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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The potential of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a novel cellular therapy for multiple sclerosis.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease of neurological disability, affecting more than 300 out of every one million people in the world. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hUC-MSC) transplantation in MS patients. Twenty-three patients were enrolled in this study and 13 of them were given hUC-MSC therapy at the same time as anti-inflammatory treatment, whereas the control patients received the anti-inflammatory treatment only. Treatment schedule included 1,000 mg/kg of methylprednisolone i.v. daily for 3 days and then 500 mg/kg for 2 days, followed by oral prednisone 1mg/kg/day for 10 days. The dosage of prednisone was then reduced by 5mg every two weeks until reaching a 5mg/day maintenance dosage. Intravenous infusion of hUC-MSCs was applied three times in a 6 week period for each patient. The overall symptoms of the hUC-MSC treated patients improved compared to patients in the control group. Both the EDSS scores and relapse occurrence were significantly lower than those of the control patients. Inflammatory cytokines were assessed, and the data demonstrated a shift from Th1 to Th2 immunity in hUC-MSC treated patients. Our data demonstrated a high potential for hUC-MSC treatment of MS. This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) special issue of Cell Transplantation.
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Arabidopsis DOK1 encodes a functional dolichol kinase involved in reproduction.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Dolichol phosphate (Dol-P) serves as a carrier of complex polysaccharides during protein glycosylation. Dol-P is synthesized by the phosphorylation of dolichol or the monodephosphorylation of dolichol pyrophosphate (Dol-PP); however, the enzymes that catalyze these reactions remain unidentified in Arabidopsis thaliana. We performed a genome-wide search for cytidylyltransferase motif-containing proteins in Arabidopsis and found that At3g45040 encodes a protein homologous with Sec59p, a dolichol kinase (DOK) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. At3g45040, designated AtDOK1, complemented defects in the growth and N-linked glycosylation of the S. cerevisiae sec59 mutant, suggesting that AtDOK1 encodes a functional DOK. To characterize the physiological roles of AtDOK1 in planta, we isolated two independent lines of T-DNA-tagged AtDOK1 mutants, dok1-1 and dok1-2. The heterozygous plants showed developmental defects in male and female gametophytes, including an aberrant pollen structure, low pollen viability, and short siliques. Additionally, the mutations had incomplete penetrance. These results suggest that AtDOK1 is a functional DOK required for reproductive processes in Arabidopsis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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EPR detection of hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative perturbations in lead-exposed earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in the presence of decabromodiphenyl ether.
Ecotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impacts on the oxidative perturbations and hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation in earthworms of exposure to the two chemicals remain almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the effects of Pb in earthworms Eisenia fetida in the presence of BDE209 through the use of several biomarkers in microcosms. The results have demonstrated that the addition of BDE209 (1 or 10 mg kg(-1)) decreased the enzymatic activities [superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), peroxidase] and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) compared with exposure to BDE209 alone (50, 250 or 500 mg kg(-1)). Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicated that ·OH radicals in earthworms were significantly induced by Pb in the presence of BDE209. The changing pattern of malondialdehyde (MDA) contents was accordant with that of ·OH intensity suggested that reactive oxygen species might lead to cellular lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, CAT exhibited more sensitive response to single Pb exposure than the other biomarkers, while T-AOC, ·OH and MDA might be three most sensitive biomarkers in earthworms after simultaneous exposure to Pb and BDE209. The results of these observations suggested that oxidative stress appeared in E. fetida, and it may play an important role in inducing the Pb and BDE209 toxicity to earthworms.
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[Multiple factors analysis of periodontal status in pregnant women in Shanghai].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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To assess the periodontal health status of pregnant women in Shanghai, and to investigate the factors that may influence the periodontal health status of pregnant women, in order to provide theoretical evidence for the pointed oral health education and public health strategies in future.
