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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Dengue therapeutics, chemoprophylaxis, and allied tools: state of the art and future directions.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Dengue is the most common arboviral disease of humans. There is an unmet need for a therapeutic intervention that reduces the duration and severity of dengue symptoms and diminishes the likelihood of severe complications. To this end, there are active discovery efforts in industry and academia to develop interventions, with a focus on small molecule inhibitors of dengue virus replication that are suitable for therapy or chemoprophylaxis. Advancements in animal models of dengue virus infection together with the possibility of a dengue human infection model have further enhanced the platform for dengue drug discovery. Whilst drug discovery efforts gestate, there are ongoing clinical research designed to benefit today's patients, including trials of supportive care interventions, and descriptive studies that should improve the ability of clinicians to make an accurate diagnosis early in the illness course and to identify patients most at risk of progression to severe disease. This review provides a state of the art summary of dengue drug discovery, clinical trials, and supportive allied research and reflects discussions at the 2nd International Dengue Therapeutics Workshop held in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, in December 2013.
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Viral aetiology of central nervous system infections in adults admitted to a tertiary referral hospital in southern Vietnam over 12 years.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Central nervous system (CNS) infections are important diseases in both children and adults worldwide. The spectrum of infections is broad, encompassing bacterial/aseptic meningitis and encephalitis. Viruses are regarded as the most common causes of encephalitis and aseptic meningitis. Better understanding of the viral causes of the diseases is of public health importance, in order to better inform immunization policy, and may influence clinical management.
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Two cases of bacteriemia caused by nontoxigenic, non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae isolates in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The toxigenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae belonging to the O1 and O139 serogroups is commonly associated with epidemic diarrhea in tropical settings; other diseases caused by this environmental pathogen are seldom identified. Here we report two unassociated cases of nonfatal, nontoxigenic V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 bacteremia in patients with comorbidities in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, that occurred within a 4-week period.
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Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii as the major cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care unit patients at an infectious disease hospital in southern Vietnam.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious healthcare-associated infection that affects up to 30?% of intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. The bacterial aetiology and corresponding antimicrobial susceptibility of VAP is highly variable, and can differ between countries, national provinces and even between different wards in the same hospital. We aimed to understand and document changes in the causative agents of VAP and their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles retrospectively over an 11 year period in a major infectious disease hospital in southern Vietnam. Our analysis outlined a significant shift from Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Acinetobacter spp. as the most prevalent bacteria isolated from quantitative tracheal aspirates in patients with VAP in this setting. Antimicrobial resistance was common across all bacterial species and we found a marked proportional annual increase in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. over a 3 year period from 2008 (annual trend; odds ratio 1.656, P?=?0.010). We further investigated the possible emergence of a carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clone by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis, finding a blaOXA-23-positive strain that was associated with an upsurge in the isolation of this pathogen. We additionally identified a single blaNDM-1-positive A. baumannii isolate. This work highlights the emergence of a carbapenem-resistant clone of A. baumannii and a worrying trend of antimicrobial resistance in the ICU of the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
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Dengue human infection models supporting drug development.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Dengue is a arboviral infection that represents a major global health burden. There is an unmet need for effective dengue therapeutics to reduce symptoms, duration of illness and incidence of severe complications. Here, we consider the merits of a dengue human infection model (DHIM) for drug development. A DHIM could allow experimentally controlled studies of candidate therapeutics in preselected susceptible volunteers, potentially using smaller sample sizes than trials that recruited patients with dengue in an endemic country. In addition, the DHIM would assist the conduct of intensive pharmacokinetic and basic research investigations and aid in determining optimal drug dosage. Furthermore, a DHIM could help establish proof of concept that chemoprophylaxis against dengue is feasible. The key challenge in developing the DHIM for drug development is to ensure the model reliably replicates the typical clinical and laboratory features of naturally acquired, symptomatic dengue.
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Within-host viral dynamics of dengue serotype 1 infection.
J R Soc Interface
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Dengue, the most common mosquito-borne viral infection of humans, is endemic across much of the world, including much of tropical Asia and is increasing in its geographical range. Here, we present a mathematical model of dengue virus dynamics within infected individuals, detailing the interaction between virus and a simple immune response. We fit this model to measurements of plasma viral titre from cases of primary and secondary DENV 1 infection in Vietnam. We show that variation in model parameters governing the immune response is sufficient to create the observed variation in virus dynamics between individuals. Estimating model parameter values, we find parameter differences between primary and secondary cases consistent with the theory of antibody-dependent enhancement (namely enhanced rates of viral entry to target cells in secondary cases). Finally, we use our model to examine the potential impact of an antiviral drug on the within-host dynamics of dengue. We conclude that the impact of antiviral therapy on virus dynamics is likely to be limited if therapy is only started at the onset of symptoms, owing to the typically late stage of viral pathogenesis reached by the time symptoms are manifested and thus treatment is started.
