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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Age-specific exercise capacity threshold for mortality risk assessment in male veterans.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Mortality risk decreases beyond a certain fitness level. However, precise definition of this threshold is elusive and varies with age. Thus, fitness-related mortality risk assessment is difficult.
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Exercise capacity and all-cause mortality in male veterans with hypertension aged ?70 years.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Aging, even in otherwise healthy subjects, is associated with declines in muscle mass, strength, and aerobic capacity. Older individuals respond favorably to exercise, suggesting that physical inactivity plays an important role in age-related functional decline. Conversely, physical activity and improved exercise capacity are associated with lower mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. However, the effect of exercise capacity in older hypertensive individuals has not been investigated extensively. A total of 2153 men with hypertension, aged ?70 years (mean, 75 ± 4) from the Washington, DC, and Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, underwent routine exercise tolerance testing. Peak workload was estimated in metabolic equivalents (METs). Fitness categories were established based on peak METs achieved, adjusted for age: very-low-fit, 2.0 to 4.0 METs (n=386); low-fit, 4.1 to 6.0 METs (n=1058); moderate-fit, 6.1 to 8.0 METs (n=495); high-fit >8.0 METs (n=214). Cox proportional hazard models were applied after adjusting for age, body mass index, race, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular medications, and risk factors. All-cause mortality was quantified during a mean follow-up period of 9.0 ± 5.5 years. There were a total of 1039 deaths or 51.2 deaths per 1000 person-years of follow-up. Mortality risk was 11% lower (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.93; P<0.001) for every 1-MET increase in exercise capacity. When compared with those achieving ?4.0 METs, mortality risk was 18% lower (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.95; P=0.011) for the low-fit, 36% for the moderate-fit (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.78; P<0.001), and 48% for the high-fit individuals (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.69; P<0.001). These findings suggest that exercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk in elderly men with hypertension.
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Pattern of frequent but nontargeted pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis for hospitalized patients with cancer at academic medical centers: a prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Hospitalized patients with cancer are considered to be at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Despite strong recommendations in numerous clinical practice guidelines, retrospective studies have shown that pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis is underutilized in hospitalized patients with cancer.
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Non-interventional management of resistant hypertension.
World J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Hypertension is one of the most popular fields of research in modern medicine due to its high prevalence and its major impact on cardiovascular risk and consequently on global health. Indeed, about one third of individuals worldwide has hypertension and is under increased long-term risk of myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death. On the other hand, resistant hypertension, the "uncontrollable" part of arterial hypertension despite appropriate therapy, comprises a much greater menace since long-standing, high levels of blood pressure along with concomitant debilitating entities such as chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus create a prominent high cardiovascular risk milieu. However, despite the alarming consequences, resistant hypertension and its effective management still have not received proper scientific attention. Aspects like the exact prevalence and prognosis are yet to be clarified. In an effort to manage patients with resistant hypertension appropriately, clinical doctors are still racking their brains in order to find the best therapeutic algorithm and surmount the substantial difficulties in controlling this clinical entity. This review aims to shed light on the effective management of resistant hypertension and provide practical recommendations for clinicians dealing with such patients.
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Halting arterial aging in patients with cardiovascular disease: hypolipidemic and antihypertensive therapy.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Aging is associated with arterial stiffening and subsequent acceleration of pulse wave movement. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia are associated with increased arterial stiffness, a 'premature' arterial aging. Antihypertensive drugs exhibit beneficial effects on arterial stiffness, both at the central and peripheral level, and these effects are mainly attributed to blood pressure reduction per se. However, additional benefits of the renin-angiotensin system inhibitors have been recently suggested. Furthermore, a disparity in the effects of beta-blockers on arterial stiffness between conventional and vasodilatory agents has also been suggested. Statin treatment is an essential element of cardiovascular therapy and statins are frequently administered by patients with cardiovascular risk factors or established cardiovascular disease. The effects of statins on arterial stiffness are not yet well established. Moreover, the effects of combining statins with antihypertensive drugs or other strategies to attenuate arterial aging are not adequately studied. The aim of the current review is to present the effects of available therapeutic strategies on arterial stiffness with special emphasis on hypolipidemic and antihypertensive drugs, critically evaluate available information and provide future perspectives in this field.
