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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
TOMM40 Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease Over a 2-Year Follow-Up Period.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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We previously reported TOMM40 to be significantly down-regulated in whole blood of Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects at baseline and after one-year. In this longitudinal follow-up study of TOMM40 expression up to 2 years, we performed 6-monthly assessments for the first year and 2nd year blood sampling on 27 probable AD subjects compared with age- and gender-matched controls. TOMM40 gene expression remained significantly lower in AD patients at all time-points compared to controls, supported by confirmatory RT-PCR results. Our findings of consistently lower TOMM40 expression on longitudinal 2-year sampling support its potential role as a diagnostic blood AD biomarker.
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Escitalopram efficacy in depression: a cross-ethnicity examination of the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Current evidence suggests that polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) predicts antidepressant efficacy in whites but less so in Asians. However, it is not clear whether this effect can be observed for specific types of antidepressant drugs. White (n = 47) and Korean (n = 118) participants with major depressive disorder were treated with escitalopram and assessed over 8 weeks. Among those with the l/l but not l/s or s/s genotypes, whites had greater depression score reductions, response rates, and remission rates compared with Koreans. Our results suggest that 5-HTTLPR predicts escitalopram efficacy in an ethnicity-dependent manner.
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Ethnobotanical survey of usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The use of medicinal plants in human health has been documented since ancient times and they provide a useful source of new therapeutics. In Singapore, despite the accessibility to modern healthcare, there still exist pockets of the population who choose to use locally grown fresh medicinal plants for health promotion and even therapeutic purposes. However to date, there is no published report of first-hand account of their usage in Singapore. As land is scarce and rapidly used for re-development, such important knowledge may be lost if not properly documented in time. This work safeguards the local folk knowledge, and provides information on common and scarcely reported fresh medicinal plants. The objective of this study is to gather information regarding the usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore through face-to-face interviews.
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Long-term metformin usage and cognitive function among older adults with diabetes.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Evidence strongly supports the important role of insulin resistance in cognitive decline and dementia and suggests that insulin sensitizers may protect against cognitive decline in diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals. Inconclusive results have been reported in clinical trials of rosiglitazone, an insulin sensitizer that also increases cardiovascular mortality risks. No study has yet reported a protective cognitive effect of metformin, an insulin-sensitizing biguanide widely used in diabetic patients. We studied 365 older persons aged 55 and over in the population-based Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study with diabetes who were followed up over 4 years. The odds ratios (OR) of association of metformin use (n = 204) versus non-use (n = 161) with cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Exam ? 23), and by duration: up to 6 years (n = 114) and more than 6 years (n = 90) were evaluated in cross-sectional and longitudinal multivariate analyses. Controlling for age, education, diabetes duration, fasting blood glucose, vascular and non-vascular risk factors, metformin use showed a significant inverse association with cognitive impairment in longitudinal analysis (OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.25-0.95). Metformin use showed significant linear trends of association across duration of use in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses (p = 0.018 and p = 0.002, respectively), with use for more than 6 years significantly associated with lowest risk of cognitive impairment in both cross-sectional analysis (OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.80) and in longitudinal analysis (OR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.12-0.60). No significant interactive effects of metformin use with APOE-?4, depression, or fasting glucose level were observed. Among individuals with diabetes, long-term treatment with metformin may reduce the risk of cognitive decline. Further studies should establish the role of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, and the protective role of metformin in the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
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A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI) and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds.
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Pharmacogenetic polymorphisms and response to escitalopram and venlafaxine over 8 weeks in major depression.
Hum Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin transporter-linked promoter region), cytochrome P450 2C19, and cytochrome P450 2D6 polymorphisms on escitalopram (ESC) and venlafaxine (VEN) responses in major depressive disorder.
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Common use of high doses of antipsychotic medications in older Asian patients with schizophrenia (2001-2009).
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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This study aimed to examine the use of high doses of antipsychotic medications (?600?mg/day chlorpromazine equivalent) in older Asian patients with schizophrenia and its demographic and clinical correlates.