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Low prevalence of transmitted drug resistance of HIV-1 during 2008-2012 antiretroviral therapy scaling up in Southern Vietnam.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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The recent expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in resource-limited setting has raised concern about possible transmission of drug resistance (TDR). We assessed the prevalence of TDR over a 5-year period among treatment-naive individuals in Southern Vietnam during rapid ART scale-up.
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Limited geographic distribution of the novel cyclovirus CyCV-VN.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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A novel cyclovirus, CyCV-VN, was recently identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections in central and southern Vietnam. To explore the geographic distribution of this novel virus, more than 600?CSF specimens from patients with suspected CNS infections in northern Vietnam, Cambodia, Nepal and The Netherlands were screened for the presence of CyCV-VN but all were negative. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis between CyCV-VN and another novel cyclovirus recently identified in CSF from Malawian patients indicated that these represent distinct cycloviral species, albeit phylogenetically closely related. The data suggest that CyCV-VN has a limited geographic distribution within southern and central Vietnam. Further research is needed to determine the global distribution and diversity of cycloviruses and importantly their possible association with human disease.
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Patient-based transcriptome-wide analysis identify interferon and ubiquination pathways as potential predictors of influenza a disease severity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The influenza A virus is an RNA virus that is responsible for seasonal epidemics worldwide with up to five million cases of severe illness and 500,000 deaths annually according to the World Health Organization estimates. The factors associated with severe diseases are not well defined, but more severe disease is more often seen among persons aged >65 years, infants, pregnant women, and individuals of any age with underlying health conditions.
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Evaluation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Microbiological confirmation is rare, and treatment is often delayed, increasing mortality and morbidity. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF test was evaluated in a large cohort of patients with suspected tuberculous meningitis. Three hundred seventy-nine patients presenting with suspected tuberculous meningitis to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, between 17 April 2011 and 31 December 2012 were included in the study. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were tested by Ziehl-Neelsen smear, mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF. Rifampin (RIF) resistance results by Xpert were confirmed by an MTBDR-Plus line probe assay and all positive cultures were tested by phenotypic MGIT drug susceptibility testing. Overall, 182/379 included patients (48.0%) were diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis. Sensitivities of Xpert, smear, and MGIT culture among patients diagnosed with TBM were 59.3% (108/182 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 51.8 to 66.5%]), 78.6% (143/182 [95% CI, 71.9 to 84.3%]) and 66.5% (121/182 [95% CI, 59.1 to 73.3%]), respectively. There was one false-positive Xpert MTB/RIF test (99.5% specificity). Four cases of RIF resistance (4/109; 3.7%) were identified by Xpert, of which 3 were confirmed to be multidrug-resistant (MDR) TBM and one was culture negative. Xpert MTB/RIF is a rapid and specific test for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. The addition of a vortexing step to sample processing increased sensitivity for confirmed TBM by 20% (P = 0.04). Meticulous examination of a smear from a large volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) remains the most sensitive technique but is not practical in most laboratories. The Xpert MTB/RIF represents a significant advance in the early diagnosis of this devastating condition.
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A birth cohort study of viral infections in Vietnamese infants and children: study design, methods and characteristics of the cohort.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, more than one-third of admissions to the two paediatric hospitals are attributable to four infectious syndromes: dengue, diarrhoeal disease, acute respiratory infection, and hand, foot and mouth disease. We have established a large prospective birth cohort study to investigate individual, environmental, virological, and immunological determinants of infection and disease in infants. Specific research questions are focused on the role of maternal antibody in protection against infection in infancy, and the adaptive immune response to vaccination and natural infection. This paper presents the cohort design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the participants enrolled in the first two years.
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Identification of a new cyclovirus in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute central nervous system infections.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Acute central nervous system (CNS) infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality, but the etiology remains unknown in a large proportion of cases. We identified and characterized the full genome of a novel cyclovirus (tentatively named cyclovirus-Vietnam [CyCV-VN]) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens of two Vietnamese patients with CNS infections of unknown etiology. CyCV-VN was subsequently detected in 4% of 642 CSF specimens from Vietnamese patients with suspected CNS infections and none of 122 CSFs from patients with noninfectious neurological disorders. Detection rates were similar in patients with CNS infections of unknown etiology and those in whom other pathogens were detected. A similar detection rate in feces from healthy children suggested food-borne or orofecal transmission routes, while high detection rates in feces from pigs and poultry (average, 58%) suggested the existence of animal reservoirs for such transmission. Further research is needed to address the epidemiology and pathogenicity of this novel, potentially zoonotic virus.
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Population-level antibody estimates to novel influenza A/H7N9.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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There are no contemporary data available describing human immunity to novel influenza A/H7N9. Using 1723 prospectively collected serum samples in southern Vietnam, we tested for antibodies to 5 avian influenza virus antigens, using a protein microarray. General-population antibody titers against subtype H7 virus are higher than antibody titers against subtype H5 and lower than titers against H9. The highest titers were observed for human influenza virus subtypes. Titers to avian influenza virus antigens increased with age and with geometric mean antibody titer to human influenza virus antigens. There were no titer differences between the urban and the rural location in our study.
