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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Influencing factors for lymphocyte subsets in children aged 0-6 years.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To investigate the influencing factors for lymphocyte subsets in children 0 to 6 years of age.
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Osteogenic Commitment of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Apatite Nanorods-Aligned Ceramics.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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It is significant to process the clinically-used biomaterials into a scaffold with specific nanotopographies which can act as physical cues to regulate the osteogenic commitment of mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, hydroxyapatite (HAP) was considered as the processed objective and a facile, hydrothermal method was developed to grow the vertically-oriented HAP nanorods in porous HAP ceramics. Experiments demonstrated that the formation of the HAP nanorods in porous ceramics was decided by a novel epitaxial growth mechanism and length of nanorods could be well controlled by the growth time. Cell experiments demonstrated that such novel stereo-topographical cues could regulate bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into the osteogenic lineage, thereby displaying that the porous ceramics with the HAP nanorods-aligned stereo-topographies have a good prospect for applications in regen-erative medicine of hard tissues.
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Vitamin C treatment attenuates hemorrhagic shock related multi-organ injuries through the induction of heme oxygenase-1.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Vitamin C (VitC) has recently been shown to exert beneficial effects, including protecting organ function and inhibiting inflammation, in various critical care conditions, but the specific mechanism remains unclear. Induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1, a heat shock protein, has been shown to prevent organ injuries in hemorrhagic shock (HS) but the relationship between VitC and HO-1 are still ill-defined so far. Here we conducted a systemic in vivo study to investigate if VitC promoted HO-1 expression in multiple organs, and then tested if the HO-1 induction property of VitC was related to its organ protection and anti-inflammatory effect.
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Evaluation of Back Projection Methods for Breast Tomosynthesis Image Reconstruction.
J Digit Imaging
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in the USA. Compared to mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis is a new imaging technique that may improve the diagnostic accuracy by removing the ambiguities of overlapped tissues and providing 3D information of the breast. Tomosynthesis reconstruction algorithms generate 3D reconstructed slices from a few limited angle projection images. Among different reconstruction algorithms, back projection (BP) is considered an important foundation of quite a few reconstruction techniques with deblurring algorithms such as filtered back projection. In this paper, two BP variants, including ?-trimmed BP and principal component analysis-based BP, were proposed to improve the image quality against that of traditional BP. Computer simulations and phantom studies demonstrated that the ?-trimmed BP may improve signal response performance and suppress noise in breast tomosynthesis image reconstruction.
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Enhanced colonic tumorigenesis in alkaline sphingomyelinase (NPP7) knockout mice.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
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Intestinal alkaline sphingomyelinase (alk-SMase) generates ceramide and inactivates platelet-activating factor (PAF) and is previously suggested to have anticancer properties. The direct evidence is still lacking. We studied colonic tumorigenesis in alk-SMase knockout (KO) mice. Formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) was examined after azoxymethane (AOM) injection. Tumor was induced by AOM alone, a conventional AOM/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treatment, and an enhanced AOM/DSS method. beta-catenin was determined by immunohistochemistry, PAF levels by ELISA and sphingomyelin metabolites by mass spectrometry. Without treatment, spontaneous tumorigenesis was not identified but the intestinal mucosa appeared thicker in KO than in wild type (WT) littermates. AOM alone induced more ACF in KO mice but no tumors 28 weeks after injection. However, combination of AOM/DSS treatments induced colonic tumors and the incidence was significantly higher in KO than in WT mice. By the enhanced AOM/DSS method tumor number per mouse increased 4.5 times and tumor size 1.8 times in KO compared to WT mice. While all tumors were adenomas in WT mice, 32% were adenocarcinomas in KO mice. Compared to WT mice, cytosol expression of beta-catenin was significantly decreased and nuclear translocation in tumors was more pronounced in KO mice. Lipid analysis showed decreased ceramide in small intestine and increased sphingosine-1-phosphate in both small intestine and colon in nontreated KO mice. PAF levels in feces were significantly higher in the KO mice after AOM/DSS treatment. In conclusion lack of alk-SMase markedly increases AOM/DSS induced colonic tumorigenesis associated with decreased ceramide and increased sphingosine-1-phosphate and PAF levels.
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Association between Polymorphisms of Interleukin-17A and Interleukin-17F Genes and Silicosis Susceptibility in Chinese Han People.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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To explore the relationship between polymorphisms of interleukin17 (IL-17) gene(A-832G 7488A/G) and the susceptibility to silicosis, a risk factor for lung cancer.
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Experimental study of the impacts of external disturbances on N2O emission from water to air.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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To obtain a comprehensive understanding of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from water to air, the impacts of external disturbances including wind, stirring and aeration on N2O emissions were investigated by continuously monitoring N2O concentration variations in water. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient of N2O from water to air (KLaN2O) under different conditions was determined by using exponential regression to fit the monitoring data. The results showed that KLaN2O was 0.0017 min(-1) at the stable condition, and with the increase of wind velocity, stirring velocity and aeration rate, the diffusion of N2O from water to air was enhanced. It was also observed that KLaN2O linearly increased with the increase of wind velocity and aeration rate, and exponentially increased with the increase of stirring velocity. The sequencing of the impacts of the three factors on N2O emission was aeration > stirring > wind. As turbulence and the mixing intensity of the liquid phase under the aeration condition were more vigorous than those of the wind and the stirring, the impact of aeration on N2O emission was greater than those of wind and stirring. When predicting N2O emissions from water to air, external disturbances, either environmental factors or operational factors, should be taken into consideration.
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Hybrids of Phenylsulfonylfuroxan and Coumarin as Potent Antitumor Agents.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Sixteen furoxan-based nitric oxide (NO) releasing coumarin derivatives (6a-c, 8a-g, 10a, 13a,b, 15, and 17a,b) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated against the A549, HeLa, A2780, A2780/CDDP, and HUVEC cell lines. Most derivatives displayed potent antiproliferation activities. Among them, 8b exhibited the strongest antiproliferation activity on the four sensitive cell lines mentioned above and three drug resistant tumor cell lines A2780/CDDP, MDA-MB-231/Gem, and SKOV3/CDDP with IC50 values from 14 to 53 nM and from 62 to 140 nM, respectively. Furthermore, 8b inhibited the growth of A2780 in vivo and displayed lower toxicity on nontumorigenesis T29, showing good selectivity against malignant cells in vitro. Preliminary pharmacological studies showed that 8b induces apoptosis, arrests the cell cycle at the G2/M phase in the A2780 cell line, and disrupts the phosphorylation of MEK1 and ERK1. Overall, the NO-releasing capacity and the inhibition of ERK/MAPK pathway signaling may explain the potent antineoplastic activity of these compounds.
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Study on the Diversity of Bacteroides and Clostridium in Patients with Primary Gout.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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To analyze the diversity of both Bacteroides and Clostridium in patients with primary gout and the difference from that of normal individuals. And to investigate the relationship between the primary gout and the intestinal flora. Fecal samples of 90 cases with the primary gout and 94 cases normal comparison group were selected, together with the cases that match the filter criteria. The DNA is extracted from the feces. 16S rRNA specific primers of both Bacteroides and Clostridium were adopted for the PCR amplification. The molecular fingerprints of Bacteroides and Clostridium in both the primary gout group and the normal control group were obtained through DGGE and subjected for further analysis on both the diversity and the similarity. Compared with normal individuals, the number of bands and Shannon-Weaver (H') of Bacteroides in patients with primary gout was not reduced, but significantly decreased in Clostridium. Furthermore, the intra-group and inter-group similarity of both Bacteroides and Clostridium were lower. The primary gout has caused the structural change of both Bacteroides and Clostridium, inducing the low similarity, especially for Clostridium. It has statistic significance. The gut predominant flora may play an important role in the development of primary gout.