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[Expression of TRAF-6,TAK1 and TGF-? mRNA in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma before and after Chemotherapy].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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This study was purposed to detect the expression levels of TRAF6, TAK1 and TGF-? mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMNC) of patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) before and after chemotherapy, and to explore the effect of chemotherapy on the activity of TRAF6/TAK1 signal pathway. The expression levels of TRAF-6, TAK1 and TGF-? mRNA in PBMNC of 38 patients with DLBCL were detected by using the quantitative real time PCR before treatment or after two cycles of chemotherapy, 12 healthy people were served as the control. The results showed that the expression levels of TRAF-6, TAK1 and TGF-? mRNA in PBMNC of DLBCL patients' were higher than those in healthy people. Before treatment, the expression levels of TRAF-6 and TAK1 mRNA had no significant difference as compared with healthy people (P > 0.05); after chemotherapy, the expression levels of these two genes significantly increased, and the differences both had statistically significant as compared with healthy people (P < 0.05); meanwhile the increased expression levels of these two genes after chemotherapy had statistically significant difference as compared with levels before treatment (P < 0.05) , and those expression levels were positively correlated. While the expression level of TGF-? mRNA decreased after chemotherapy as compared with level before treatment, and the differences had statistically significantse(P < 0.05). It is concluded that the activity of TRF6/TAK1 signal pathways in PBMNC of DLBCL patients' significantly increases after chemotherapy, while the expression level of TGF-? mRNA after chemotherapy is abviously lower than level before treatment.
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Neuroprotection of Total Steroid Saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis against Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats via Anti-Inflammatory and Antiapoptotic Effects.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Total steroid saponins isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis have shown a variety of beneficial bioactivities. However, there are no reports about their neuroprotective effects, until now. Therefore, in the present study, we explored the neuroprotective effects of the total steroid saponins from D. zingiberensis on rats against transient focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and their underlying mechanisms. Healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to six groups. After pretreatment with D. zingiberensis total steroid saponins intragastrically for six days, the rats were subjected to an ischemia injury by surgery on the middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90?min. Compared to the ischemia-reperfusion group, the D. zingiberensis total steroid saponin group of rats, especially those given a 30-mg/kg dose, showed not only a marked reduction in neurological deficit scores, cerebral infarct volume, and brain edema, but also an increase in neuron survival (Nissl bodies) in the hippocampal cornuammons 1 and cortex hemisphere of the ipsilateral ischemia. At the same time, the inflammatory cytokines in serum induced by the middle cerebral artery occlusion were significantly decreased by the preadministration of D. zingiberensis total steroid saponins. Furthermore, the increase of caspase-3 was evidently reduced in the hippocampal cornuammons 1 and cortex of the hemisphere injured brain. Finally, the downregulating antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and upregulating proapoptotic Bax proteins were obviously suppressed. Taken together, the current findings suggest that D. zingiberensis total steroid saponins played a potential neuroprotective role against a severe injury induced by transient focal cerebral ischemic reperfusion in a rat experimental model, and this role may be mediated by its anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic actions.
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A Prospective Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial Using a Combination of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells and Schwann Cells for the Treatment of Chronic Complete Spinal Cord Injuries.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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The aim of this prospective randomized double blind clinical study is to examine the benefits of using olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) combined with or without Schwann cells (SCs) in treating chronic complete spinal cord injuries (SCI). This would offer patients a better alternative for neurological functional recovery. According to the initial design, 28 eligible participants with cervical chronic complete SCI were recruited and randomly allocated into 4 groups of 7 participants each. The neurological assessments were to be performed according to the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) and International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) Functional Rating Scales, in combination with the electrophysiological tests e.g., electromyography (EMG) and paraspinal somatosensory evoked potentials (PSSEPs). Here, we have summarized the data from 7 patients; 3 patients received an OEC intraspinal transplantation, one underwent SC implantation, whereas one received a combination of OECs and SCs. The remaining 2 patients were used as controls. The scores were evaluated independently by at least 2 neurologists in a blinded fashion for comparing the neurological functional changes during pre- and post- cell transplantation (six month follow-up). All patients who received OECs, SCs alone, and a combination of them showed functional improvement. Mild fever occurred in one of the patients with OEC transplant that subsided after symptomatic treatments. All treated patients except one showed improvement in the electrophysiological tests. The functional improvement rate comprises 5/5 (100%) in the treated group, but 0/2 (0%) in the control group (p=0.008). These preliminary findings show that transplanting OECs, SCs, or a combination of them is well tolerated and that they have beneficial effects in patients. Thus, further studies in larger patient cohorts are warranted to assess the benefits and risks of these intervention strategies. This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) special issue of Cell Transplantation.