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Host and viral features of human dengue cases shape the population of infected and infectious Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease of humans. The host and virus variables associated with dengue virus (DENV) transmission from symptomatic dengue cases (n = 208) to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes during 407 independent exposure events was defined. The 50% mosquito infectious dose for each of DENV-1-4 ranged from 6.29 to 7.52 log10 RNA copies/mL of plasma. Increasing day of illness, declining viremia, and rising antibody titers were independently associated with reduced risk of DENV transmission. High early DENV plasma viremia levels in patients were a marker of the duration of human infectiousness, and blood meals containing high concentrations of DENV were positively associated with the prevalence of infectious mosquitoes 14 d after blood feeding. Ambulatory dengue cases had lower viremia levels compared with hospitalized dengue cases but nonetheless at levels predicted to be infectious to mosquitoes. These data define serotype-specific viremia levels that vaccines or drugs must inhibit to prevent DENV transmission.
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TM4SF20 ancestral deletion and susceptibility to a pediatric disorder of early language delay and cerebral white matter hyperintensities.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) of the brain are important markers of aging and small-vessel disease. WMHs are rare in healthy children and, when observed, often occur with comorbid neuroinflammatory or vasculitic processes. Here, we describe a complex 4 kb deletion in 2q36.3 that segregates with early childhood communication disorders and WMH in 15 unrelated families predominantly from Southeast Asia. The premature brain aging phenotype with punctate and multifocal WMHs was observed in ~70% of young carrier parents who underwent brain MRI. The complex deletion removes the penultimate exon 3 of TM4SF20, a gene encoding a transmembrane protein of unknown function. Minigene analysis showed that the resultant net loss of an exon introduces a premature stop codon, which, in turn, leads to the generation of a stable protein that fails to target to the plasma membrane and accumulates in the cytoplasm. Finally, we report this deletion to be enriched in individuals of Vietnamese Kinh descent, with an allele frequency of about 1%, embedded in an ancestral haplotype. Our data point to a constellation of early language delay and WMH phenotypes, driven by a likely toxic mechanism of TM4SF20 truncation, and highlight the importance of understanding and managing population-specific low-frequency pathogenic alleles.
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Genetic variants of MICB and PLCE1 and associations with non-severe dengue.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified susceptibility loci for dengue shock syndrome (DSS) at MICB rs3132468 and PLCE1 rs3740360. The aim of this study was to define the extent to which MICB (rs3132468) and PLCE1 (rs3740360) were associated with less severe clinical phenotypes of pediatric and adult dengue.
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An oral preparation of Lactobacillus acidophilus for the treatment of uncomplicated acute watery diarrhoea in Vietnamese children: study protocol for a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Diarrhoeal disease is a major global health problem, particularly affecting children under the age of 5 years. Besides oral rehydration solution, probiotics are also commonly prescribed to children with acute watery diarrhoea in some settings. Results from randomised clinical trials (RCTs) in which investigators studied the effect of probiotics on diarrhoeal symptoms have largely shown a positive effect; yet, the overall quality of the data is limited. In Vietnam, probiotics are the most frequently prescribed treatment for children hospitalised with acute watery diarrhoea, but there is little justification for this treatment in this location. We have designed a RCT to test the hypothesis that an oral preparation of Lactobacillus acidophilus is superior to placebo in the treatment of acute watery diarrhoea in Vietnamese children.
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Real-time PCR for detection of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in cerebrospinal fluid of human patients with meningitis.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an emerging zoonotic pathogen and is the main cause of acute bacterial meningitis in adult patients in Vietnam. We developed an internally controlled real-time PCR for detection of S. suis serotype 2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples targeted at the cps2J gene. Sensitivity and specificity in culture-confirmed clinical samples were 100%. The PCR detected S. suis serotype 2 infection in 101 of 238 (42.4%) prospectively collected CSF samples, of which 55 (23%) were culture positive. Culture-negative but PCR-positive CSF samples were significantly associated with the use of antimicrobial agents before admission. S. suis serotype 2 infection was more common than infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis combined. Our results strikingly illustrate the additional diagnostic value of PCR in patients who are pretreated with antimicrobial agents and demonstrate the extremely high prevalence of S. suis infections among Vietnamese adult patients with bacterial meningitis.