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Population Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modelling of 24-h Diastolic Ambulatory Blood Pressure Changes Mediated by Axitinib in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Clin Pharmacokinet
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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Increased blood pressure (BP) is commonly observed in patients treated with vascular endothelial growth factor pathway inhibitors, including axitinib. Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and pharmacokinetic data were collected in a randomised, double-blind phase II study of axitinib with or without dose titration in previously untreated patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
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Sequential Growth of Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays at Room Temperature via a Corrosion Process: Application in Visible Light Photocatalysis.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Many photocatalyst systems catalyze chemical reactions under ultraviolet (UV) illumination, because of its high photon energies. Activating inexpensive, widely available materials as photocatalyst using the intense visible part of the solar spectrum is more challenging. Here, nanorod arrays of the wide-band-gap semiconductor zinc oxide have been shown to act as photocatalysts for the aerobic photo-oxidation of organic dye Methyl Orange under illumination with red light, which is normally accessible only to narrow-band semiconductors. The homogeneous, 800-1000-nm-thick ZnO nanorod arrays show substantial light absorption (absorbances >1) throughout the visible spectral range. This absorption is caused by defect levels inside the band gap. Multiple scattering processes by the rods make the nanorods appear black. The dominantly crystalline ZnO nanorod structures grow in the (0001) direction, i.e., with the c-axis perpendicular to the surface of polycrystalline zinc. The room-temperature preparation route relies on controlled cathodic delamination of a weakly bound polymer coating from metallic zinc, an industrially produced and cheaply available substrate. Cathodic delamination is a sequential synthesis process, because it involves the propagation of a delamination front over the base material. Consequently, arbitrarily large sample surfaces can be nanostructured using this approach.
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Sulfur-doped porous reduced graphene oxide hollow nanosphere frameworks as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction and as supercapacitor electrode materials.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Chemical doping with foreign atoms is an effective approach to significantly enhance the electrochemical performance of the carbon materials. Herein, sulfur-doped three-dimensional (3D) porous reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hollow nanosphere frameworks (S-PGHS) are fabricated by directly annealing graphene oxide (GO)-encapsulated amino-modified SiO2 nanoparticles with dibenzyl disulfide (DBDS), followed by hydrofluoric acid etching. The XPS and Raman spectra confirmed that sulfur atoms were successfully introduced into the PGHS framework via covalent bonds. The as-prepared S-PGHS has been demonstrated to be an efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with the activity comparable to that of commercial Pt/C (40%) and much better methanol tolerance and durability, and to be a supercapacitor electrode material with a high specific capacitance of 343 F g(-1), good rate capability and excellent cycling stability in aqueous electrolytes. The impressive performance for ORR and supercapacitors is believed to be due to the synergistic effect caused by sulfur-doping enhancing the electrochemical activity and 3D porous hollow nanosphere framework structures facilitating ion diffusion and electronic transfer.
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[Effect on M1 macrophages of shenlian extracts].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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This study discusses the effects of Shenlian extracts (SL) on M1 macrophages in atherosclerosis. The MTT assay was used to detect the growth inhibition rates of RAW264.7 cells. RAW264.7 cells were stimulated with murine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce M1 macrophages. The different concentrations of SL extracts (high-dose 50 mg x L(-1), moderate-dose 25 mg x L(-1), low-dose 12.5 mg x L(-1)) were added. The CD86 of M1 macrophages in cell membrane was measured by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression of iNOS and TNF-alpha gene was detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). And the supernatants were collected, the content of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were detected with ELISA kits. The results of this experiment show that the expression of the cell membrane molecule CD86, iNOS and TNF-alpha gene, the content of IL-6 and TNF-alpha was obviously increased in M1 macrophages by IFN-gamma and LPS. The different doses of SL extract could reduce the expression of the above indicators. The above experimental results demonstrate that IFN-gamma combined LPS can induce RAW264.7 cell to type into M1 macrophages, and SL extracts can inhibit M1 macrophages.
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[Photocatalytic degradation kinetics of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in TiO2 dispersion and its mechanism].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is of prime importance since it is recognized as a persistent organic pollutant and is widespread in the environment. Heterogeneous photocatalytic decomposition of PFOA by TiO2 (P25) was investigated under 254 nm UV light. Experimental conditions including initial pH, TiO2 content and PFOA concentration, were varied to demonstrate their effects on the decomposition of PFOA. It was observed that the photocatalytic degradation kinetics of PFOA could be fitted to the quasi-first-order equation. The pH played a determinant role in the decomposition of PFOA and the presence of O2 increased the degradation rate. Optimal conditions for a complete removal were obtained using 1.5 g x L(-1) TiO2 at pH 3 in air atmosphere, with a rate constant of 0.420 6 h(-1). The contribution experiments of various reactive species produced during the photocatalysis were also investigated with the addition of different scavengers and it was found that photogenerated holes (h+) was the major reactive species which was responsible for 66.1% of the degradation rate, and the *OH was involved in PFOA degradation as well. In addition, the photocatalytic experiment with the addition of NaF indicated that the adsorption of PFOA was of primary importance for the photocatalytic decomposition. Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with shorter carbon chain length as intermediates and products were identified with UPLC-QTOF/MS, and a possible mechanism for PFOA decomposition was proposed.
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Interleukin-17 induces angiogenesis in human choroidal endothelial cells in vitro.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 (IL-17) has recently been shown to promote angiogenesis. In addition, a receptor for IL-17, IL-17 receptor C (IL-17RC), is enriched in patients with wet, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a disease characterized by the formation of choroidal neovascularization. However, the role of IL-17 in choroidal endothelial cells (CECs) angiogenesis has not been defined. This study was conducted to determine the effect of IL-17 on proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human CECs.
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PARP-1 rs3219073 Polymorphism May Contribute to Susceptibility to Lung Cancer.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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To investigate the relationship between the PARP-1 rs3219073 C>G polymorphism and susceptibility to lung cancer in Chinese people.
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Allocentric versus egocentric representation of remembered reach targets in human cortex.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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The location of a remembered reach target can be encoded in egocentric and/or allocentric reference frames. Cortical mechanisms for egocentric reach are relatively well described, but the corresponding allocentric representations are essentially unknown. Here, we used an event-related fMRI design to distinguish human brain areas involved in these two types of representation. Our paradigm consisted of three tasks with identical stimulus display but different instructions: egocentric reach (remember absolute target location), allocentric reach (remember target location relative to a visual landmark), and a nonspatial control, color report (report color of target). During the delay phase (when only target location was specified), the egocentric and allocentric tasks elicited widely overlapping regions of cortical activity (relative to the control), but with higher activation in parietofrontal cortex for egocentric task and higher activation in early visual cortex for allocentric tasks. In addition, egocentric directional selectivity (target relative to gaze) was observed in the superior occipital gyrus and the inferior occipital gyrus, whereas allocentric directional selectivity (target relative to a visual landmark) was observed in the inferior temporal gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus. During the response phase (after movement direction had been specified either by reappearance of the visual landmark or a pro-/anti-reach instruction), the parietofrontal network resumed egocentric directional selectivity, showing higher activation for contralateral than ipsilateral reaches. These results show that allocentric and egocentric reach mechanisms use partially overlapping but different cortical substrates and that directional specification is different for target memory versus reach response.
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[Magnetic beads adsorption-PCR detection method of four common foodborne pathogens in food].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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To evaluate the adsorption capacity of magnetic beads for common foodborne pathogens.
