in lake].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2013
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A simulated experiment was carried out to study release features of internal source under different sediment dredging methods and the difference between two lake areas in Lake Taihu was also studied. The contaminated sediments were sampled from two sites in Meiliang Bay which were the Inner Bay (A) and the Outer Bay(B). Release rates of phosphorus after ideal dredging and suction dredging are about 20% and 72% of the control and the phosphorus release rate in Inner Bay(A) is about 80% of Outer Bay(B). Release rates of ammonia after ideal dredging and suction dredging are about 40% and 83% of the scallop dredging, but dredging process may even promote the release of ammonia in a short time, the ammonia release rate in Inner Bay(A) is about 150% higher than that in Outer Bay(B). Under the microcosm experiment condition, the ideal dredging method and the suction dredging method may have a better control of internal source in contrast with the scallop dredging. Altogether, sediment dredging may be a useful approach to decrease the release of internal source in the selected sites when the external nutrients are effectively controlled. Consider all kinds of dredging projects, the suction dredging should be the ideal option for sediment dredging in Lake Taihu.
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[Treating cervical spinal canal stenosis by open-door cervical laminoplasty combined modified buyang huanwu decoction].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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To explore the clinical efficacy of open-door cervical laminoplasty combined Modified Buyang Huanwu Decoction (MBHD) to treat cervical spinal canal stenosis (CSCS).
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Comparison of sexual compatibility in crosses between the southern and northern populations of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi.
Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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It is widely accepted that the genetic divergence and reproductive incompatibility between closely related species and/ or populations is often viewed as an important step towards speciation. In this study, sexual compatibility in crosses between the southern XS population and the northern TA population of the polyandrous cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi was investigated by testing their mating preferences, mating latency, copulation duration and reproductive performances of post-mating. In choice mating experiments, the percentages of matings were significantly higher in intra-population crosses than in inter-population crosses. Both Isolation Index (I) and Index of Pair Sexual Isolation (IPSI ) indicated partial mating incompatibility or assortative mating in crosses between the two different geographical populations. In single pair mating experiments, XS females in inter-population crosses mated significantly later and copulated significantly shorter than those in intra-population crosses. However, TA females in inter-population crosses mated significantly earlier and copulated longer than those in intra-population crosses, suggesting that larger XS males may enhance heterotypic mating. The lifetime fecundity was highest in XS homotypic matings, lowest in TA homotypic matings and intermediate in heterotypic matings between their parents. The inter-population crosses resulted in significantly lower egg hatching rate and shorter female longevity than intra-population crosses. These results demonstrated that there exist some incompatibilities in premating, postmating-prezygotic and postzygotic stages between the southern XS population and northern TA population of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Branched-chain amino acid requirements for enterally fed term neonates in the first month of life.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Knowledge of essential amino acid requirements in infants is important because excessive intake of protein can lead to increased long-term morbidity such as obesity. A deficient intake may lead to suboptimal growth and impaired neurodevelopment. The current recommended branched-chain amino acid requirements in infants aged 0-1 mo are based on the amino acid content of human milk.
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[Treating menopause syndrome by kuntal capsule and hormone replacement therapy: a meta-analysis of efficacy and safety comparison].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Kuntai Capsule (KC) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in treating menopause syndrome by Meta-analysis.
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A Glycine Soja 14-3-3 Protein GsGF14o Participates in Stomatal and Root Hair Development and Drought Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Plant Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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It is well established that 14-3-3 proteins are key regulators of multiple stress signal transduction cascades. However, the biological functions of soybean 14-3-3 proteins, especially in plant drought response, are not yet known. In this study, we characterized a Glycine soja 14-3-3 gene, GsGF14o, which is involved in plant development and drought response. GsGF14o expression was greatly induced by drought stress, as evidenced by the quantitative real-time PCR and ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity analysis. GsGF14o overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in decreased drought tolerance during seed germination and seedling growth. Furthermore, silencing of AtGF14µ, the most homologous 14-3-3 gene of GsGF14o, led to enhanced drought tolerance at both the seed germination and seedling stage. Unexpectedly, GsGF14o transgenic lines showed reduced water loss and transpiration rates compared with wild-type plants, which was demonstrated to be the consequence of the decreased stomatal size. At the same time, the smaller stomata due to GsGF14o overexpression led to a relatively slow net photosynthesis rate, which led to a growth penalty under drought stress. We further demonstrated that GsGF14o overexpression caused deficits in root hair formation and development, and thereby reduced the water intake capacity of the transgenic root system. In addition, GsGF14o overexpression down-regulated the transcript levels of drought-responsive marker genes. Finally, we also investigated the tissue-specific accumulation of GsGF14o by using a GUS activity assay. Collectively, the results presented here confirm that GsGF14o plays a dual role in drought stress responses through its involvement in the regulation of stomatal size and root hair development.