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Genome-wide association study identifies susceptibility loci for dengue shock syndrome at MICB and PLCE1.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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Hypovolemic shock (dengue shock syndrome (DSS)) is the most common life-threatening complication of dengue. We conducted a genome-wide association study of 2,008 pediatric cases treated for DSS and 2,018 controls from Vietnam. Replication of the most significantly associated markers was carried out in an independent Vietnamese sample of 1,737 cases and 2,934 controls. SNPs at two loci showed genome-wide significant association with DSS. We identified a susceptibility locus at MICB (major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I polypeptide-related sequence B), which was within the broad MHC region on chromosome 6 but outside the class I and class II HLA loci (rs3132468, P(meta) = 4.41 × 10(-11), per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.46)). We identified associated variants within PLCE1 (phospholipase C, epsilon 1) on chromosome 10 (rs3765524, P(meta) = 3.08 × 10(-10), per-allele OR = 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.75-0.86)). We identify two loci associated with susceptibility to DSS in people with dengue, suggesting possible mechanisms for this severe complication of dengue.
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A multi-center randomized trial to assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus ciprofloxacin for the treatment of shigellosis in Vietnamese children.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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The bacterial genus Shigella is the leading cause of dysentery. There have been significant increases in the proportion of Shigella isolated that demonstrate resistance to nalidixic acid. While nalidixic acid is no longer considered as a therapeutic agent for shigellosis, the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is the current recommendation of the World Health Organization. Resistance to nalidixic acid is a marker of reduced susceptibility to older generation fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. We aimed to assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus ciprofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated shigellosis in children.
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Random PCR and ultracentrifugation increases sensitivity and throughput of VIDISCA for screening of pathogens in clinical specimens.
J Infect Dev Ctries
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Virus discovery based on cDNA-AFLP (VIDISCA) is a sequence-independent virus discovery method that was recently developed and successfully used to characterize unknown viruses in cell cultures. Its applicability, however, is limited by its low sensitivity.
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Viral etiologies of acute respiratory infections among hospitalized Vietnamese children in Ho Chi Minh City, 2004-2008.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2011
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The dominant viral etiologies responsible for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are poorly understood, particularly among hospitalized children in resource-limited tropical countries where morbidity and mortality caused by ARIs are highest. Improved etiological insight is needed to improve clinical management and prevention.
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Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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Streptococcus suis is a pathogen of major economic significance to the swine industry and is increasingly recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent in Asia. In Vietnam, S. suis is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adult humans. Zoonotic transmission is most frequently associated with serotype 2 strains and occupational exposure to pigs or consumption of infected pork. To gain insight into the role of pigs for human consumption as a reservoir for zoonotic infection in southern Vietnam, we determined the prevalence and diversity of S. suis carriage in healthy slaughterhouse pigs. Nasopharyngeal tonsils were sampled from pigs at slaughterhouses serving six provinces in southern Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh City area from September 2006 to November 2007. Samples were screened by bacterial culture. Isolates of S. suis were serotyped and characterized by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antibiotic susceptibility profiles and associated genetic resistance determinants, and the presence of putative virulence factors were determined. 41% (222/542) of pigs carried S. suis of one or multiple serotypes. 8% (45/542) carried S. suis serotype 2 which was the most common serotype found (45/317 strains, 14%). 80% of serotype 2 strains belonged to the MLST clonal complex 1,which was previously associated with meningitis cases in Vietnam and outbreaks of severe disease in China in 1998 and 2005. These strains clustered with representative strains isolated from patients with meningitis in PFGE analysis, and showed similar antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor profiles. Slaughterhouse pigs are a major reservoir of S. suis serotype 2 capable of causing human infection in southern Vietnam. Strict hygiene at processing facilities, and health education programs addressing food safety and proper handling of pork should be encouraged.
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Differential phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of qnrS1-harboring plasmids carried by hospital and community commensal enterobacteria.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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The qnrS1 gene induces reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in enterobacteria. We investigated the structure, antimicrobial susceptibility phenotype, and antimicrobial resistance gene characteristics of qnrS1 plasmids from hospitalized patients and community controls in southern Vietnam. We found that the antimicrobial susceptibilities, resistance gene characteristics, and plasmid structures of qnrS1 plasmids from the hospital differed from those from the community. Our data imply that the characteristics of the two plasmid groups are indicative of distinct selective pressures in the differing environments.
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Epidemiological factors associated with dengue shock syndrome and mortality in hospitalized dengue patients in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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Understanding trends in dengue disease burden and risk factors for severe disease can inform health service allocation, clinical management, and planning for vaccines and therapeutics. Dengue admissions at three tertiary hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, increased between 1996 and 2009, peaking at 22,860 in 2008. Children aged 6-10 years had highest risk of dengue shock syndrome (DSS); however, mortality was highest in younger children and decreased with increasing age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.36-0.75 in 6- to 10- year-old children and OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.16-0.44 in 11- to 15-year-old children compared with 1- to 5-year-old children). Males were overrepresented among dengue cases; however, girls had higher risk of DSS (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.14-1.24) and death (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.14-2.17). Young children with dengue had greatest risk of death and should be targeted in dengue vaccine and drug trials. The increased risk of severe outcomes in girls warrants further attention in studies of pathogenesis, health-seeking behavior, and clinical care.