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Rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H activation/[4+3] annulation of N-phenoxyacetamides and ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes: an efficient route to 1,2-oxazepines at room temperature.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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An efficient Rh(III)-catalyzed coupling reaction of N-phenoxyacetamides with ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes to give 1,2-oxazepines via C-H activation/[4+3] annulation has been developed. This transformation does not require oxidants and features C-C/C-N bond formation to yield seven-membered oxazepine rings at room temperature. Further derivation of 1,2-oxazepines leads to important chroman derivatives.
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Temperature-dependent isotropic-to-nematic transition of charged nanoplates.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Studies of temperature-dependent phase behaviors of discotic colloids are found infrequently in the literature. We establish here the isotropic-to-nematic (I-N) transition phase diagram of charged platelets in the temperature-versus-volume fraction plane. We discover that the N phase can be melted by increasing temperature, and that coexistent samples are more sensitive to polydispersity at higher temperature and higher concentration.
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Ischemic injury of the liver in a porcine model of cardiac death assessed by in vivo microdialysis.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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This study aims to evaluate the ischemic injury of the liver in a porcine model of cardiac death assessed by in vivo microdialysis. A porcine model of cardiac death was established by the suffocation method. Metabolic indicators were monitored using the microdialysis technique during warm ischemia time (WIT) and cold ischemia time (CIT). Pathological changes in ischemic-injured livers were observed by haematoxylin-eosin staining. The predictive values of biochemical parameters regarding the liver donor were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. All statistical analyses were conducted using the SPSS 18.0 software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA). The degree of warm ischemic injury of the livers increased with prolonged WIT. Serum glucose, glycerol, pyruvate, lactic acid levels and lactate-to-pyruvate (L/P) ratio increased gradually during WIT. Results from Pearson correlation analyses indicated that serum lactate level and L/P ratio were positively associated with the degree of warm ischemic injury of the livers. The degree of cold ischemic injury of the livers gradually increased after 12 h CIT. Serum glucose, lactic acid and L/P ratio achieved a peak after 6-8 h of CIT, but gradually decreased with prolonged CIT. The peak of glycerol occurred after 8 h of CIT, while no changes were found with prolonged CIT. Serum pyruvate level exhibited an increasing trend after 12 h CIT. Our results confirmed that serum glucose and lactate levels were negatively correlated with cold ischemic injury of the liver. However, serum glycerol and pyruvate levels showed positive correlations with cold ischemic injury of the liver. The liver donor was unavailable after 30 min WIT and 24 h CIT. The cut-off value of serum lactate level for warm ischemic injury of the livers was 2.374 with a sensitivity (Sen) of 90 % and specificity (Spe) of 95 %; while the L/P radio was 0.026 (Sen = 80 %, Spe = 83 %). In addition, the cut-off values of serum glucose, lactate, glycerol and pyruvate levels for cold ischemic injury of the livers were 0.339 (Sen = 100 %, Spe = 77 %), 1.172 (Sen = 100 %, Spe = 61 %), 56.359 (Sen = 100 %, Spe = 65 %) and 0.020 (Sen = 100 %, Spe = 67 %), respectively. Our findings provide empirical evidences that serum glucose, lactate levels and L/P ratio may be good indicators for the degree of warm ischemic injury of the livers after cardiac death; while serum glucose, lactate, glycerol and pyruvate levels may be important in predicting cold ischemic injury.
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Preparation of Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates of Trehalose Synthase via Co-aggregation with Polyethyleneimine.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Trehalose synthase (TreS) from Meiothermus ruber was co-aggregated with polyethyleneimine (PEI) and precipitated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde to obtain TreS-polyethyleneimine cross-linked enzyme aggregates (termed as CLEAs-PEI-PEG). The TreS solution at 0.5 mg mL(-1) protein concentration, with PEI at a mass ratio of 1:0.8 (enzyme/PEI, w/w) and 25 % (w/v) PEG concentration were found to be most adequate for the co-aggregation of TreS. CLEAs-PEI-PEG was most active with glutaraldehyde at a mass ratio of 1:0.5 (enzyme/glutaraldehyde, w/w) to cross-link the co-aggregates. The CLEAs-PEI-PEG prepared in this work had an optimum pH of 6.5 and optimum temperature of 60 °C. For lower concentrations of enzyme, using PEI could enhance the cross-linking efficiency of TreS. The thermal stability and pH tolerance of CLEAs-PEI-PEG were significantly improved. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the main structure of CLEAs-PEI-PEG showed scaffolding morphology which was constituted by structured ball-like particles with a size of 1-2.5 ?m in diameter.
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Fabrication of boron nitride nanotube-gold nanoparticle hybrids using pulsed plasma in liquid.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Plasma, generated in liquid at atmospheric pressure by a nanosecond pulsed voltage, was used to fabricate hybrid structures from boron nitride nanotubes and gold nanoparticles in deionized water. The pH was greatly reduced, conductivity was significantly increased, and concentrations of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the water were increased by the plasma treatment. The treatment reduced the length of the nanotubes, giving more individual cuplike structures, and introduced functional groups onto the surface. Gold nanoparticles were successively assembled onto the functionalized surfaces. The reactive species from the liquid plasma along with the nanosecond pulsed electric field seem to play a role in the shortening and functionalization of the nanotubes and the assembly of gold nanoparticles. The potential for targeted drug delivery was tested in a preliminary investigation using doxorubicin-loaded plasma-treated nanotubes which were effective at killing ?99% of prostate cancer cells.
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ExpTreeDB: Web-based query and visualization of manually annotated gene expression profiling experiments of human and mouse from GEO.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Numerous public microarray datasets are valuable resources for the scientific communities. Several online tools have made great steps to use these data by querying related datasets with users' own gene signatures or expression profiles. However, dataset annotation and result exhibition still need to be improved.
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The G protein ? subunit G?s is a tumor suppressor in Sonic hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant childhood brain tumor, exhibits distinct molecular subtypes and cellular origins. Genetic alterations driving medulloblastoma initiation and progression remain poorly understood. Herein, we identify GNAS, encoding the G protein G?s, as a potent tumor suppressor gene that, when expressed at low levels, defines a subset of aggressive Sonic hedgehog (SHH)-driven human medulloblastomas. Ablation of the single Gnas gene in anatomically distinct progenitors in mice is sufficient to induce Shh-associated medulloblastomas, which recapitulate their human counterparts. G?s is highly enriched at the primary cilium of granule neuron precursors and suppresses Shh signaling by regulating both the cAMP-dependent pathway and ciliary trafficking of Hedgehog pathway components. Elevation in levels of a G?s effector, cAMP, effectively inhibits tumor cell proliferation and progression in Gnas-ablated mice. Thus, our gain- and loss-of-function studies identify a previously unrecognized tumor suppressor function for G?s that can be found consistently across Shh-group medulloblastomas of disparate cellular and anatomical origins, highlighting G protein modulation as a potential therapeutic avenue.