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Use of clozapine in older Asian patients with schizophrenia between 2001 and 2009.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To date there has been no large-scale international study that examined the use of clozapine in older patients with schizophrenia. This study examined the use of clozapine and its demographic and clinical correlates in older patients with schizophrenia in East Asia during the period between 2001 and 2009.
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Clozapine use in schizophrenia: findings of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription (REAP) studies from 2001 to 2009.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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Optimizing treatment and outcomes for people with schizophrenia requires understanding of how evidence-based treatments are utilized. Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic drug for treatment-refractory schizophrenia, but few studies have investigated trends and patterns of its use over time internationally. This study examined the prescription patterns of clozapine and its demographic and clinical correlates in Asia from 2001 to 2009.
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Role of prefrontal cortical calcium independent phospholipase A? in antidepressant-like effect of maprotiline.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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There is increasing interest in the pathophysiology and neurochemistry of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in depression. Blood flow and metabolism are decreased in the PFC of patients with depression compared to controls. Changes in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are also associated with depression. This study was conducted to elucidate a possible role of PFC activity of an enzyme involved in the release of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), i.e. calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA?), in the effects of the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) antidepressant, maprotiline, in mice. Treatment of Balb/C mice with maprotiline for 4 wk resulted in reduction in the level of behavioural despair, as determined by decreased immobility and increased climbing during the forced swim test. In contrast, mice treated with maprotiline plus bilateral prefrontal cortical injections of antisense oligonucleotide to iPLA?, showed significantly increased immobility and decreased climbing, to levels comparable to saline-treated controls, indicating abolishment of the antidepressant-like effect of maprotiline. Lipidomic analyses showed significant decreases in phosphatidylcholine species containing long-chain PUFAs and increases in lysophosphatidylcholine after maprotiline treatment, indicating increased PLA? activity and endogenous release of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or DHA after maprotiline treatment. These changes in lipid profiles were absent in mice that received maprotiline and PFC injections of antisense oligonucleotide to iPLA?. Together, the results indicate that PFC iPLA? activity plays an important role in the antidepressant-like effect of maprotiline, possibly through endogenous release of long-chain PUFAs.
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Identification of active compounds from medicinal plant extracts using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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Conventional methods of drug discovery from natural products include bioassay-guided fractionation, which is tedious and has low efficiency. The aim of this work is to develop a platform method to rapidly identify bioactive compounds from crude plant extracts and their partially purified fractions using multivariate data analysis (MVDA). Soxhlet extraction and liquid-liquid fractionation were used to prepare different extracts and fractions from the leaves of a medicinal plant, Ardisia elliptica. The extracts and fractions were analysed chemically using GC-MS, and their ability to inhibit platelet aggregation was investigated. Two MVDA methods were developed and optimised to analyse the results. In the first method, compounds with the highest contribution scores for biological activity calculated by different models were listed as potential antiplatelet compounds. For the second MVDA method, a correlation of the concentrations of constituents and biological activities in the various extracts and fractions for each compound was done. Compounds with the highest correlation coefficients were identified as potential antiplatelet compounds. One of the predicted components was isolated, purified and confirmed to possess antiplatelet effects. This platform method can be developed and optimised for other plant extracts and biological activities, thus reducing time and cost of drug discovery while improving efficiency.
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The low frequency of reported sexual dysfunction in Asian patients with schizophrenia (2001-2009): low occurrence or ignored side effect?
Hum Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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The purpose of the study was to evaluate the frequency of reported sexual dysfunction (SD) in schizophrenia and its associations with sociodemographic and clinical variables in selected Asian countries.
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Quantification of ?- and ?-amyrin in rat plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: application to preclinical pharmacokinetic study.