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Using a board game to reinforce learning.
J Contin Educ Nurs
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Experiential gaming strategies offer a variation on traditional learning. A board game was used to present synthesized content of fundamental catheter care concepts and reinforce evidence-based practices relevant to nursing. Board games are innovative educational tools that can enhance active learning.
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Apelin and relaxin plasma levels in young healthy offspring of patients with essential hypertension.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Epidemiologic studies have shown that healthy offspring of hypertensive patients exhibit many features of the metabolic syndrome, such as hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and lipid disorders, while hypoapelinemia and hyporelaxinemia may contribute to vascular damage that accelerates atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine apelin and relaxin plasma levels in the healthy offspring of hypertensive patients and to compare the findings with those of healthy offspring of healthy parents, matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Forty-six (24 men and 22 women) healthy offspring of hypertensive patients, mean age 18±3 years and BMI 22.4±1.4 kg/m(2) (group A), and 50 healthy offspring of healthy parents (28 men and 22 women), mean age 18±3.2 years and BMI 22.6±1.7 kg/m(2) (group B), were studied. The apelin and relaxin plasma levels (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method) were determined in the study population. The two groups were matched for age, sex, and BMI. Plasma apelin levels (6±3 vs 105 pg/mL, P<.001) and relaxin plasma levels (20±7 vs 29±8 pg/mL, P<.001) were significantly lower in group A compared with group B, respectively. Our findings suggest that healthy offspring of healthy parents have significantly lower plasma apelin and relaxin levels. This group of individuals needs closer follow-up and further examination.
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Statin therapy, fitness, and mortality risk in middle-aged hypertensive male veterans.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Hypertension often coexists with dyslipidemia, accentuating cardiovascular risk. Statins are often prescribed in hypertensive individuals to lower cardiovascular risk. Higher fitness is associated with lower mortality, but exercise capacity may be attenuated in hypertension. The combined effects of fitness and statin therapy in hypertensive individuals have not been assessed. Thus, we assessed the combined health benefits of fitness and statin therapy in hypertensive male subjects.
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Cardiorespiratory fitness and the paradoxical BMI-mortality risk association in male veterans.
Mayo Clin. Proc.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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To assess the effect of fitness status on the paradoxical body mass index (BMI)-mortality risk association.
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Association between AKI and Long-Term Renal and Cardiovascular Outcomes in United States Veterans.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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AKI is associated with major adverse kidney events (MAKE): death, new dialysis, and worsened renal function. CKD (arising from worsened renal function) is associated with a higher risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE): myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and heart failure. Therefore, the study hypothesis was that veterans who develop AKI during hospitalization for an MI would be at higher risk of subsequent MACE and MAKE.
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Statins modulate the mortality risk associated with obesity and cardiorespiratory fitness in diabetics.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Statins are commonly prescribed to avert cardiovascular disease in diabetics. Little information, however, exists about the interrelationship of obesity, fitness, and statin treatment on mortality.
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Gender differences in hypertension: myths and reality.
Curr. Hypertens. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Life expectancy is longer in women compared to men, and cardiovascular events occur at a lower rate and at a later age in females than males. The impact of gender on the prevalence, the presentation, and the long-term outcome of cardiovascular disease has long been a topic of active research. Gender differences have been found in several studies but opposite findings also exist. The impact of gender in hypertension and antihypertensive therapy remains poorly clarified. The prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates of hypertension exhibit some differences between the two sexes, which are age-dependent. The female advantage in the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive patients might be attenuated by comorbidities and target organ damage. Another aspect of major clinical importance is whether gender differences exist on the effects of antihypertensive agents in blood pressure reduction and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate recent data regarding gender differences in hypertension and incorporate new data into the body of existing knowledge.