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Decrease of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in rat liver with subchronic exposure to genotoxic carcinogens riddelliine and aristolochic acid.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The level of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) converted by ten-eleven translocation (TET) family is decreased in cancers. However, whether 5-hmC level is perturbed in early stages of carcinogenesis caused by genotoxic carcinogens is not defined. 5-hmC levels and TET2 expression were measured in liver of rats treated with genotoxic carcinogens, riddelliine, or aristolochic acid. Levels of 5-hmC and TET2 expression decreased in the liver of the carcinogens-treated rats. Loss of 5-hmC correlates well with documented induction of genetic mutations by the carcinogens, suggesting that TET2-mediated 5-hydroxymethylation plays an epigenetic role in early state of carcinogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Local receptors as novel regulators for peripheral clock expression.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Mammalian circadian control is determined by a central clock in the brain suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and synchronized peripheral clocks in other tissues. Increasing evidence suggests that SCN-independent regulation of peripheral clocks also occurs. We examined how activation of excitatory receptors influences the clock protein PERIOD 2 (PER2) in a contractile organ, the urinary bladder. PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE-knock-in mice were used to report real-time PER2 circadian dynamics in the bladder tissue. Rhythmic PER2 activities occurred in the bladder wall with a cycle of ?24 h and peak at ?12 h. Activation of the muscarinic and purinergic receptors by agonists shifted the peak to an earlier time (7.2±2.0 and 7.2±0.9 h, respectively). PER2 expression was also sensitive to mechanical stimulation. Aging significantly dampened PER2 expression and its response to the agonists. Finally, muscarinic agonist-induced smooth muscle contraction also exhibited circadian rhythm. These data identified novel regulators, endogenous receptors, in determining local clock activity, in addition to mediating the central control. Furthermore, the local clock appears to reciprocally align receptor activity to circadian rhythm for muscle contraction. The interaction between receptors and peripheral clock represents an important mechanism for maintaining physiological functions and its dysregulation may contribute to age-related organ disorders.-Wu, C., Sui, G., Archer, S. N., Sassone-Corsi, P., Aitken, K., Bagli, D., Chen, Y. Local receptors as novel regulators for peripheral clock expression.
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Assessment of mouse germinal vesicle stage oocyte quality by evaluating the cumulus layer, zona pellucida, and perivitelline space.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To improve the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART) for patients with ovulation problems, it is necessary to retrieve and select germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes with high developmental potential. Oocytes with high developmental potential are characterized by their ability to undergo proper maturation, fertilization, and embryo development. In this study, we analyzed morphological traits of GV stage mouse oocytes, including cumulus cell layer thickness, zona pellucida thickness, and perivitelline space width. Then, we assessed the corresponding developmental potential of each of these oocytes and found that it varies across the range measured for each morphological trait. Furthermore, by manipulating these morphological traits in vitro, we were able to determine the influence of morphological variation on oocyte developmental potential. Manually altering the thickness of the cumulus layer showed strong effects on the fertilization and embryo development potentials of oocytes, whereas manipulation of zona pellucida thickness effected the oocyte maturation potential. Our results provide a systematic detailed method for selecting GV stage oocytes based on a morphological assessment approach that would benefit for several downstream ART applications.
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Inhibition of autophagy enhances the radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by reducing Rad51 expression.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Radiotherapy has long been considered as the mainstay of treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, locoregional recurrence or distant metastasis may occur in some patients due to the radiation resistance of cancer cells. Autophagy plays a vital role in protecting cells against radiation. However, the mechanism of autophagy in radiation therapy remains obscure. In the present study, we demonstrated that suppression of autophagy related 5 (Atg5) aggravated ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human NPC cells without accelerating the cell cycle, whereas regulation of the cell cycle has been widely regarded as the most important determinant of IR sensitivity. Further study showed that inhibition of autophagy suppressed the mRNA expression of Rad51, a key protein of homologous recombination that has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks induced by radiation. Moreover, suppression of Atg5 had no impact on the radiosensitivity when cells were pre-treated by the Rad51 inhibitor, and the enhanced radiosensitivity by Atg5 suppression was reversed by overexpression of Rad51 in human NPC cells. Our results suggest that inhibition of autophagy enhances the susceptibility of NPC cells to radiation by reducing Rad51 expression. Therefore, Rad51 targeted therapy may be investigated as a potential novel agent for the adjuvant treatment of traditional radiation of NPC.
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Silica exposure and altered regulation of autoimmunity.
Environ Health Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Silica particles and asbestos fibers, which are known as typical causatives of pneumoconiosis, induce lung fibrosis. Moreover, silicosis patients often complicate with autoimmune diseases, and asbestos-exposed patients suffer from malignant diseases such as pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer. We have been conducting experimental studies to investigate altered regulation of self-tolerance caused by silica exposure, including analyses using specimens such as plasma and immunocompetent cells obtained from silicosis patients, as a means of examining the supposition that silica exposure induces molecular and cellular biological alterations of immune cells. These approaches have resulted in the detection of several specific autoantibodies, alterations of CD95/Fas and its related molecules, and evidence of chronic activation of responder T cells and regulatory T cells following silica exposure. In this review, we present details of our investigations as an introduction to scientific approaches examining the immunological effects of environmental and occupational substances.
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[Postoperative complications of bilobectomy compared with lobectomy in the right lung of non-small cell lung cancer patients].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The mismatch between pleural space and remnant lung after bilobectomy has been considered as the main reason for the high incidence of postoperative complications in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The aim of this study is to analyze the differences in postoperative complications between bilobectomy and lobectomy in the right lung of NSCLC patients.
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Early response to chemoradiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma treatment: Value of dynamic contrast-enhanced 3.0 T MRI.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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To prospectively evaluate the dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) value for predicting early nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) chemoradiotherapy (CRT) response.
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Activated microglia contribute to neuronal apoptosis in Toxoplasmic encephalitis.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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A plethora of evidence shows that activated microglia play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the central nervous system (CNS). Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) frequently occurs in HIV/AIDS patients. However, knowledge remains limited on the contributions of activated microglia to the pathogenesis of TE.
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A MYB-domain protein EFM mediates flowering responses to environmental cues in Arabidopsis.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Plants adjust the timing of the transition to flowering to ensure their reproductive success in changing environments. Temperature and light are major environmental signals that affect flowering time through converging on the transcriptional regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encoding the florigen in Arabidopsis. Here, we show that a MYB transcription factor EARLY FLOWERING MYB PROTEIN (EFM) plays an important role in directly repressing FT expression in the leaf vasculature. EFM mediates the effect of ambient temperature on flowering and is directly promoted by another major FT repressor, SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE. EFM interacts with an H3K36me2 demethylase JMJ30, which forms a negative feedback regulatory loop with the light-responsive circadian clock, to specifically demethylate an active mark H3K36me2 at FT. Our results suggest that EFM is an important convergence point that mediates plant responses to temperature and light to determine the timing of reproduction.
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A multitasking functional group leads to structural diversity using designer C-H activation reaction cascades.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The C-H activation strategy has become one of the preferred methods to introduce chemical functionality to a chemically inert carbon atom. Intensive efforts have been devoted to developing either versatile bond formations (product structural diversity) or effective directing groups (substrate site selectivity). From the views of medicinal and synthetic practitioners, the C-H activation approach remains inadequate due to its limitation to point-to-point derivatization. Direct assembly of 3D molecular complexity in a single step remains elusive for this strategy. Towards this goal, a multitasking functional group is required to accomplish several missions in one pot: site selecitivity, cleavability and redox versatility. We demonstrate that an oxyacetamide group is such a multifunctional warhead that enables a series of C-H functionalization cascades and allows direct access to structurally diverse polycyclic heterocyles in one pot. The progress of these reaction cascades were fully controlled by oxidants and temperature. The proliferation of the reaction chain can be extended to a four-step cascade.
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Cross-sectional survey of the relationship of symptomatology, disability and family burden among patients with schizophrenia in Sichuan, China.
Shanghai Arch Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that leads to high rates of disability and high levels of family burden but the interactive relationship between these variables remains unclear, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where the vast majority of patients live with their families.