J Mass Spectrom
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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?- and ?-Amyrins are naturally occurring triterpenes with a wide range of biological activities. In this study, a reliable GC-MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of ?- and ?-amyrins in rat plasma. The calibration curves were linear (R(2) > 0.996) with a limit of quantification of 1.0 ng ml(-1) for both ?- and ?-amyrins. The precision and repeatability of this method was good as the relative standard deviation were 12% or less. The absolute recovery ranged from 71% to 89%, while the analytical recovery ranged from 95% to 99%. The pharmacokinetic profiles of ?- and ?-amyrins in rats were subsequently investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats. ?-Amyrin was administered intravenously and also orally in two forms, namely, as a suspension of the pure compound and the crude plant extract. ?-Amyrin was administered orally as a suspension of the crude plant extract. ?-Amyrin had a very long terminal elimination half-life (t(1/2?z) = 610 ± 179 min) and extremely slow clearance (Cl = 2.04 ± 0.24 ml min(-1) kg(-1)). The absolute oral bioavailability of ?-amyrin in the crude plant extract was about fourfold higher than that in the suspension of pure form (3.83% vs 0.86%). When given in crude plant extract, both ?- and ?-amyrins had a similar dose normalized C(max). This reliable GC-MS method will enable further pharmacokinetic investigations of ?- and ?-amyrins.
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Adjunctive mood stabilizer treatment for hospitalized schizophrenia patients: Asia psychotropic prescription study (2001-2008).
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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Recent studies indicate relatively high international rates of adjunctive psychotropic medication, including mood stabilizers, for patients with schizophrenia. Since such treatments are little studied in Asia, we examined the frequency of mood-stabilizer use and its clinical correlates among hospitalized Asian patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in 2001-2008. We evaluated usage rates of mood stabilizers with antipsychotic drugs, and associated factors, for in-patients diagnosed with DSM-IV schizophrenia in 2001, 2004 and 2008 in nine Asian regions: China, Hong Kong, India, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Singapore. Overall, mood stabilizers were given to 20.4% (n=1377/6761) of hospitalized schizophrenia patients, with increased usage over time. Mood-stabilizer use was significantly and independently associated in multivariate logistic modeling with: aggressive behaviour, disorganized speech, year sampled (2008 vs. earlier), multiple hospitalizations, less negative symptoms, younger age, with regional variation (Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore>Taiwan or China). Co-prescription of adjunctive mood stabilizers with antipsychotics for hospitalized Asian schizophrenia patients increased over the past decade, and was associated with specific clinical characteristics. This practice parallels findings in other countries and illustrates ongoing tension between evidence-based practice vs. individualized, empirical treatment of psychotic disorders.
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Adjunctive benzodiazepine treatment of hospitalized schizophrenia patients in Asia from 2001 to 2008.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed to patients with schizophrenia in many countries, but as little is known about such treatment in Asia, we evaluated their adjunctive use for 6761 in-patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in nine Asian countries using a cross-sectional study design in 2001, 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess predictors of benzodiazepine use and dose, respectively. Overall, 54% of the patients received adjunctive benzodiazepines at an average daily dose equivalent to 30.3 mg diazepam, with minor changes over the years sampled. Benzodiazepine use was highest in Taiwan and Japan, lowest in Thailand and China, and was associated with fewer years ill, presence of delusions (OR 1.24), hallucinations (OR 1.22), disorganized speech (OR 1.17), social or occupational dysfunction (OR 1.16), and use of mood stabilizers (OR 3.15), antiparkinsonian (OR 1.79) or antidepressant drugs (OR 1.33), and lower doses of antipsychotics (all p=0.016 to <0.001). Benzodiazepine doses were highest in Taiwan and China, lowest in Korea and Singapore; higher doses were associated with being young, male, physically aggressive, receiving mood stabilizers, and having electroconvulsive treatment (all p=0.019 to <0.001). Benzodiazepine use was associated with neurological and systemic adverse effects. In conclusion, benzodiazepine use was common in Asian patients with schizophrenia. Predictors of benzodiazepine use and dose differed in this population. Critical clinical guidelines should be developed specifically for Asian countries to address sound practices in regard to use of benzodiazepines for psychotic disorders.
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Sex differences in use of psychotropic drugs and drug-induced side effects in schizophrenia patients: findings of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription (REAP) studies.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2010
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The aim of this study was to investigate the sex differences in prescribing patterns of psychotropic drugs and drug-induced side effects in schizophrenia patients in Asia using the data of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Pattern (REAP) surveys.