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Heart rate at rest, exercise capacity, and mortality risk in veterans.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Heart rate (HR) at rest has been associated inversely with mortality risk. However, fitness is inversely associated with mortality risk and both increased fitness and ?-blockade therapy affect HR at rest. Thus, both fitness and ?-blockade therapy should be considered when HR at rest-mortality risk association is assessed. From 1986 to 2011, we assessed HR at rest, fitness, and mortality in 18,462 veterans (mean age = 58 ± 11 years) undergoing a stress test. During a median follow-up period of 10 years (211,398 person-years), 5,100 died, at an average annual mortality of 24.1 events/1,000 person-years. After adjusting for age, body mass index, cardiac risk factors, medication, and exercise capacity, we noted approximately 11% increase in risk for each 10 heart beats. To assess the risk in a wide and clinically relevant spectrum, we established 6 HR at rest categories per 10 heart beat intervals ranging from <60 to ?100 beats. Mortality risk was significantly elevated at a HR at rest of ?70 beats/min (hazard ratio 1.14, confidence interval 1.04 to 1.25; p <0.006) and increased progressively to 49% (hazard ratio 1.49, confidence interval 1.29 to 1.73; p <0.001) for those with a HR at rest of ?100 beats/min. Similar trends were noted when for subjects aged <60 and ?60 years and those treated with ? blockers. In all assessments, mortality risk was consistently overestimated when fitness was not considered. In conclusion, HR at rest-mortality risk association was direct and independent. A progressive increase in risk was noted >70 beats/min for the entire cohort, those treated with ? blockers, and those aged <60 and ?60 years. Mortality risk was overestimated slightly when fitness status was not considered.
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Masked hypertension and atherogenesis: the impact of apelin and relaxin plasma levels.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Recent evidence demonstrates that masked hypertension (MH) is a significant predictor of cardiovascular disease, while apelin and relaxin are two novel factors with a significant role in vascular regulation. Apelin is an adipokine that elicits endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and reduces arterial blood pressure, while relaxin is a protein hormone that induces the production of nitric oxide and vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibits endothelin and angiotensin II. This study aimed to investigate whether apelin and relaxin plasma levels are affected in patients with MH and compare the findings with those of healthy normotensives. One hundred-thirty (60 men, 70 women) healthy patients with a mean age of 45±12 years who had clinic blood pressure <140/90 mmHg were studied. The whole study population underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). According to the ABPM recordings, 24 individuals (8 men, 16 women) had MH and the remaining 106 patients (52 men, 54 women) had normal ABPM recordings. Apelin and relaxin plasma levels were determined in both groups (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method). The apelin (220±121 vs 315±147 pg/mL, P=.001) and relaxin (35.2±6.7 vs 56.8±13.6 pg/mL, P<.001) plasma levels were significantly lower in the masked hypertensive group compared with normotensive controls. Our findings suggest that patients with masked hypertension have significantly lower apelin and relaxin levels. This observation may have prognostic significance for future cardiovascular events in patients with MH and needs further investigation.
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Changing Behavior among Nurses to Track Indwelling Urinary Catheters in Hospitalized Patients.
Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are preventable complications of hospitalization. An interdisciplinary team developed a curriculum to increase awareness of the presence of indwelling urinary catheters (IUCs) in hospitalized patients, addressed practical, primarily nurse-controlled inpatient risk-reduction interventions, and promoted the use of the IUC labels ("tags"). Five thirty-minute educational sessions were cycled over three daily nursing shifts on two inpatient medical floors over a 1-year period; participants were surveyed (n = 152) to elicit feedback and provide real-time insight on the learning objectives. Nurse self-reported IUC tagging was early and sustained; after the IUC tag was introduced, there was a significant increase in tagging reported by the end of the block of educational sessions (from 46.2% to 84.6%, P = 0.001). Early engagement combined with a targeted educational initiative led to increased knowledge, changes in behavior, and renewed CAUTI awareness in hospitalized patients with IUCs. The processes employed in this small-scale project can be applied to broader, hospitalwide initiatives and to large-scale initiatives for healthcare interventions. As first-line providers with responsibility for the placement and daily maintenance of IUCs, nurses are ideally positioned to implement efforts addressing CAUTIs in the hospital setting.
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Renal sympathetic denervation in hypertension.
Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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Despite the abundance of antihypertensive drugs, resistant hypertension remains a major clinical problem. Recent technological advances render interventional management of resistant hypertension one of the hottest topics in the hypertension field. The aim of this review is to present the pathophysiologic background and the mechanisms mediating blood pressure reduction after renal sympathetic denervation, to analyze recent findings with this fascinating approach and to critically suggest future research directions.
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Carotid baroreceptor stimulation for the treatment of resistant hypertension.