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[Clinical randomized controlled trials of acupoint catgut-embedding for simple obesity: a meta-analysis].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The clinical therapeutic effect of acupoint catgut-embedding for simple obesity was systemically analyzed to provide reference and assistance for its clinical treatment and research. By searching in the CBM, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, Pubmed, Springer and Medline databases, clinical randomized controlled trials (RCT) of acupoint catgut-embedding for simple obesity published from Jan, 2009 to July, 2013 were collected while Revman 5. 2 software was applied to perform the Meta-analysis. Totally 19 articles were acquired with 1 658 cases involved. The effective rate was selected as primary outcome measure in 19 articles. The Meta-analysis was performed among homogeneous researches. The results indicated that compared with other therapies, pooled OR of acupoint catgut-embedding was 2.45 with 95% CI [1.81, 3.32]; in the test for overall effect, Z = 5.81, implying the efficacy difference of two therapies was significant in the treatment of simple obesity (P < 0.01). In subgroups analysis, in the event of treatment session with more than 3 months, compared with other therapies, pooled OR of acupoint catgut-embedding was 2.61 with 95% CI [1.53, 4.46]; in test for overall effect, Z = 3.51, implying the efficacy difference of two therapies was significant in the treatment of simple obesity (P < 0.01); in the event of treatment session with less than 3 months, compared with other therapies, pooled OR of acupoint catgut-embedding was 2.38 with 95% CI [1.65, 3.44]; in test for overall effect, Z = 4.46, implying in the treatment of simple obesity the efficacy difference of two therapies was significant (P < 0.01). Compared with electroacupuncture, OR of acupoint catgut-embedding was 1.79, 95% CI [1.08, 2.95] (P = 0.02). Compared with acupuncture, OR of acupoint catgut-embedding was 1.89, 95% CI [1.16, 3.09] (P = 0.01), which explained that compared with electroacupuncture and acupuncture, the efficacy of acupoint catgut-embedding was significantly different. In a word, the clinical efficacy of acupoint catgut-embedding is superior to other therapies in the treatment of simple obesity.
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Arthroscopy-Assisted Surgery for Tibial Plateau Fractures.
Arthroscopy
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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This study aimed to summarize the recent clinical outcomes of patients undergoing arthroscopy-assisted reduction and internal fixation (ARIF) for tibial plateau fractures.
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New Insight into the Role of Gold Nanoparticles in Au@CdS Core-Shell Nanostructures for Hydrogen Evolution.
Small
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Monodisperse Au@CdS core-shell nanostructured hybrids are synthesized and used as an ideal model to investigate the mechanism of photocatalytic hydrogen generation. Au nanoparticle cores act as the hole scavengers, which evidently improves both catalytic activity and catalytic stability of the Au@CdS core-shell nanostructures toward hydrogen production under visible light irradiation. Hot electron transfer from Au to CdS is also observed to be an ineffective way to improve hydrogen evolution.
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Literature review on clinical decision support system reducing medical error.
J Evid Based Med
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Quite a number of studies on clinical decision support systems (CDSS) have been published in recent years to assess the characteristics and architecture of CDSS and evaluate the effects of CDSS on clinical work. However, until now there have been no relevant studies to investigate the quantity of these, and their contribution to present day thinking. The aim of this study was to explore the areas of theme, and the study design of research on CDSS in literature published in English and Chinese-language journals.
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Involvement of the Akt signaling pathway in ER-?36/GRP94-mediated signaling in gastric cancer.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) has been implicated in the promotion of tumor proliferation and metastasis. Previous studies have found that GRP94 is involved in the malignant growth of gastric carcinoma cells through estrogen receptor-?36 (ER-?36)-mediated estrogen signaling, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the expression levels of GRP94 and ER-?36 in tumor specimens from gastric cancer patients by immunohistochemistry, and found that both GRP94 and ER-?36 were highly expressed in the cytoplasms of gastric carcinoma cells. Furthermore, treatment with 17?-estradiol at a concentration of 10(-12) M for 24 h increased the expression levels of GRP94 and ER-?36, and the phosphorylation levels of Akt at the Ser473 site (Ser473-Akt). In established SGC7901 gastric cancer cells with knockdown of ER-?36 expression, the levels of GRP94 and Ser473-Akt expression were significantly reduced. Thus, the Akt signaling pathway is a potentially important signaling pathway in ER-?36-GRP94-mediated gastric carcinogenesis.
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Andrographolide induces apoptosis of C6 glioma cells via the ERK-p53-caspase 7-PARP pathway.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Glioma is the most malignant tumor of the central nervous system. Efforts on the development of new chemotherapy are mandatory. Andrographolide (AND), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the Andrographis paniculata, has been shown to have antitumor activities in several types of cancer cells. Whether AND can exert its antitumor activity in glioblastoma cells remains unknown. This study examined the anticancer effects of AND, both in vitro and in vivo.
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Phenethyl isothiocyanate suppresses cervical carcinoma metastasis potential and its molecular mechanism.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Tumor metastasis is a prominent cause of treatment failure in cervical carcinoma. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is an active component extracted from cruciferous plants that has exhibited anticancer activity in various types of human cancer; however, its effect on the inhibition of metastasis remains unclear. The current study aimed to explore the effect of PEITC on the suppression of metastasis in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. Multiple variables were assessed with different methods as follows: Cell viability, with a Vi?CELL analyzer; cell adhesion, by MTS assay; cell invasion, by Transwell assay; cell cycle, by flow cytometry assay; cytokine concentration, by ELISA assay; metastasis?related gene and protein expression, by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting; and transcription factor activity, by gene reporter assay. The results indicated that PEITC exhibited an inhibitory effect on the adhesion and invasion of HeLa cells by induction of G2/M phase arrest, it reduced the expression of CDK1, MMP?2/9, CD44, ICAM?1, increased the production of TGF??, IL?6 and IL?8, and increased the phosphorylation of Smad2. These results suggest that PEITC may be a potential antitumor compound, acting through the TGF??/Smad2 pathway; and it has the potential for future use as a therapy for cervical carcinoma subsequent to further studies.
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Overexpression of Sig1R is closely associated with tumor progression and poor outcome in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Nonopioid Sigma1 receptor (Sig1R), which regulates various metabolism functions, has been implicated in cancers; yet, its role in hilar cholangiocarcinoma remains unclear. In the present study, we examined Sig1R expression in hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) tissues and explored its possible clinical values. Tissue microarray blocks containing 92 HC tissues and matched non-cancerous bile duct tissues were examined immunohistochemically for expression of Sig1R protein. Overexpression of Sig1R was found in 43 (46.7 %) of the 92 primary tumor tissues. Overexpression of Sig1R was significantly associated with poor/undifferentiation (P = 0.011), tumor invasion (P = 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.047), and advanced disease stage (P = 0.024) of HC patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients overexpressing Sig1R had an earlier recurrence and worse overall survival than those not overexpressing Sig1R. Cox regression analysis revealed that Sig1R was an independent factor to predict HC recurrence and prognosis of HC patients. Our results suggest that Sig1R is frequently activated in human HC tissue and overexpression of Sig1R might serve as a predictor for tumor recurrence and a prognostic biomarker for HC patients.
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A combined experimental and computational study of Vam3, a derivative of resveratrol, and Syk interaction.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) plays an indispensable role through preliminary extracellular antigen-induced crosslinking of Fc receptor (FcR) in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we identify Vam3, a dimeric derivative of resveratrol isolated from grapes, as an ATP-competitive inhibitor of Syk with an IC50 of 62.95 nM in an in vitro kinase assay. Moreover, docking and molecular dynamics simulation approaches were performed to get more detailed information about the binding mode of Vam3 and Syk. The results show that 11b-OH on ring-C and 4b-OH on ring-D could form two hydrogen bonds with Glu449 and Phe382 of Syk, respectively. In addition, arene-cation interaction between ring-D of Vam3 and Lys402 of Syk was also observed. These results indicate that ring-C and D play an essential role in Vam3-Syk interaction. Our studies may be helpful in the structural optimization of Vam3, and also aid the design of novel Syk inhibitors in the future.