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Optimization of training sequence for DFT-spread DMT signal in optical access network with direct detection utilizing DML.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We experimentally demonstrated the transmission of 79.86-Gb/s discrete-Fourier-transform spread 32QAM discrete multi-tone (DFT-spread 32QAM-DMT) signal over 20-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) utilizing directly modulated laser (DML). The experimental results show DFT-spread effectively reduces Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of DMT signal, and also well overcomes narrowband interference and high frequencies power attenuation. We compared different types of training sequence (TS) symbols and found that the optimized TS for channel estimation is the symbol with digital BPSK/QPSK modulation format due to its best performance against optical link noise during channel estimation.
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The effects of hypotonic and isotonic negative contrast agent on gastrointestinal distention and physiological intake of 18F-FDG.
Nucl Med Commun
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The objective of this study was to explore the effects of hypotonic and isotonic oral mannitol on intestinal distention and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) intake in PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging.
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Unidirectional invisibility in a two-layer non-PT-symmetric slab.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Recently, unidirectional invisibility has been demonstrated in parity-time (PT) symmetric periodic structures and has attracted great attention. Nevertheless, fabrication of a complex periodic structure may not be practically easy. In this paper, a simple two-layer non-PT-symmetric slab structure is proposed to realize unidirectional invisibility. We numerically show that in such conventional structure consisting of two slabs with different real parts of refractive indices, unidirectional invisibility can be achieved as proper imaginary parts of refractive indices and thicknesses of the slabs are satisfied. Moreover, the unidirectional invisibility can be converted to unidirectional reflection when the imaginary parts of the refractive indices are tuned to their odd symmetric forms.
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Consensus of clinical neurorestorative progresses in patients with complete chronic spinal cord injury.
Cell Transplant
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Currently, there are lack effective therapeutic methods to restore neurological function for chronic complete spinal cord injury (SCI) by conventional treatment. Neurorestorative strategies with positive preclinical results have been translated to the clinic and some patients have gotten benefits and their quality of life has improved. These strategies include cell therapy, neurostimulation or neuromodulation, neuroprosthesis, neurotization or nerve bridging, and neurorehabilitation. The aim of this consensus by thirty one experts from 20 countries is to show the objective evidence of clinical neurorestoration for chronic complete SCI by the above mentioned neurorestorative strategies. Complete chronic SCI patients may no longer be told "nothing can be done". The translation to the clinic of more effective preclinical neurorestorative strategies should be encouraged as fast as possible in order to benefit patients with incurable CNS diseases. This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) special issue of Cell Transplantation.
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[Genetic analysis of a novel mutation resulting in autosomal dominant osteopetrosis II].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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To analyze potential mutation of chloride channel 7(CLCN7) gene in a patient with autosomal dominant osteopetrosis II (ADO II).
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The effect of self-sorting and co-assembly on the mechanical properties of low molecular weight hydrogels.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Self-sorting in low molecular weight hydrogels can be achieved using a pH triggered approach. We show here that this method can be used to prepare gels with different types of mechanical properties. Cooperative, disruptive or orthogonal assembled systems can be produced. Gels with interesting behaviour can be also prepared, for example self-sorted gels where delayed switch-on of gelation occurs. By careful choice of gelator, co-assembled structures can also be generated, which leads to synergistic strengthening of the mechanical properties.