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Beta-amyrin from Ardisia elliptica Thunb. is more potent than aspirin in inhibiting collagen-induced platelet aggregation.
Indian J. Exp. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2010
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Ardisia elliptica Thunberg (Myrsinaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used for alleviating chest pains, treatment of fever, diarrhoea, liver poisoning and parturition complications. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effect of A. elliptica on collagen induced platelet aggregation and to isolate and purify potential antiplatelet components. Fresh A. elliptica leaves were extracted using methanol (70% v/v) by Soxhlet extraction and the extract was analysed for its inhibition of collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Inhibition of platelet aggregation was assessed by incubating the extracts with rabbit blood and collagen in a whole blood aggregometer and measuring the impedance. The leaf extract was found to inhibit platelet aggregation with an IC50 value of 167 microg/ml. Using bioassay guided fractionation, beta-amyrin was isolated and purified. The IC50 value of beta-amyrin was found to be 4.5 microg/ml (10.5 microM) while that of aspirin was found to be 11 microg/ml (62.7 microM), indicating that beta-amyrin was six times as active as aspirin in inhibiting platelet aggregation. This paper is the first report that beta-amyrin isolated from A. elliptica is more potent than aspirin in inhibiting collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In conclusion, A. elliptica leaves were found to inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation and one of the bioactive components responsible for the observed effect was determined to be beta-amyrin.
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Locus coeruleus stimulation and noradrenergic modulation of hippocampo-prefrontal cortex long-term potentiation.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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Stimulation of the subiculum/CA1 of the hippocampal formation evokes monosynaptic field potentials in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). High-frequency stimulation of the hippocampus (HPC) can induce long-term potentiation (LTP) in this hippocampo-prefrontal cortical (hippo-PFC) pathway. Previous studies have shown that dopamine and serotonin modulate hippo-PFC LTP. Here, we investigated whether the locus coeruleus (LC) and noradrenaline (NA) can modulate LTP in the rat hippo-PFC pathway. Stimulation of the LC in combination with stimulation of the HPC increased hippo-PFC LTP. Infusion of lidocaine into the LC reduced hippo-PFC LTP. Administration of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, nisoxetine or the alpha2 adrenoceptor antagonist, idazoxan prior to high-frequency stimulation of the HPC enhanced hippo-LTP. In contrast, administration of clonidine, an alpha2 adrenoceptor agonist, impaired hippo-PFC LTP. Partial noradrenergic (NAergic) lesioning with DSP-4 also impaired hippo-PFC LTP. In conclusion, the LC and NAergic mechanisms modulate hippo-PFC LTP.
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The implementation of e-learning tools to enhance undergraduate bioinformatics teaching and learning: a case study in the National University of Singapore.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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The rapid advancement of computer and information technology in recent years has resulted in the rise of e-learning technologies to enhance and complement traditional classroom teaching in many fields, including bioinformatics. This paper records the experience of implementing e-learning technology to support problem-based learning (PBL) in the teaching of two undergraduate bioinformatics classes in the National University of Singapore.
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A multi-institutional survey on faculty development needs, priorities and preferences in medical education in an Asian medical school.
Med Educ Online
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2009
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Faculty development in medical education is crucial for maintaining academic vitality. The authors conducted a needs assessment survey in Singapore to determine the educational needs and priorities of clinical faculty.
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Pathophysiology and animal models of schizophrenia.
Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2009
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Animal models of schizophrenia are important for research aimed at developing improved pharmacotherapies. In particular, the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia remain largely refractory to current medications and there is a need for improved medications. We discuss the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and in particular the possible mechanisms underlying the cognitive deficits. We review the current animal models of schizophrenia and discuss the extent to which they meet the need for models reflecting the various domains of the symptomatology of schizophrenia, including positive symptoms, negative symptoms and cognitive symptoms.
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Pulmonary hypertension in first episode infective endocarditis among intravenous buprenorphine users: case report.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2009
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Since the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of buprenorphine hydrochloride (Subutex) for the treatment of opiate dependence in 2002, there has been a global trend of its IV abuse which led to life-threatening medical complications such as infective endocarditis (IE), cardiac failure, and death.