Int J Hypertens
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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Interventional activation of the carotid baroreflex has been an appealing idea for the management of resistant hypertension for several decades, yet its clinical application remained elusive and a goal for the future. It is only recently that the profound understanding of the complex anatomy and pathophysiology of the circuit, combined with the accumulation of relevant experimental and clinical data both in animals and in humans, has allowed the development of a more effective and well-promising approach. Indeed, current data support a sustained over a transient reduction of blood pressure through the resetting of baroreceptors, and technical deficits have been minimized with a subsequent recession of adverse events. In addition, clinical outcomes from the application of a new implantable device (Rheos) that induces carotid baroreceptor stimulation point towards a safe and effective blood pressure reduction, but longer experience is needed before its integration in the everyday clinical practice. While accumulating evidence indicates that carotid baroreceptor stimulation exerts its benefits beyond blood pressure reduction, further research is necessary to assess the spectrum of beneficial effects and evaluate potential hazards, before the extraction of secure conclusions.
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Heart rate recovery, exercise capacity, and mortality risk in male veterans.
Eur J Prev Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Both impaired heart rate recovery (HRR) and low fitness are associated with higher mortality risk. In addition, HRR is influenced by fitness status. The interaction between HRR, mortality, and fitness has not been clearly defined. Thus, we sought to evaluate the association between HRR and all-cause mortality and to assess the effects of fitness on this association.
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Common secondary causes of resistant hypertension and rational for treatment.
Int J Hypertens
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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Resistant hypertension is defined as uncontrolled blood pressure despite the use of three antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, in optimal doses. Treatment resistance can be attributed to poor adherence to antihypertensive drugs, excessive salt intake, physician inertia, inappropriate or inadequate medication, and secondary hypertension. Drug-induced hypertension, obstructive sleep apnoea, primary aldosteronism, and chronic kidney disease represent the most common secondary causes of resistant hypertension. Several drugs can induce or exacerbate pre-existing hypertension, with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs being the most common due to their wide use. Obstructive sleep apnoea and primary aldosteronism are frequently encountered in patients with resistant hypertension and require expert management. Hypertension is commonly found in patients with chronic kidney disease and is frequently resistant to treatment, while the management of renovascular hypertension remains controversial. A step-by-step approach of patients with resistant hypertension is proposed at the end of this review paper.
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Benefits from treatment and control of patients with resistant hypertension.
Int J Hypertens
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2010
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Resistant hypertension is commonly found in everyday clinical practice. However, the risks of resistant hypertension, as well as the benefits of treatment and control of blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension remain vaguely clarified. Data from small clinical studies and observational cohorts suggest that patients with resistant hypertension are at increased cardiovascular risk, while control of blood pressure offers substantial benefits. It has to be noted however that data from appropriate large randomized studies are missing, and resistant hypertension remains remarkably understudied. Resistant hypertension has attracted significant scientific interest lately, as new therapeutic modalities become available. The interventional management of resistant hypertension either by carotid baroreceptor stimulation or renal sympathetic denervation is currently under investigation with promising preliminary results. This review presents available evidence regarding the benefits of treatment and control of blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension and offers a critical evaluation of existing data in this field.
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Prognostic effect of exercise capacity on mortality in older adults with diabetes mellitus.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2010
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To investigate the prognostic effect of exercise capacity in older individuals with diabetes mellitus.
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Left ventricular hypertrophy as a determinant of renal outcome in patients with high cardiovascular risk.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2010
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The prognostic importance of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on renal impairment has not been addressed previously. We investigated whether LVH determines renal outcomes in patients with high cardiovascular risk.
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Exercise capacity and mortality in older men: a 20-year follow-up study.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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Epidemiological findings, based largely on middle-aged populations, support an inverse and independent association between exercise capacity and mortality risk. The information available in older individuals is limited.
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Relationship of ambulatory arterial stiffness index with blood pressure response to exercise in the early stages of hypertension.
Blood Press Monit
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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We sought to investigate the plausible interrelationship of exaggerated blood pressure response during exercise (EBPR) with ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) in never-treated patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension.
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A qualitative study of the meaning of physical examination teaching for patients.
J Gen Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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Physical examination teaching using actual patients is an important part of medical training. The patient experience undergoing this type of teaching is not well-understood.