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Phenotypic characterization and risk factors for microtia in East China, a case-control study.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Although congenital microtia has been reported in various studies, little is known about the etiology of isolated and sporadic cases. The aim was to analyze potential risk factors for isolated and sporadic microtia using case-control study in East China.
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Downbeat down south.
Surv Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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A 59-year-old woman with late-onset diabetes mellitus presented with a 4-week history of oscillopsia and vertigo. Physical examination revealed downbeating nystagmus in the primary position that worsened on right gaze and left gaze. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits showed enhancement and signal abnormality in the right temporal lobe without evidence of a cervicomedullary junction lesion. Serum anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) antibody titer was markedly elevated. Given these findings, her vertigo and downbeat nystagmus were likely secondary to elevated anti-GAD antibodies.
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Role of microRNA-93 in regulation of angiogenesis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Angiogenesis is essential for a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. To date, many angiogenic microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified and several of them were further investigated to elucidate the mechanisms of specific miRNAs in regulating angiogenesis. In recent studies concerning tumor and ischemia, the miRNA-93 had been demonstrated to be able to modulate angiogenesis in different molecular pathways. The miRNA-93 can promote angiogenesis via enhancing endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. Additionally, miRNA-93-over-expressing cells developed a relationship with the blood vessels allowing tumor cells to survive and to grow well. However, high expression of miRNA-93 can depress the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and its downstream molecular targets in in vivo and vitro experiments. MiRNA-93's effects on angiogenesis are dependent on the interaction of other multiple genes and signal pathways, such as P21, E2F1, integrin-?8, LATS2, etc. Future investigation should involve mapping the network by which miRNA-93 exerts its functions.
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Treatment protocols for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas combined with craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: A case report of atypical McCune-Albright syndrome.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a rare, post-zygotic (non-germline) disorder, characterized by hypersecretory endocrinopathies, fibrous dysplasia of the bone and café-au-lait macules. The most common endocrine dysfunction is gonadal hyperfunction; thus, hypersecretion of growth hormones (GHs) as a manifestation of endocrine hyperfunction in MAS is rarely reported. MAS affects both genders, although the majority of cases have been reported in young females. Atypical presentations of MAS, with only one or two of the classic symptoms, have been previously described, but remain particularly challenging due to the lack of a diagnostic phenotype. In patients with atypical MAS, analysis of mutations in the gene of the ?-subunit of the stimulatory G-protein is limited; thus, diagnosis is based on clinical judgment. In the present study, a male with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and GH-secreting pituitary adenomas, diagnosed with atypical MAS, was reported. The pituitary adenoma was effectively treated with radiotherapy and the patient underwent surgery for the polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, with marked improvements observed in appearance.
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Chronic exposure to asbestos enhances TGF-?1 production in the human adult T cell leukemia virus-immortalized T cell line MT-2.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Asbestos exposure causes various tumors such as lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. To elucidate the immunological alteration in asbestos-related tumors, an asbestos-induced apoptosis-resistant subline (MT-2Rst) was established from a human adult T cell leukemia virus-immortalized T cell line (MT-2Org) by long-term exposure to asbestos chrysotile-B (CB). In this study, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) knockdown using lentiviral vector-mediated RNA interference showed that MT-2Rst cells secreted increased levels of TGF-?1, and acquired resistance to TGF-?1-mediated growth inhibition. We showed that exposure of MT-2Org cells to CB activated the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), ERK1/2, p38 and JNK1. Furthermore, TGF-?1-knockdown cells and treatment with MAPK inhibitors revealed that MT-2Rst cells secreted a high level of TGF-?1 mainly through phosphorylation of p38. However, an Annexin V assay indicated that TGF-?1 resistance in MT-2Rst cells was not directly involved in the acquisition of resistance to apoptosis that is triggered by CB exposure. The overall results demonstrate that long-term exposure of MT-2Org cells to CB induces a regulatory T cell-like phenotype, suggesting that chronic exposure to asbestos leads to a state of immune suppression.
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A novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist YQA14 inhibits methamphetamine self-administration and relapse to drug-seeking behaviour in rats.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Growing preclinical evidence suggests that dopamine D3 receptor antagonists are promising for the treatment of addiction. We have previously reported a novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist YQA14 with better pharmacokinetic behaviours and pharmacotherapeutic efficacy than other tested compounds in attenuating the reward and relapse of cocaine. In the present study, we investigated whether YQA14 can similarly inhibit methamphetamine self-administration and cue- or methamphetamine-trigged reinstatement of drug-seeking behaviour. The research illustrated that systemic administration of YQA14 (6.25-25mg/kg, i.p. 20min prior to methamphetamine) failed to alter methamphetamine (0.05mg/kg) self-administration under fixed-ratio 2. However, YQA14 (6.25-25mg/kg, i.p. 20min prior to methamphetamine) significantly and dose-dependently reduced methamphetamine self-administration under fixed-ratio 2 by a low dose (0.006, 0.0125, 0.025mg/kg) of methamphetamine and shifted the dose curve right and down. Further, YQA14 also lowered the break point under progressive-ratio reinforcement conditions in rats. Finally, YQA14 also significantly inhibited cue- or methamphetamine-triggered reinstatement of extinguished drug-seeking behaviour. Overall, our findings suggest that blockade of the dopamine D3 receptor by YQA14 attenuated the rewarding and incentive motivational effects of methamphetamine in rats and may have pharmacotherapeutic potential in the treatment of methamphetamine addiction. Thus, YQA14 deserves further investigation as a promising medication for the treatment of addiction.
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Pharmacokinetics of two alkaloids after oral administration of rhizoma coptidis extract in normal rats and irritable bowel syndrome rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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A comparative pharmacokinetic study of berberine and palmatine after oral administration of Rhizoma Coptidis extract (96?mg/kg, containing berberine 22?mg/kg and palmatine 5?mg/kg based on body weight) was performed in normal and postinflammation irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) rats, induced by intracolonic instillation of acetic acid and restraint stress. Quantification of berberine and palmatine in rat plasma was achieved by using a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method. Plasma samples were collected at 13 different time points and the pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by WinNonlin software. The significant differences in the pharmacokinetic behaviors, such as C max?, AUC(0-t), V d /F, and CL/F, of berberine and palmatine were found between normal and PI-IBS model rats. The results indicated that PI-IBS pathological conditions in rats could alter the pharmacokinetic behavior of drug. Preclinical pharmacokinetic studies are usually carried out on healthy animals. However, we should pay more attention to the fact that the change of pharmacokinetic behavior plays an important role on efficacy. It is essential to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the drug in disease status.
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Waning of anti-HAV immunity in Shijiazhuang prefecture, Hebei province, China: A comparison of seroprevalence between 1992 and 2011.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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To study the epidemiological patterns of hepatitis A, and immunity of entire population in Shijiazhuang prefecture, Hebei province, a former hyper-endemic area in north China.