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Low doses of antipsychotic drugs for hospitalized schizophrenia patients in East Asia: 2004 vs. 2001.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
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We test the hypothesis of increasing prevalence of low-dose antipsychotic use (300 mg/d chlorpromazine-equivalent) in East Asia and examine clinical correlates of conservative dosing. Rates of low-dose antipsychotic prescription were determined for 4535 patients with DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia in six East Asian countries and territories, with comparisons analysed for 2004 vs. 2001. Between 2001 (n=2399 subjects) and 2004 (n=2136 subjects), prescription rates for low doses of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) increased from 24.8% to 44.0% (p<0.001). Low doses were more likely among older patients (p=0.005), during first-lifetime hospitalizations (p<0.001), and among patients with less prominent delusions, hallucinations or disorganized speech (all p<0.05). Multivariate modelling indicated that low doses were strongly associated with older age, first admission, sampling year (2004>2001), less use of antipsychotic polytherapy (all p<0.001) and depot antipsychotics (p=0.009). Conservative dosing of APDs was increasingly prevalent in East Asia. Our findings suggest characteristics of patients who may be particularly likely to require low antipsychotic doses.
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Lipidomic analyses of the mouse brain after antidepressant treatment: evidence for endogenous release of long-chain fatty acids?
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Recently, there has been considerable interest in a possible link between changes in brain polyunsaturated fatty acids, neural membrane phospholipid degradation, serotonergic neurotransmission, and depression. The present study aims to examine effects of antidepressants on lipids in different regions of the brain at individual molecular species level, using the novel technique of lipidomics. Balb/C mice received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 10 mg/kg of the antidepressants maprotiline, fluoxetine and paroxetine for 4 wk. The prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum were harvested, and lipid profiles compared to those of saline-injected mice. Treatment with maprotiline and paroxetine, but not fluoxetine, resulted in significant decreases in phosphatidylcholine (PC) species, PC36:1, PC38:3, PC40:2p, PC40:6, PC40:5, PC42:7p, PC42:6p and PC42:5p in the prefrontal neocortex. The decreases in phospholipids were accompanied by increases in lysophospholipid species, lysoPC16:0, lysoPC18:2 and lysoPC18:0 in the prefrontal cortex, indicating increase in phospholipase A2 activity and possible release of long-chain fatty acids. Maprotiline and paroxetine treatment also resulted in decreases in sphingomyelin and increases in several ceramide species in the prefrontal cortex. It is postulated that endogenous release of long-chain fatty acids may be related to the mechanism of action of maprotiline and paroxetine.
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High-dose antipsychotic use in schizophrenia: a comparison between the 2001 and 2004 Research on East Asia Psychotropic Prescription (REAP) studies.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2009
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We aimed to examine the frequency of high-dose (defined as mean chlorpromazine mg equivalent doses above 1000) antipsychotic prescriptions in schizophrenia and their clinical correlates in the context of a comparison between studies in 2001 and 2004 within six East Asian countries and territories.
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Adjunctive antidepressant prescriptions for hospitalized patients with schizophrenia in Asia (2001-2009).
Asia Pac Psychiatry
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Little is known about the prescription patterns of adjunctive antidepressants in Asian schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to examine trends in the use of antidepressants and their demographic and clinical correlates in the treatment of schizophrenia in Asia between 2001 and 2009.
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Use of first- and second-generation antipsychotic medications in older patients with schizophrenia in Asia (2001-2009).
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
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This study examined the prescribing patterns of several first- (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotic (SGAs) medications administered to older Asian patients with schizophrenia during the period between 2001 and 2009.
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Analysis of blood-based gene expression signature in first-episode psychosis.
Psychiatry Res
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Blood-based transcriptomic signature in psychosis is an alternative to a brain-based signature. In this study, we profiled whole-blood RNA from 26 patients with first-episode psychosis, and 26 matching controls. We identified a 400-gene signature that classified patients from controls accurately and tested the robustness using other modelling methods.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.