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Renal sympathetic denervation and systemic hypertension.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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Hypertension represents a major health problem, with an appalling annual toll. Despite the plethora of antihypertensive drugs, hypertension remains resistant in a considerable number of patients, thus creating the need for alternative strategies, including interventional approaches. Recently, renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) using a very elegant, state-of-the-art technique (percutaneous, catheter-based radiofrequency ablation) was shown to be beneficial in patients with resistant hypertension. The pathophysiology of kidney function justifies the use of RSD in the treatment of hypertension. Data from older studies have shown that sympathectomy has efficiently lowered blood pressure and prolonged the life expectancy of patients with hypertension, but at considerable cost. RSD is devoid of the adverse effects of sympathectomy because of its localized nature, is minimally invasive, and provides short procedural and recovery times. In conclusion, this review outlines the pathophysiologic background of RSD, describes the past and the present of this interventional approach, and considers several future potential applications.
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A graded association of exercise capacity and all-cause mortality in males with high-normal blood pressure.
Blood Press.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2009
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Information regarding the effect of exercise capacity on mortality risk in individuals with high-normal blood pressure is severely limited. Thus, we evaluated the association of exercise capacity and all-cause mortality in individuals with high-normal blood pressure.
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Protective effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in high-risk African American men with coronary heart disease.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been extensively used for the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease, but several concerns have been raised about their efficacy in African American (AA) patients with heart failure, hypertension, and left ventricular hypertrophy. In this study the authors assessed the effect of ACE inhibitors on total and cardiovascular mortality in high-risk AA patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD). This was a retrospective analysis of 810 AA men who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography between 1995 and 2003. All patients had demonstrable CAD and had undergone a complete ischemic workup. Follow-up was from 3 to 10 years. ACE inhibitors were administered to 237 patients, while the remaining 537 patients were not taking ACE inhibitors. Patients taking ACE inhibitors had significantly more comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, severe CAD) at baseline, compared with patients not taking ACE inhibitors (P<.05 for all comorbidities). Despite the unfavorable baseline profile, patients taking ACE inhibitors had significantly lower mortality from CAD during follow-up than patients who were not taking ACE inhibitors (P=.006). Stroke mortality rates were similar in both groups. Cox regression analysis showed an 80% higher relative risk in patients not receiving ACE inhibitors. These data indicate a substantial benefit from ACE inhibitor therapy in high-risk AA patients with CAD.
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Exercise capacity and all-cause mortality in prehypertensive men.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2009
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Prehypertension is associated with increased risk for mortality, a fact that generated a debate regarding the use of antihypertensive therapy in prehypertensives. Increased exercise capacity is associated with lower mortality risk, but little is known about its effects in prehypertensives. Thus, we evaluated the association between exercise capacity and all-cause mortality in prehypertensives.
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Exercise capacity and all-cause mortality in African American and Caucasian men with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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The purpose of this study was to assess the association between exercise capacity and mortality in African Americans and Caucasians with type 2 diabetes and to explore racial differences regarding this relationship.
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Exercise capacity and mortality in hypertensive men with and without additional risk factors.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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We assessed the association between exercise capacity and mortality in hypertensive men with and without additional cardiovascular risk factors. A cohort of 4631 hypertensive veterans, who successfully completed a graded exercise test at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Washington, DC, and Palo Alto, California, was followed for 7.7+/-5.4 years (35,629 person-years) for all-cause mortality. Fitness categories were established based on peak metabolic equivalent (MET) levels achieved. In each fitness category, we defined individuals with and without additional cardiovascular risk factors. Exercise capacity was the strongest predictor of all-cause mortality. The adjusted mortality risk was 13% lower for every 1-MET increase in exercise capacity. Compared with the very low fit (< or =5.0 MET), the adjusted risk was 34% lower for those achieving 5.1 to 7.0 MET (low fit; hazard ratio: 0.66; CI: 0.58 to 0.76; P<0.001), 59% lower for the moderate fit (7.1 to 10.0 MET; hazard ratio: 0.41; CI: 0.35 to 0.50; P<0.001), and 71% lower for the high-fit category (>10.0 MET; hazard ratio: 0.29; CI: 0.21 to 0.40; P<0.001). Within the very-low-fit category, mortality risk was 47% higher for those with additional risk factors compared with individuals with no risk factors. This risk was eliminated for those in the next fitness category (5.1 to 7.0 MET) and was progressively reduced for the moderate and high-fit categories regardless of the presence or absence of additional risk factors. In conclusion, exercise capacity was the strongest predictor of all-cause mortality in hypertensive men. The increased risk imposed by low fitness and additional cardiovascular risk factors was eliminated by relatively small increases in exercise capacity and declined progressively with higher exercise capacity.