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A sensitive real-time PCR for detection and subgrouping of human respiratory syncytial virus.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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Improved diagnostic tools for rapid detection, quantitation, and subgrouping of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are needed to aid the development and evaluation of novel intervention strategies. A quantitative real-time RT-PCR using specific locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes was developed to identify RSV and to distinguish RSV subgroups A and B (RSV LNA assay). RSV subgroup diversity and the relationship between viral load and disease severity in confirmed RSV infections were also explored. 264 archived respiratory specimens from pediatric patients were tested in parallel using the commercial multiplex Seeplex™ RV detection kit (Seegene) and the novel RSV LNA assay. The LNA assay demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity than Seeplex, improving overall detection rates from 24% (64/264) to 32% (84/264). Detection limits of 9.0×10(1) and 6.0×10(2)copies/mL were observed for RSV A and B, respectively. RSV A was detected in 53/84 (63%) cases, and 31/84 (37%) were positive for RSV B. This novel method offers a rapid, quantitative, highly specific and sensitive approach to laboratory diagnosis of RSV.
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Temporal fluctuation of multidrug resistant salmonella typhi haplotypes in the mekong river delta region of Vietnam.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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typhoid fever remains a public health problem in Vietnam, with a significant burden in the Mekong River delta region. Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), which is frequently multidrug resistant with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone-based drugs, the first choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. We used a GoldenGate (Illumina) assay to type 1,500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and analyse the genetic variation of S. Typhi isolated from 267 typhoid fever patients in the Mekong delta region participating in a randomized trial conducted between 2004 and 2005.
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Evaluation of the MTBDRsl test for detection of second-line-drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
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The MTBDRsl assay (Hain Lifescience GmbH, Germany) is a new line probe assay for the detection of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB). The test simultaneously detects resistance to ethambutol, aminoglycosides/cyclic peptides, and fluoroquinolones through detection of mutations in the relevant genes. The assay format is identical to the MTBDR Hain assay. The assay was evaluated for the detection of second-line-drug resistance in Vietnamese isolates using two sample sets from the microbiology department of Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam, with existing conventional phenotypic drug susceptibility results for second-line drugs: 41 consecutive fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates and 21 consecutive multidrug-resistant but fluoroquinolone-sensitive isolates. The sensitivity for detection of fluoroquinolone resistance was 75.6% (31/41) (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 59.7% to 87.6%), and for kanamycin resistance, the sensitivity was 100% (5/5) (95% CI, 47.8% to 100%). The sensitivity of the test for detection of ethambutol resistance was low, consistent with previous reports, at 64.2% (34/53) (95% CI, 49.8% to 76.9%). The specificity of the test was 100% for all three drugs. These data suggest that the MTBDRsl assay is a rapid, specific test for the detection of XDR TB but should not be used exclusively to "rule out" second-line-drug resistance. Further operational evaluation is required and should be integrated with evaluations of the MTBDR test.
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The sensitivity of real-time PCR amplification targeting invasive Salmonella serovars in biological specimens.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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PCR amplification for the detection of pathogens in biological material is generally considered a rapid and informative diagnostic technique. Invasive Salmonella serovars, which cause enteric fever, can be commonly cultured from the blood of infected patients. Yet, the isolation of invasive Salmonella serovars from blood is protracted and potentially insensitive.
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Viral etiology of encephalitis in children in southern Vietnam: results of a one-year prospective descriptive study.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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Acute encephalitis is an important and severe disease in children in Vietnam. However, little is known about the etiology while such knowledge is essential for optimal prevention and treatment. To identify viral causes of encephalitis, in 2004 we conducted a one-year descriptive study at Childrens Hospital Number One, a referral hospital for children in southern Vietnam including Ho Chi Minh City.
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Timing of CD8+ T cell responses in relation to commencement of capillary leakage in children with dengue.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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Immune activation is a feature of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and CD8+ T cell responses in particular have been suggested as having a role in the vasculopathy that characterizes this disease. By phenotyping CD8+ T cells (CD38+/HLA-DR+, CD38+/Ki-67+, or HLA-DR+/Ki-67+) in serial blood samples from children with dengue, we found no evidence of increased CD8+ T cell activation prior to the commencement of resolution of viremia or hemoconcentration. Investigations with MHC class I tetramers to detect NS3(133-142)-specific CD8+ T cells in two independent cohorts of children suggested the commencement of hemoconcentration and thrombocytopenia in DHF patients generally begins before the appearance of measurable frequencies of NS3(133-142)-specific CD8+ T cells. The temporal mismatch between the appearance of measurable surface activated or NS3(133-142)-specific CD8+ T cells suggests that these cells are sequestered at sites of infection, have phenotypes not detected by our approach, or that other mechanisms independent of CD8+ T cells are responsible for early triggering of capillary leakage in children with DHF.