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Superior Antitumor Activity of a Novel Bispecific Antibody Cotargeting Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 and Type I Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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The humanized anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) trastuzumab (Herceptin; Genentech) effectively inhibits human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast tumors. However, many patients responding to treatment often develop resistance. Cross-talk between type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) and HER2 and elevated IGF-IR signaling have been implicated in tumor cell resistance to trastuzumab therapy. Previously, we reported that the anti-IGF-IR mAb m590 inhibits proliferation and migration of breast cancer MCF-7 cells in vitro. Here, we generated a "knobs-into-holes" bispecific antibody (Bi-Ab) against HER2 and IGF-IR by engineering trastuzumab and m590. We compared the effects of Bi-Ab treatment in vitro and in SKOV-3 HER2- and IGF-IR-overexpressing cancer xenograft mouse model with those of m590 and trastuzumab treatment alone or in combination. Bi-Ab effectively inhibited proliferation of HER2- and IGF-IR-overexpressing ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells in vitro by ablating receptor phosphorylation and downstream PI3K/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Bi-Ab more effectively inhibited cancer growth in SKOV-3 HER2- and IGF-IR-overexpressing cancer xenograft mouse model than m590 and trastuzumab alone or in combination. Mice bearing SKOV-3 HER2- and IGF-IR-overexpressing xenografts showed extensive and sustainable tumor regression when treated with Bi-Ab. Our results suggest that Bi-Ab has superior antitumor activity compared with monospecific antibodies, and cotargeting HER2 and IGF-IR may be clinically beneficial in minimizing the acquired resistance to trastuzumab therapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 13(1); 1-11. ©2013 AACR.
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Effects of quercetin on hemoglobin-dependent redox reactions: relationship to iron-overload rat liver injury.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Flavonoids have been widely reported to protect liver injury in iron-overload diseases, where the mechanism of this therapeutic action is dependent on their antioxidant effects, including free radical scavenging and metal-chelating. In this study, in contrast to the significant decrease in iron content, quercetin (Qu) from lower diet (0.3%, w/w) showed pro-oxidant ability on protein carbonyl formation and exhibited unobvious effect on iron-overload rat liver injury. Furthermore, the anti- and pro-oxidant activities of Qu on hemoglobin (Hb)-dependent redox reactions (i.e. the oxidative stability of Hb and its cytotoxic ferryl intermediate, Hb-induced protein oxidation) were investigated to illustrate the elevated protein oxidation in lower Qu-treated iron-overload rat. It was found that superoxide ([Formula: see text]) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were generated during the reaction between Qu and Hb. Qu, however, effectively reduced ferryl intermediate back to ferric Hb in a biphasic kinetic reaction. Moreover, Qu could significantly aggravate Hb-H2O2-induced protein oxidation at low concentrations and exhibit protective effects at high concentrations. Different from the classic antioxidant mechanisms of Qu, the dual effects on Hb redox reactions in vitro, therefore, may provide new insights into the physiological and pharmacological implications of Qu with iron-overload disease.
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Screening for retinopathy of prematurity in china: a neonatal units-based prospective study.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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To analyze the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in China, and to explore the workload implications of applying different criteria.