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Efficient improvement of surface activity of tea saponin through Gemini-like modification by straightforward esterification.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Novel strategy of Gemini-like modification has been applied in development of new nonionic surfactants, tea saponin esters, with enhanced surface activity by simple esterification. Tea saponin was treated with acyl chlorides of different chain length and different ratio of tea saponin and acyl chloride under alkaline condition. The structures of tea saponin esters were analysed and confirmed by FT-IR, NMR and ESI-MS. Surface activity investigation revealed that esterification with the chain length of C12 and C14 and the ratio of 1:4 to 1:6 produced superior surface activity compared with tea saponin. The exceptional surface activity of the new surfactants suggested their great potential application in food industry as green surfactants due to their environmental benign nature as well as simple and inexpensive preparation. The strategy of Gemini-like modification will facilitate development of green surfactants based on natural resources.
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Genetic regulatory network analysis reveals that low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 11 is involved in stress responses in mice.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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To study whether Lrp11 is involved in stress response and find its expression regulatory network, the model of stress has been built using C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) mice. Western blotting, qPCR and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate the expression variation of Lrp11 in amygdala tissue after exposure to stress. We found the quantity of Lrp11 was more obvious in stress models than that in normal mice (P<0.05) which suggests Lrp11 might participate in the process of stress response. The expression of Lrp11 is controlled by a cis-acting quantitative trait locus (cis-eQTL). We identified four genes that are regulated by Lrp11 and the expression of 66 genes highly correlated with Lrp11, seven of which have previously been implicated in stress pathways. To evaluate the relationship between Lrp11 and its downstream genes or network members, we transfected HEK 293T cells and SH-SY5Y cells with Lrp11 siRNA leading to down-regulation of Lrp11mRNA and were able to confirm a significant influence of Lrp11 depletion on the expression of Xpnpep1, Maneal, Pgap1 and Uprt. These validated downstream targets and members of Lrp11 gene network provide new insight into the biological role of Lrp11 and may be an important risk factor in the development of stress.
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Surface Electromyography of Wrist Flexors and Extensors in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy.
PM R
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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To investigate the characteristics of motor unit recruitment and coordination function of the wrist during maximum isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) using surface electromyography (EMG) in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy.
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Mild clinical manifestation and unusual recovery upon coenzyme Q10 treatment in the first Chinese Leigh syndrome pedigree with mutation m.10197 G>A.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The Leigh syndrome (LS), characterized by psychomotor retardation, seizures, nystagmus, ophthalmoparesis, optic atrophy, ataxia, dystonia, or respiratory failure, is one of the most severe mitochondrial diseases. In the majority of cases, the disease is fatal and patients die before age 5. Mutation m.10197 G>A was found to relate to the severe phenotype of the Leigh syndrome. Here, we describe the first Chinese Leigh syndrome pedigree with this mutation. The proband had the characteristic brain lesions of the Leigh syndrome and presented a decrease in exercise tolerance and mild face paralysis. Sequencing the NADH dehydrogenase, subunit 3 (ND3) gene in the pedigree, revealed that the proband, as well as her unaffected brother, have a high mutant load in the ND3 gene, compared to their mother. Following one?year treatment with the coenzyme Q10, an obvious improvement in clinical features was observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the proband. Our study and previous reports highlight the variability of phenotypic expression of the m.10197 G>A mutation, and suggest that pathogenesis of the syndrome may be affected by a number of factors. This is the first report on successful treatment of an LS patient carrying the mutation m.10197 G>A with the coenzyme Q10, indicating that Q10 may attenuate the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by the m.10197 G>A mutation.
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Quantitative Trait Analysis of Polymorphisms in Two Bilirubin Metabolism Enzymes to Physiologic Bilirubin Levels in Chinese Newborns.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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To explore the effects of variants in Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronosyl Transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and Heme Oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) on daily physiological bilirubin levels and bilirubin changes during the first week after birth in Chinese newborns. Both UGT1A1 and HMOX1 code rate-limiting enzymes in the bilirubin metabolism pathway.
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Relationship between lipids levels and right ventricular volume overload in congestive heart failure.
J Geriatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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The relationship between lipids and coronary artery disease has been well established. However, this is not the case between lipids and heart failure. Ironically, high lipid levels are associated with better outcomes in heart failure, but the mechanisms underlying the phenomenon are not fully understood. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that reduced intestinal lipid absorption due to venous congestion may lead to low lipid levels.
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Molecular etiology of non-dominant, non-syndromic, mild-to-moderate childhood hearing impairment in Chinese Hans.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Childhood hearing impairment (HI) is genetically heterogeneous. Compared with the severe-to-profound HI, the molecular etiology of mild-to-moderate HI in children has been less well characterized, especially for those not inherited in the dominant mode. In this study, we recruited 114 probands with non-dominant, non-syndromic, mild-to-moderate childhood HI. Sequencing of GJB2, SLC26A4, and MTRNR1 identified causative mutations in 30.7% (35/114), 4.4% (5/114), and 4.4% (5/114) of subjects, respectively. A majority (62.9%) of bi-allelic GJB2 mutations have non-truncating mutations in at least one allele. In 10 multiplex probands with no GJB2, SLC26A4, and MTRNR1 mutations identified, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 79 known deafness genes did not identify any additional causes. Our data showed that the molecular etiology of mild-to-moderate childhood HI is considerably different from what reported for severe-to-profound HI and far from complete for those inherited in non-dominant modes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Combination antidepressant therapy for major depressive disorder: speed and probability of remission.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Only about a third of patients with an episode of major depressive disorder remit with a given treatment and few remissions occur within the first weeks of treatment. This study tested whether combining escitalopram and bupropion as initial treatment would result in quicker remission and a higher remission rate than monotherapy with either drug.
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Transcriptome and metabolome analysis of citrus fruit to elucidate puffing disorder.
Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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A systems-level analysis reveals details of molecular mechanisms underlying puffing disorder in Citrus fruit. Flavedo, albedo and juice sac tissues of normal fruits and fruits displaying symptoms of puffing disorder were studied using metabolomics at three developmental stages. Microarrays were used to compare normal and puffed fruits for each of the three tissues. A protein-protein interaction network inferred from previous work on Arabidopsis identified hub proteins whose transcripts show significant changes in expression. Glycolysis, the backbone of primary metabolism, appeared to be severely affected by the disorder, based on both transcriptomic and metabolomic results. Significantly less citric acid was observed consistently in puffed fruits. Gene set enrichment analysis suggested that glycolysis and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly altered in puffed samples in both albedo and flavedo. Expression of invertases and genes for sucrose export, amylose-starch and starch-maltose conversion was higher in puffed fruits. These changes may significantly alter source-sink communications. Genes associated with gibberellin and cytokinin signaling were downregulated in symptomatic albedo tissues, suggesting that these hormones play key roles in the disorder. Findings may be applied toward the development of early diagnostic methods based on host response genes and metabolites (i.e. citric acid), and toward therapeutics based on hormones.
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Upregulation of miR-194 contributes to tumor growth and progression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal types of human cancer worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the diagnostic and biological significance of microRNA-194 (miR-194) in PDAC. miRNA expression profiling of human PDACs and adjacent normal pancreatic tissues identified a total of 16 genes including miR-194 with >1.15-fold expression changes (8 overexpressed and 8 underexpressed). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed elevation of serum miR-194 levels were significantly greater in PDAC patients than in duodenal adenocarcinoma patients and healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that serum miR-194 had a sensitivity of 54.3% and a specificity of 57.5% for discriminating PDAC patients from healthy controls. Combined analysis of the 3 groups yielded a sensitivity of 84.0 and a specificity of 75.0% for the combined detection of miR-192 and miR-194 in the diagnosis of PDAC. Ectopic expression of miR-194 in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells enhanced cell proliferation, migration and colony formation, which was coupled with decreased expression of the tumor suppressor DACH1. miR-194 overexpression increased tumor growth and local invasion and suppressed the expression of DACH1 in an orthotopic pancreatic cancer mouse model. In conclusion, upregulation of miR-194 contributes to tumor growth and progression in PDAC, possibly through suppression of DACH1. However, serum miR-194 has a low capacity for detection of PDAC. Combined detection of serum miR-192 and miR-194 levels may serve as a sensitive diagnostic biomarker for PDAC.