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Early pandemic influenza (2009 H1N1) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: a clinical virological and epidemiological analysis.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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To date, little is known about the initial spread and response to the 2009 pandemic of novel influenza A ("2009 H1N1") in tropical countries. Here, we analyse the early progression of the epidemic from 26 May 2009 until the establishment of community transmission in the second half of July 2009 in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. In addition, we present detailed systematic viral clearance data on 292 isolated and treated patients and the first three cases of selection of resistant virus during treatment in Vietnam.
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Kinetics of neutralizing antibodies in patients naturally infected by H5N1 virus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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Little is known about the kinetics of anti-H5 neutralizing antibodies in naturally H5N1-infected patients with severe clinical illness or asymptomatic infection.
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A real-time RT-PCR for detection of clade 1 and 2 H5N1 influenza A virus using locked nucleic acid (LNA) TaqMan probes.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
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The emergence and co-circulation of two different clades (clade 1 and 2) of H5N1 influenza viruses in Vietnam necessitates the availability of a diagnostic assay that can detect both variants.
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A randomised trial evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of the novel single oral dose typhoid vaccine M01ZH09 in healthy Vietnamese children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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The emergence of drug resistant typhoid fever is a major public health problem, especially in Asia. An oral single dose typhoid vaccine would have major advantages. M01ZH09 is a live oral single dose candidate typhoid vaccine containing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Ty2 aroC(-)ssaV(-)) ZH9 with two independently attenuating deletions. Studies in healthy adults demonstrated immunogenicity and an acceptable safety profile.
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Hemostatic changes in Vietnamese children with mild dengue correlate with the severity of vascular leakage rather than bleeding.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2009
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The mechanisms underlying the bleeding manifestations and coagulopathy associated with dengue remain unclear, in part because of the focus of much previous work on severe disease without an appropriate comparison group. We describe detailed clinical and laboratory profiles for a large group of children with dengue of all severities, and a group with similar non-dengue febrile illnesses, all followed prospectively from early presentation through to recovery. Among the dengue-infected patients but not the controls, thrombocytopenia, increased partial thromboplastin times and reduced fibrinogen concentrations were apparent from an early stage, and these abnormalities correlated strongly with the severity and timing of vascular leakage but not bleeding. There was little evidence of procoagulant activation. The findings do not support a primary diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation to explain the intrinsic coagulopathy. An alternative biologically plausible hypothesis is discussed.
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Immunological and biochemical correlates of adjunctive dexamethasone in Vietnamese adults with bacterial meningitis.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2009
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Adjunctive treatment to improve outcome from bacterial meningitis has centered on dexamethasone. Among Vietnamese patients with bacterial meningitis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) opening pressure and CSF:plasma glucose ratios were significantly improved and levels of CSF cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10 and were all statistically significantly lower after treatment in patients who were randomized to dexamethasone, compared with levels in patients who received placebo.
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Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is significantly associated with high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in Vietnam.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2009
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Consecutive fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant isolates (n = 109) identified at the Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital for Tuberculosis, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, were sequenced in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA and gyrB genes and typed by large sequence polymorphism typing and spoligotyping to identify the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Beijing genotype prevalence was compared with 109 consecutive isolates from newly presenting patients with pulmonary tuberculosis from the hospital outpatient department. Overall, 82.6% (n = 90/109) of isolates had mutations in gyrAB. Nine novel mutations were identified in gyrB (S486F, N538T, T539P, D500A, D500H, D500N, G509A, E540V, and E540D). The influence of these novel gyrB mutations on FQ resistance is not proven. The Beijing genotype was significantly associated with FQ resistance (odds ratio [OR], 2.39 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.34 to 4.25]; P = 0.003). Furthermore, Beijing genotype FQ-resistant isolates were significantly more likely than FQ-resistant isolates of other genotypes to have gyrA mutations (OR, 7.75 [95% CI, 2.84 to 21.15]; P = 0.0001) and high-level (>8 microg/ml) FQ resistance (OR, 11.0 [95% CI, 2.6 to 47.0]; P = 0.001). The underlying mechanism of the association of the Beijing genotype with high-level FQ resistance in this setting remains to be determined. The association of the Beijing genotype with relatively high-level FQ resistance conferred by specific gyrA mutations reported here is of grave concern given the epidemic spread of the Beijing genotype and the current hopes for shorter first-line treatment regimens based on FQs.
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High prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in commensal members of the Enterobacteriaceae in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
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Antimicrobial-resistant pathogenic members of the Enterobacteriaceae are a well-defined global problem. We hypothesized that one of the main reservoirs of dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes in Vietnam is non-pathogenic intestinal flora, and sought to isolate antimicrobial-resistant organisms from hospitalized patients and non-hospitalized healthy individuals in Ho Chi Minh City. The results identified substantial faecal carriage of gentamicin-, ceftazidime- and nalidixic acid-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae in both hospitalized patients and non-hospitalized healthy individuals. A high prevalence of quinolone resistance determinants was identified, particularly the qnrS gene, in both community- and hospital-associated strains. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that a combination of quinolone resistance determinants can confer resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, even in the apparent absence of additional chromosomal resistance mutations in wild-type strains and laboratory strains with transferred plasmids. These data suggest that intestinal commensal organisms are a significant reservoir for the dissemination of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Ho Chi Minh City.