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Immunization of Mice with Live-Attenuated Late Liver Stage-Arresting Plasmodium yoelii Parasites Generates Protective Antibody Responses to Preerythrocytic Stages of Malaria.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Understanding protective immunity to malaria is essential for the design of an effective vaccine to prevent the large number of infections and deaths caused by this parasitic disease. To date, whole-parasite immunization with attenuated parasites is the most effective method to confer sterile protection against malaria infection in clinical trials. Mouse model studies have highlighted the essential role that CD8(+) T cells play in protection against preerythrocytic stages of malaria; however, there is mounting evidence that antibodies are also important in these stages. Here, we show that experimental immunization of mice with Plasmodium yoelii fabb/f(-) (Pyfabb/f(-)), a genetically attenuated rodent malaria parasite that arrests late in the liver stage, induced functional antibodies that inhibited hepatocyte invasion in vitro and reduced liver-stage burden in vivo. These antibodies were sufficient to induce sterile protection from challenge by P. yoelii sporozoites in the absence of T cells in 50% of mice when sporozoites were administered by mosquito bite but not when they were administered by intravenous injection. Moreover, among mice challenged by mosquito bite, a higher proportion of BALB/c mice than C57BL/6 mice developed sterile protection (62.5% and 37.5%, respectively). Analysis of the antibody isotypes induced by immunization with Pyfabb/f(-) showed that, overall, BALB/c mice developed an IgG1-biased response, whereas C57BL/6 mice developed an IgG2b/c-biased response. Our data demonstrate for the first time that antibodies induced by experimental immunization of mice with a genetically attenuated rodent parasite play a protective role during the preerythrocytic stages of malaria. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of considering both the route of challenge and the genetic background of the mouse strains used when interpreting vaccine efficacy studies in animal models of malaria infection.
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The prognostic value of cardiac dysfunction assessed by bedside echocardiography in critically ill patients with COPD requiring mechanical ventilation: a study protocol.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Chronic obstructive lung disease is not only a major cause of morbidity and mortality, but is also the major reason for intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Cardiac function is often impaired in this disease, but its association with clinical outcome has not been fully established.
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[Effects of sildenafil citrate on mice hearing].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of the Sildenafil citrate on mice hearing.
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Decisions for Institutionalization Among Nursing Home Residents and Their Children in Shanghai.
Qual Health Res
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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An increasing number of elders in Shanghai have moved into nursing homes to meet their needs for long-term care. This shift from family caregiving to nursing home care calls for an exploration of caregiving decision making in urban China. In this article I present both generations' experiences of deciding to institutionalize. Face-to-face, semistructured interviews took place with 12 dyads of matched elders and their children (N = 24) in a government-sponsored, municipal-level nursing home in Shanghai. Spatially situated in a Cartesian coordinate system, the essence of participants' experiences showed that they either proactively or reactively chose institutionalization. Proactive families were motivated to prevent potentially increasing caregiving burdens that might exceed family caregiving capacity, whereas reactive families sought institutionalization after they had depleted caregiving resources at home. The findings illuminate diverse needs for long-term care of Chinese elders-the world's largest aging population-in the coming decades.
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[Effects of acetamidophenol on auditory in mice].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The purpose of this investigation was to observe the effects of the Acetaminophen on auditory in mice.
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Tolerance of the Nanocellulose-Producing Bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus to Lignocellulose-Derived Acids and Aldehydes.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Lignocellulosic biomass serves as a potential alternative feedstock for production of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), a high-value-added product of bacteria such as Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The tolerance of G. xylinus to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors (formic acid, acetic acid, levulinic acid, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) was investigated. Whereas 100 mM formic acid completely suppressed the metabolism of G. xylinus, 250 mM of either acetic acid or levulinic acid still allowed glucose metabolism and BNC production to occur. Complete suppression of glucose utilization and BNC production was observed after inclusion of 20 and 30 mM furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, respectively. The bacterium oxidized furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to furoic acid and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furoic acid, respectively. The highest yields observed were 88% for furoic acid/furfural and 76% for 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furoic acid/5-hydroxymethylfurfural. These results are the first demonstration of the capability of G. xylinus to tolerate lignocellulose-derived inhibitors and to convert furan aldehydes.