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Interactive effects of fitness and statin treatment on mortality risk in veterans with dyslipidaemia: a cohort study.
Lancet
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Statins are commonly prescribed for management of dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular disease. Increased fitness is also associated with low mortality and is recommended as an essential part of promoting health. However, little information exists about the combined effects of fitness and statin treatment on all-cause mortality. We assessed the combined effects of statin treatment and fitness on all-cause mortality risk.
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Exercise capacity and progression from prehypertension to hypertension.
Hypertension
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Prehypertension is likely to progress to hypertension. The rate of progression is determined mostly by age and resting blood pressure but may also be attenuated by increased fitness. A graded exercise test was performed in 2303 men with prehypertension at the Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in Washington, DC. Four fitness categories were defined, based on peak metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved. We assessed the association between exercise capacity and rate of progression to hypertension (HTN). The median follow-up period was 7.8 years (mean (± SD) 9.2±6.1 years). The incidence rate of progression from prehypertension to hypertension was 34.4 per 1000 person-years. Exercise capacity was a strong and independent predictor of the rate of progression. Compared to the High-Fit individuals (>10.0 METs), the adjusted risk for developing HTN was 66% higher (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.2; P=0.001) for the Low-Fit and, similarly, 72% higher (hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.3; P=0.001) for the Least-Fit individuals, whereas it was only 36% for the Moderate-Fit (hazard ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.80; P=0.056). Significant predictors for the progression to HTN were also age (19% per 10 years), resting systolic blood pressure (16% per 10 mm Hg), body mass index (15.3% per 5 U), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (2-fold). In conclusion, an inverse, S-shaped association was shown between exercise capacity and the rate of progression from prehypertension to hypertension in middle-aged and older male veterans. The protective effects of fitness were evident when exercise capacity exceeded 8.5 METs. These findings emphasize the importance of fitness in the prevention of hypertension.
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Blood pressure control among US veterans: a large multiyear analysis of blood pressure data from the Veterans Administration health data repository.
Circulation
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Hypertension treatment and control remain low worldwide. Strategies to improve blood pressure control have been implemented in the United States and around the world for several years. This study was designed to assess improvement in blood pressure control over a 10-year period in a large cohort of patients in the Department of Veterans Affairs.
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Carotid baroreceptor activation for the treatment of resistant hypertension and heart failure.
Curr. Hypertens. Rep.
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Carotid baroreceptors play an important role in blood pressure regulation through modification of sympathetic nervous activity. Conditions associated with increased sympathetic activity, such as resistant hypertension and heart failure, represent potential targets for carotid baroreceptor activation. Recent technological advances made available a small device, like a pacemaker, that constantly activates carotid baroreceptors. Primary experimental and clinical data obtained from use of this device point toward significant blood pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension, as well as beneficial effects on cardiac structure and function. A large feasibility trial revealed promising results; however, the first randomized study in patients with resistant hypertension raised several concerns regarding the efficacy and safety of baroreceptor activation with the device. This review critically evaluates available data obtained with carotid baroreceptor activation, emphasizing data acquired during the past year, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages as well as the future prospects of this intervention.
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BMI-mortality paradox and fitness in African American and Caucasian men with type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Care
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To assess the association between BMI, fitness, and mortality in African American and Caucasian men with type 2 diabetes and to explore racial differences in this association.
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Body mass index, exercise capacity, and mortality risk in male veterans with hypertension.
Am. J. Hypertens.
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Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality. Exercise capacity is inversely associated with mortality risk. However, little is known on the interaction between fitness, fatness, and mortality risk in hypertensive individuals. Thus, we assessed the interaction between exercise capacity, fatness, and all-cause mortality in hypertensive males.
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