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A changing picture of shigellosis in southern Vietnam: shifting species dominance, antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical presentation.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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Shigellosis remains considerable public health problem in some developing countries. The nature of Shigellae suggests that they are highly adaptable when placed under selective pressure in a human population. This is demonstrated by variation and fluctuations in serotypes and antimicrobial resistance profile of organisms circulating in differing setting in endemic locations. Antimicrobial resistance in the genus Shigella is a constant threat, with reports of organisms in Asia being resistant to multiple antimicrobials and new generation therapies.
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Prevalence of antibodies against avian influenza A (H5N1) virus among Cullers and poultry workers in Ho Chi Minh City, 2005.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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Between 2003 and 2005, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses caused large scale outbreaks in poultry in the Ho Chi Minh City area in Vietnam. We studied the prevalence of antibodies against H5N1 in poultry workers and cullers who were active in the program in Ho Chi Minh City in 2004 and 2005.
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Microbiologic characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium tetani isolated from wounds of patients with clinically diagnosed tetanus.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
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Clostridium tetani is the etiologic agent of the muscle-spasming disease tetanus. Despite an effective vaccine, tetanus is an ongoing problem in some developing countries. Diagnosis by bacterial culture is not done because it is generally unnecessary and the entry of route of the bacteria can be inapparent. We attempted to isolate and evaluate C. tetani from the wounds of 84 patients with tetanus. We effectively isolated C. tetani from 45 patients. All strains tested positive by polymerase chain reaction for the gene encoding tetanus neurotoxin. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by disc diffusion and E-test. All C. tetani isolates were susceptible to penicillin and metronidazole but resistant to co-trimoxazole. Despite treatment with high doses of penicillin, C. tetani was isolated after 16 days of intravenous penicillin in two cases. These data show that the intravenous route for penicillin may be inadequate for clearing the infection and emphasizes wound debridement in the treatment of tetanus.
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Enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease, Southern Vietnam, 2011.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
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We prospectively studied 3,791 children hospitalized during 2011 during a large outbreak of enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease in Vietnam. Formal assessment of public health interventions, use of intravenous immunoglobulin and other therapies, and factors predisposing for progression of disease is needed to improve clinical management.
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Lovastatin for adult patients with dengue: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
Trials
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Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral infection of man, with approximately 2 billion people living in areas at risk. Infection results in a range of manifestations from asymptomatic infection through to life-threatening shock and haemorrhage. One of the hallmarks of severe dengue is vascular endothelial disruption. There is currently no specific therapy and clinical management is limited to supportive care. Statins are a class of drug initially developed for lipid lowering. There has been considerable recent interest in their effects beyond lipid lowering. These include anti-inflammatory effects at the endothelium. In addition, it is possible that lovastatin may have an anti-viral effect against dengue. Observational data suggest that the use of statins may improve outcomes for such conditions as sepsis and pneumonia. This paper describes the protocol for a randomised controlled trial investigating a short course of lovastatin therapy in adult patients with dengue.
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Comparison of the Roche RealTime ready Influenza A/H1N1 Detection Set with CDC A/H1N1pdm09 RT-PCR on samples from three hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
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Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be considered the gold standard for detection of influenza viruses due to its high sensitivity and specificity. Roche has developed the RealTime ready Influenza A/H1N1 Detection Set, consisting of a generic influenza virus A PCR targeting the M2 gene (M2 PCR) and a specific PCR targeting the hemagglutinin (HA) of A/H1N1-pdm09 (HA PCR, 2009 H1N1), with the intention to make a reliable, rapid, and simple test to detect and quantify 2009 H1N1 in clinical samples. We evaluated this kit against the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USCDC)/World Health Organization real-time PCR for influenza virus using 419 nose and throat swabs from 210 patients collected in 3 large hospitals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. In the per-patient analysis, when compared to CDC PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of the M2 PCR were 85.8% and 97.6%, respectively; the sensitivity and specificity of HA PCR were 88.2% and 100%, respectively. In the per-sample analysis, the sensitivity and specificity in nose swabs were higher than those in throat swabs for both M2 and HA PCRs. The viral loads as determined with the M2 and HA PCRs correlated well with the Ct values of the CDC PCR. Compared with the CDC PCR, the kit has a reasonable sensitivity and very good specificity for the detection and quantification of influenza A virus and A/H1N1-pdm09. However, given the current status of 2009 H1N1, a kit that can detect all circulating seasonal influenza viruses would be preferable.