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Biomorphic synthesis of mesoporous Co?O? microtubules and their pseudocapacitive performance.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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A novel meosoporous tubular Co3O4 has been fabricated by a simple and cost-effective biomorphic synthesis route, which consists of infiltration of cotton fiber with cobalt nitrate solution and postcalcination at 673 K for 1 h. Its electrochemical performance as a supercapacitor electrode material is investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry tests. Compared with bulk Co3O4 prepared without using cotton template, biomorphic Co3O4 displays 2.8 fold enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance because of the unique tubular morphology, relative high specific surface area (3 and 0.8 m(2)/g for biomorphic Co3O4 and bulk Co3O4, respectively), and mesoporous nature.
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Separation of Catalpol from Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. by High-Speed Countercurrent Chromatography.
J Chromatogr Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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The bioactive iridoid component catalpol was successfully separated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography with high purity from the partially purified crude extract of Rehmannia glutinosa. A polar two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (2:1:3, v/v/v) was selected by thin-layer chromatography and run on a preparative scale where the lower aqueous phase was used as the mobile phase with a head-to-tail elution mode. A 105 mg quantity of the partially purified sample containing 39.2% catalpol was loaded on a 270-mL capacity high-speed countercurrent separation column, yielding 35 mg of catalpol at 95.6% purity. The chemical structure of catalpol was determined by comparison with the high-performance liquid chromatography retention time of standard substance as well as the (1)H NMR spectrum.
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[Construction and investigation of a recombinant eukaryotic expression vector for expressing the ORF3 protein of hepatitis E virus in BHK-21 fibroblasts].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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To construct a eukaryotic expression vector to express the hepatitis E virus protein open reading frame 3 (ORF3) and investigate the intracellular location of the expressed protein using the baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) fibroblast cell line.
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Fluid Shear Stress Stimulates Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Cells via the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathways.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Background: Fluid shear stress (FSS) is a major type of mechanical stress that is loaded on human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) during mastication and orthodontics tooth movement (OTM). We aimed to clarify the effect of FSS on the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs and to further verify the involvement of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in this process. Methods: After isolation and characterization, hPDLCs were subjected to 2-h FSS at 12 dynes/cm(2), and cell viability, osteogenic gene messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, secretion of type I collagen (COL-I) and calcium deposition were assayed. The levels of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) and ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) in response to FSS were detected by Western blot, and the involvement of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in hPDLC osteogenesis under FSS was investigated using the specific MAPK inhibitors U0126 and SB203580. Results: The application of FSS on hPDLCs induced an early morphological change and rearrangement of F-actin. ALP activity, messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of osteogenic genes, COL-I and osteoid nodules were significantly increased by FSS. Moreover, ERK1/2 and p38 were activated in different ways after FSS exposure. U0126 and SB203580 completely blocked the FSS-induced increases in ALP activity and osteogenic gene mRNA expression and osteoid nodules formation. Conclusion: FSS is an effective approach for stimulating osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs. The ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways are involved in this cellular process.