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Controllably local gene delivery mediated by polyelectrolyte multilayer films assembled from gene-loaded nanopolymersomes and hyaluronic acid.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To explore a spatiotemporally controllable gene delivery system with high efficiency and safety, polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films were constructed on titanium or quartz substrates via layer-by-layer self-assembly technique by using plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid-loaded lipopolysaccharide-amine nanopolymersomes (pNPs) as polycations and hyaluronic acid (HA) as polyanions. pNPs were chosen because they have high transfection efficiency (>95%) in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induce significant angiogenesis in zebrafish in conventional bolus transfection. The assembly process of PEM films was confirmed by analyses of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared, contact angle, and zeta potential along with atomic force microscopy observation. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation analysis reveals that this film grows in an exponential mode, pNPs are the main contributor to the film mass, and the film mass can be modulated in a relatively wide range (1.0-29 ?g/cm(2)) by adjusting the deposition layer number. Atomic force microscopy observation shows that the assembly leads to the formation of a patterned film with three-dimensional tree-like nanostructure, where the branches are composed of beaded chains (pNP beads are strung on HA molecular chains), and the incorporated pNPs keep structure intact. In vitro release experiment shows that plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid can be gradually released from films over 14 days, and the released plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid exists in a complex form. In vitro cell experiments demonstrate that PEM films can enhance the adhesion and proliferation of MSCs and efficiently transfect MSCs in situ in vitro for at least 4 days. Our results suggest that a (pNPs/HA)n system can mediate efficient transfection in stem cells in a spatially and temporally controllable pattern, highlighting its huge potential in local gene therapy.
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The Salmonella effector protein SpvC, a phosphothreonine lyase is functional in plant cells.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Salmonella is one of the most prominent causes of food poisoning and growing evidence indicates that contaminated fruits and vegetables are an increasing concern for human health. Successful infection demands the suppression of the host immune system, which is often achieved via injection of bacterial effector proteins into host cells. In this report we present the function of Salmonella effector protein in plant cell, supporting the new concept of trans-kingdom competence of this bacterium. We screened a range of Salmonella Typhimurium effector proteins for interference with plant immunity. Among these, the phosphothreonine lyase SpvC attenuated the induction of immunity-related genes when present in plant cells. Using in vitro and in vivo systems we show that this effector protein interacts with and dephosphorylates activated Arabidopsis Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase 6 (MPK6), thereby inhibiting defense signaling. Moreover, the requirement of Salmonella SpvC was shown by the decreased proliferation of the ?spvC mutant in Arabidopsis plants. These results suggest that some Salmonella effector proteins could have a conserved function during proliferation in different hosts. The fact that Salmonella and other Enterobacteriaceae use plants as hosts strongly suggests that plants represent a much larger reservoir for animal pathogens than so far estimated.
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[Simultaneous determination of monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and sugar alcohols in foods by high performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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A simple and efficient method was established based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate and detect thirteen analytes of monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and sugar alcohols (xylose, fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, lactose, 1-kestose, nystose, 1F-fructofuranosyl nystose, erythritol, mannitol, xylitol, maltitol) in foods. The separation was performed on an NH2 column with the gradient elution of acetonitrile-water as the mobile phases. The analytes were detected by an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD). All the thirteen sugars had good linearities within 0.1 - 5 g/L with the correlation coefficients between 0.9901 - 0.9996. The limits of detection (LOD) were all less than 0.1 g/L. The precisions of the method expressed as RSDs were in the range of 2.69% -7.21%. The recoveries of the thirteen analytes spiked in real samples ranged from 96.1% to 105.2%. This method was applied to the actual sample testings and the results showed the food labels were greatly different from the actual compositions.
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Improving calibration of two key parameters in Hydrologic Engineering Center hydrologic modelling system, and analysing the influence of initial loss on flood peak flows.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2013
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Parameter calibration is a key and difficult issue for a hydrological model. Taking the Jinjiang Xixi watershed of south-east China as the study area, we proposed methods to improve the calibration of two very sensitive parameters, Muskingum K and initial loss, in the Hydrologic Engineering Center hydrologic modelling system (HEC-HMS) model. Twenty-three rainstorm flood events occurring from 1972 to 1977 were used to calibrate the model using a trial-and-error approach, and a relationship between initial loss and initial discharge for these flood events was established; seven rainstorm events occurring from 1978 to 1979 were used to validate the two parameters. The influence of initial loss change on different return-period floods was evaluated. A fixed Muskingum K value, which was calibrated by assuming a flow wave velocity at 3 m/s, could be used to simulate a flood hydrograph, and the empirical power-function relationship between initial loss and initial discharge made the model more applicable for flood forecasting. The influence of initial loss on peak floods was significant but not identical for different flood levels, and the change rate of peak floods caused by the same initial loss change was more remarkable when the return period increased.
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Role of copper oxides in contact killing of bacteria.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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The potential of metallic copper as an intrinsically antibacterial material is gaining increasing attention in the face of growing antibiotics resistance of bacteria. However, the mechanism of the so-called "contact killing" of bacteria by copper surfaces is poorly understood and requires further investigation. In particular, the influences of bacteria-metal interaction, media composition, and copper surface chemistry on contact killing are not fully understood. In this study, copper oxide formation on copper during standard antimicrobial testing was measured in situ by spectroscopic ellipsometry. In parallel, contact killing under these conditions was assessed with bacteria in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or Tris-Cl. For comparison, defined Cu2O and CuO layers were thermally generated and characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. The antibacterial properties of these copper oxides were tested under the conditions used above. Finally, copper ion release was recorded for both buffer systems by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectroscopy, and exposed copper samples were analyzed for topographical surface alterations. It was found that there was a fairly even growth of CuO under wet plating conditions, reaching 4-10 nm in 300 min, but no measurable Cu2O was formed during this time. CuO was found to significantly inhibit contact killing, compared to pure copper. In contrast, thermally generated Cu2O was essentially as effective in contact killing as pure copper. Copper ion release from the different surfaces roughly correlated with their antibacterial efficacy and was highest for pure copper, followed by Cu2O and CuO. Tris-Cl induced a 10-50-fold faster copper ion release compared to PBS. Since the Cu2O that primarily forms on copper under ambient conditions is as active in contact killing as pure copper, antimicrobial objects will retain their antimicrobial properties even after oxide formation.
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Association Between IL-6-174G/C Polymorphism and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis: A Meta-Analysis.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Objective: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine and important mediator of many inflammatory processes, which might affect susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of IL-6-174G/C polymorphism on the risk of MS using a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: The Pubmed, ISI Web of Science, Wanfang, VIP, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were screened and six studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to evaluate the association between the IL-6-174G/C polymorphism and risk of MS. Results: No significant association between the IL-6-174G/C polymorphism and risk of MS was observed in overall analyses. With stratification according to ethnicity, we found that carriers with the IL-6-174CC genotype had a 1.87-fold increased risk for the development of MS in Asians (recessive model: OR=1.87, 95% CI, 1.08-3.24), but not in Caucasians. Conclusion: This meta-analysis provides evidence that the IL-6-174G/C polymorphism may be a risk factor for the development of MS in Asians. Further association studies with a larger sample size are required to confirm the result in different populations.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.