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An evaluation of dried blood spots and oral swabs as alternative specimens for the diagnosis of dengue and screening for past dengue virus exposure.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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Non-invasive specimens for dengue diagnosis may be preferable where venous blood is difficult to collect and/or process, such as community-based or remote settings or when sampling from young children. We evaluated the performance of oral swabs and dried blood spots (DBS), compared with plasma, in diagnosing acute dengue and screening for past dengue virus (DENV) exposure. DENV-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgG, and NS1 antigen were detected both in oral swabs and DBS from acute patients. Oral swabs were less sensitive (IgM: 68.7%, IgG: 91.9%, NS1: 64.7%), but retained good specificity (100%, 92.3%, 95.8%, respectively) compared with plasma. DBS displayed high sensitivity (IgM: 100%, IgG: 96%, NS1: 100%) and specificity (IgM: 75%, IgG: 93%). DENV RNA was amplified from DBS (sensitivity 95.6%) but not from oral swabs. DENV-IgG (indicative of past flavivirus exposure) were detected with moderate sensitivity (61.1%) but poor specificity (50%) in oral swabs from healthy volunteers. Dried blood spots allow sensitive and specific diagnosis of acute dengue by serological, molecular, and antigen detection methods. Oral swabs may be an adequate alternative where blood cannot be collected.
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Clinical features of dengue in a large Vietnamese cohort: intrinsically lower platelet counts and greater risk for bleeding in adults than children.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
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As dengue spreads to new geographical regions and the force of infection changes in existing endemic areas, a greater breadth of clinical presentations is being recognised. Clinical experience suggests that adults manifest a pattern of complications different from those observed in children, but few reports have described the age-related spectrum of disease in contemporaneous groups of patients recruited at the same geographical location.
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Aetiologies of central nervous system infection in Viet Nam: a prospective provincial hospital-based descriptive surveillance study.
PLoS ONE
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Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen.
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Influence of antituberculosis drug resistance and Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage on outcome in HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
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HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis (TBM) has high mortality. Aside from the devastating impact of multidrug resistance (MDR) on survival, little is understood about the influence of other bacterial factors on outcome. This study examined the influence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance, bacterial lineage, and host vaccination status on outcome in patients with HIV-associated TBM. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the cerebrospinal fluid of 186 patients enrolled in two studies of HIV-associated TBM in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, were tested for resistance to first-line antituberculosis drugs. Lineage genotyping was available for 122 patients. The influence of antituberculosis drug resistance and M. tuberculosis lineage on 9-month mortality was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox multiple regression models. Isoniazid (INH) resistance without rifampin resistance was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 2.66; P = 0.005), and multidrug resistance was uniformly fatal (n = 8/8; adjusted HR, 5.21, 95% CI, 2.38 to 11.42; P < 0.0001). The hazard ratio for INH-resistant cases was greatest during the continuation phase of treatment (after 3 months; HR, 5.05 [95% CI, 2.23 to 11.44]; P = 0.0001). Among drug-susceptible cases, patients infected with the "modern" Beijing lineage strains had lower mortality than patients infected with the "ancient" Indo-Oceanic lineage (HR, 0.29 [95% CI, 0.14 to 0.61]; P = 0.001). Isoniazid resistance, multidrug resistance, and M. tuberculosis lineage are important determinants of mortality in patients with HIV-associated TBM. Interventions which target these factors may help reduce the unacceptably high mortality in patients with TBM.
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Clinical validation of a point-of-care multiplexed in vitro immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies (the MSD influenza test) in four hospitals in Vietnam.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests for influenza can considerably shorten the time to clinical decision making. An investigational POC test based on a multiplexed immunoassay was developed by Meso Scale Diagnostics, LLC (MSD), with the objective to make a more sensitive rapid test that can also subtype influenza A viruses (1977 H1, H3, and H5). Between February and November 2010, we conducted a prospective multicenter study at four hospitals in Vietnam and compared the performance of this test to that of the WHO/CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) on nasal and throat swab specimens from patients presenting with influenza-like illness. Five hundred sixty-three adults and children with a median age of 25 months were enrolled. Sensitivity and specificity of the test with combined results from nasal and throat swab samples were 74.0% (131/177) and 99.7% (351/352), respectively, compared to RT-PCR. The POC test was as sensitive for influenza virus B as for influenza virus A (74.4% [64/86] versus 73.6% [67/91]). The positivity rate was associated with lower cycle threshold values (a marker for higher viral loads), sample type (73.6% for nasal swab versus 52.4% for throat swab), and younger age. A total of 210 (18.7%) out of 1,126 MSD tests failed, and for 34 (6%) of patients, both test samples failed (these were excluded from the performance analysis). Subtyping could be assessed only for influenza virus A/H3N2, as 1977 H1N1 was not circulating at the time and no H5N1-infected patients were enrolled, and was successful only in 9/54 patients infected with H3 influenza virus who had a positive POC test result for influenza virus A. This novel POC test provided highly sensitive detection of influenza viruses A and B compared to the reported sensitivities of other rapid tests. However, 18.7% of tests failed for technical reasons and subtyping for H3 was poor. Drawbacks to the technology include the requirement for a dedicated reader instrument and the need for continual updating of subtyping antibodies within the test array.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.