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[Analysis of traditional and modern application of prepared decoction pieces of herbal medicine].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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The paper described the rationality of traditional and modern application of prepared decoction pieces of herbal medicine on basis of application, statistics and comparison analysis of three forms of drugs of traditional Chinese herbal pieces prepared for decoction, prepared decoction pieces in small packing and granules; and illustrated different opinions correlative to the three forms of drugs; put forward the counter-measures and proposals for the problems facing the traditional Chinese herbal pieces for decoction; the paper stated clearly that the traditional Chinese herbal pieces for decoction should not be replaced, instead, the viewpoint and the reasons on its application must be holding on; and the trend of development and expectations of the Chinese herbal pieces for decoction were predicted as well.
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[Cloning and sequence analysis of AGO1 gene in Panax ginseng].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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Argonaute 1 (AGO1) is a core component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) which plays a crucial role in small RNA-mediated gene silencing. AGO1 gene has been characterized in various plants, such as Arabidopsis and rice. However, there is no information about AGO1 in the medicinal plant species, Panax ginseng. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology (RACE), we cloned full-length PgAGO1 cDNA from Panax ginseng. It is 3 776 bp in length, including 204 bp of 5 UTR, 254 bp of 3 UTR, and 3 318 bp of ORF encoding 1106 amino acids. The molecular weight (MW) and theroretical isoelectric point (pI) of the deduced PgAGO1 protein is 122.22 kDa and 9.71, respectively. PgAGO1 shares 91.72% similarity with Arabidopsis AtAGO1 and contains three consered domains, including DUF1785, PAZ and Piwi, suggesting it is an authentic AGO. PgAGO1 was expressed in all of the tissues analyzed with the highest level in flowers and the lowest level in roots. The results provide useful information for further elucidating the function of AGO1 in Panax ginseng.
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[Super-low-frequency spectrum analysis for buried faults in coalfield].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Based on the super-low-frequency (SLF) electromagnetic detection technology, the advanced detection for the buried fault in the coalfield is still at the exploratory stage, while the technology has a strong practical significance for production and design of the coal mine. Firstly, in this paper, the SLF electromagnetic detection signals were collected in study area. Spectrum analysis of SLF signal by wavelet transform can remove high-frequency noise. Secondly, the profile of the measuring line across the fault was analyzed and interpreted geologically. Accordingly SLF spectrum characteristics of the buried fault could be researched. Finally, combined with the geological and seismic data, the characteristics and distribution of fault structures can be verified in the mining area. The results show that: the buried fault could be detected quickly and effectively by SLF electromagnetic detection Hence, SLF electromagnetic detection technology is an effective method for buried fault detection.
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Relationships between age-related biochemical markers of bone turnover and OPG, TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 in native Chinese women.
Endocr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Abstract Osteoprotegerin (OPG), transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and TGF-?2 are cytokines closely associated with bone metabolism. However, their association with bone turnover markers in native Chinese women remains unknown. The study aims to investigate the relationship between bone metabolism related cytokines including OPG, TGF-?1, TGF-?2 and bone turnover markers in native Chinese women. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 691 healthy Chinese women (20-80 years old). Levels of OPG, TGF-?1, TGF-?2, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin (OC), cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (sNTX), cross-linked C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (sCTX), urinary NTX (uNTX), urinary CTX (uCTX) and total urinary deoxypyridinoline (uDPD) were determined. The present study showed that OPG and TGF-?2 had positive correlation with BAP, OC, uNTX, uCTX and uDPD, while TGF-?1 showed negative correlation with BAP, OC, sCTX, uNTX and uCTX, and most of the coefficients of partial correlation remained significant after adjustments for age and body mass index (BMI). Multiple linear regression stepwise analysis showed that OPG and TGF-?2 were positive determinative factors for BAP, sCTX, uNTX and uCTX, which could explain 0.6-16.6% of the variation in these markers. TGF-?1 was a negative determinative factor for BAP, OC, sCTX and uCTX, which could explain 0.7-7.3% of the variation in these markers. This study suggested that measuring bone turnover indicators and serum cytokines simultaneously might help evaluating changes in bone turnover rate caused by aging or menopause in women.
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