A number of isosteres (oxadiazoles, thiadiazoles, tetrazoles and diazines) of benzocaine were prepared and evaluated for their capacity to induce methemoglobinemia-with a view to their possible application as humane pest control agents. It was found that an optimal lipophilicity for the formation of methemoglobin (metHb) in vitro existed within each series, with 1,2,4-oxadiazole 3 (metHb%=61.0±3.6) and 1,3,4-oxadiazole 10 (metHb%=52.4±0.9) demonstrating the greatest activity. Of the 5 candidates (compounds 3, 10, 11, 13 and 23) evaluated in vivo, failure to induce a lethal end-point at doses of 120mg/kg was observed in all cases. Inadequate metabolic stability, particularly towards hepatic enzymes such as the CYPs, was postulated as one reason for their failure.
A number of structural analogues of the known toxicant para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP) have been prepared and evaluated for their capacity to induce methemoglobinemia-with a view to their possible application as humane pest control agents. It was found that an optimal lipophilicity for the formation of methemoglobin (metHb) in vitro existed for alkyl analogues of PAPP (aminophenones 1-20; compound 6 metHb%=74.1±2). Besides lipophilicity, this structural sub-class suggested there were certain structural requirements for activity, with both branched (10-16) and cyclic (17-20) alkyl analogues exhibiting inferior in vitro metHb induction. Of the four candidates (compounds 4, 6, 13 and 23) evaluated in vivo, 4 exhibited the greatest toxicity. In parallel, aminophenone bioisosteres, including oximes 30-32, sulfoxide 33, sulfone 34 and sulfonamides 35-36, were found to be inferior metHb inducers to lead ketone 4. Closer examination of Hammett substituent constants suggests that a particular combination of the field and resonance parameters may be significant with respect to the redox mechanisms behind PAPPs metHb toxicity.
In New Zealand, the vertebrate pesticide sodium fluoroacetate (Compound 1080) is aerially applied in baits for control of the brush-tailed possum Trichosurus vulpecula (Kerr, 1792). Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, have raised concerns about 1080 impacts on culturally-important species. Here, we outline two steps taken to help Maori assess 1080 risk. First, field research was undertaken to determine if naturally-occurring plants utilized by a Maori community for food and medicine would take up 1080 from baits. Single baits were placed at the base of individual plants of two species, pikopiko (Asplenium bulbiferum) and karamuramu (Coprosma robusta). Plants were sampled at various times up to 56 days, and samples were analyzed for 1080 content. No 1080 was detected in any of the pikopiko samples, whereas 1080 was detected in karamuramu, at a maximum concentration of 5 ppb after seven days, and 2.5 ppb after 14 days. This concentration decreased to 0 at 28 days, indicating that 1080 was not persistent. The results of the present study suggest there is negligible risk of humans being poisoned by consuming plants that have taken up 1080 from baits. To allay community concerns that minute concentrations of 1080 might influence the medicinal properties of plants, it is suggested that a withholding period of 30 days after 1080 control operations could be adopted. Second, after further consultation we undertook a review of the scientific literature relating to 1080 impacts on additional non-target species of cultural importance to Maori. The information was presented on an interactive foodweb database that allowed the collection and presentation of a large volume of complex information about 1080 in a holistic and pictorial fashion. This database was presented to many Maori communities throughout New Zealand, and feedback was overwhelmingly positive. The database is likely to play a key role in informing these communities about 1080, and is seen as an important new tool to help these communities make their own risk assessments.
The endemic fauna of New Zealand evolved in the absence of mammalian predators and their introduction has been responsible for many extinctions and declines. Introduced species including possums (Trichosurus vulpecula Kerr), ship rats (Rattus rattus L.) and stoats (Mustela erminea L.) are targeted to protect native birds. Control methodologies currently rely largely on labor-intensive trapping or the use of increasingly unpopular poisons, or poisons that are linked with low welfare standards. Hence, the development of safer humane predator toxins and delivery systems is highly desirable. Para-aminopropiophenone (PAPP) is being developed as a toxin for feral cats (Felis catus L.) and stoats. Carnivores appear to be much more susceptible to PAPP than birds, so it potentially has high target specificity, at least in New Zealand. Pen trials with 20 feral cats and 15 stoats have been undertaken using meat baits containing a proprietary formulation of PAPP. A PAPP dose of 20-34 mg kg(-1) was lethal for feral cats and 37-95 mg kg(-1) was lethal for stoats. Our assessments suggest that PAPP, for the control of feral cats and stoats, is a humane and effective toxin. PAPP causes methaemoglobinaemia, resulting in central nervous system anoxia, lethargy and death.
Sodium fluoroacetate (1080) is used for control of vertebrate pests in New Zealand. Little is known about chronic effects in humans, but animal studies demonstrate potential for adverse fetal, male fertility, and cardiac effects. We aimed to employ analyses of 1080 to help assess the degree of exposure of bait formulators and distributors, and identify specific tasks where exposure reduction appeared most indicated. We also aimed to utilise the (limited) 1080 toxicity data to assess the significance of the analytical results.
The success of research in integrated environmental and natural resource management relies on the participation and involvement of different disciplines and stakeholders. This can be difficult to achieve in practice because many initiatives fail to address the underlying social processes required for successful engagement and social learning. We used an action research approach to support a research-based group with a range of disciplinary and stakeholder expertise to critically reflect on their engagement practice and identify lessons around how to collaborate more effectively. This approach is provided here as a guide that can be used to support reflective research practice for engagement in other integration-based initiatives. This paper is set in the context of an integrated wildlife management research case study in New Zealand. We illustrate how multi-, inter- and trans-disciplinary approaches can provide a framework for considering the different conversations that need to occur in an integrated research program. We then outline rubrics that list the criteria required in inter- and trans-disciplinary collaborations, along with examples of effective engagement processes that directly support integration through such efforts. Finally, we discuss the implications of these experiences for other researchers and managers seeking to improve engagement and collaboration in integrated science, management and policy initiatives. Our experiences reaffirm the need for those involved in integrative initiatives to attend to the processes of engagement in both formal and informal settings, to provide opportunities for critical reflective practice, and to look for measures of success that acknowledge the importance of effective social process.
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