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Nickel complex with internal bases as efficient molecular catalyst for photochemical H2 production.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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A Ni complex with internal bases that contain bipyridine-derived ligands, [Ni(L)2 (H2 O)2 ](BF4 )2 ([1](BF4 )2 , L=2-(2-pyridyl)-1,8-naphthyridine), and a reference complex that bears analogous bipyridine-derived ligands but without an internal base, [Ni(L')3 ](BF4 )2 ([2](BF4 )2 , L'=2-(2-pyridyl)quinoline), were synthesized and characterized. The electrochemical properties of these complexes were studied in CH3 CN, H2 O, and a mixture of EtOH/H2 O. The fluorescence spectroscopic studies suggest that both dynamic and the sphere-of-action static quenching exist in the fluorescein Fl(2-) /[1](2+) and Fl(2-) /[2](2+) systems. These noble-metal-free molecular systems were studied for photocatalytic H2 generation. Under optimal conditions, the turnover number of H2 evolution reaches 3230 based on [1](2+) , whereas [2](2+) displays only approximately one third of the turnover of [1](2+) . A plausible mechanism for the catalytic H2 generation by [1](2+) is presented based on DFT calculations.
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The antidepressant effects of ginseng total saponins in male C57BL/6N mice by enhancing hippocampal inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3?.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Ginseng total saponins (GTS) are principal bioactive ingredients of Panax ginseng. In this study, we investigated the antidepressant effect of GTS on the corticosterone-induced mouse depression model and explored the underlying mechanism. Corticosterone (20 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) was subcutaneously administered for 22 d to induce the model, before doses of GTS (12.5, 25, and 50 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) or fluoxetine (10 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) were subsequently given by gavage. On day 20 and 21, depression-like behavior was observed via a forced swimming test and a tail suspension test respectively. At 6 h after the last dose of corticosterone (day 22), all mice were sacrificed followed by serum corticosterone assays and Western blot analysis. The results showed that GTS (25 and 50 mg kg(-1) d(-1))treatments relieved depression-like behavior without altering the elevated serum corticosterone levels. Furthermore, GTS treatments raised the down-regulated levels of hippocampal glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) inhibitory phosphorylation. In contrast, fluoxetine (10 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) treatment reversed the increased corticosterone level and had no effect on the decreased GSK-3? inhibitory phosphorylation. These findings confirmed the antidepressant effect of GTS in the corticosterone-induced mouse depression model. Enhancing GSK-3? inhibitory phosphorylation may be one of the underlying mechanisms.
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A novel molecule Me6TREN promotes angiogenesis via enhancing endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and recruitment.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Critical limb ischaemia is the most severe clinical manifestation of peripheral arterial disease. The circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play important roles in angiogenesis and ischemic tissue repair. The increase of circulating EPC numbers by using mobilization agents is critical for obtaining a better therapeutic outcome in patients with ischemic disease. Here, we firstly report a novel small molecule, Me6TREN (Me6), can efficiently mobilize EPCs into the blood circulation. Single injection of Me6 induced a long-lasting increase in circulating Flk-1(+) Sca-1(+) EPC numbers. In a mouse hind limb ischemia (HLI) model, local intramuscular transplantation of these Me6-mobilized cells accelerated the blood flow restoration in the ischemic muscles. More importantly, systemic administration of Me6 notably increased the capillary density, arteriole density and regenerative muscle weight in the ischemic tissue of HLI. Mechanistically, we found Me6 reduced stromal cell-derived factor-1? level in bone marrow by up-regulation of matrix metallopeptidase-9 expression, which allowed the dissemination of EPCs into peripheral blood. These data indicate that Me6 may represent a potentially useful therapy for ischemic disease via enhancing autologous EPC recruitment and promote angiogenesis.
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Advancing the application of systems thinking in health: managing rural China health system development in complex and dynamic contexts.
Health Res Policy Syst
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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This paper explores the evolution of schemes for rural finance in China as a case study of the long and complex process of health system development. It argues that the evolution of these schemes has been the outcome of the response of a large number of agents to a rapidly changing context and of efforts by the government to influence this adaptation process and achieve public health goals.
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Changes in the numbers of ribbon synapses and expression of RIBEYE in salicylate-induced tinnitus.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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This study was performed to explore the mechanism underlying tinnitus by investigating the changes in the synaptic ribbons and RIBEYE expression in cochlear inner hair cells in salicylate-induced tinnitus.
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Outcome of gemcitabine plus molecular targeted agent for treatment of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective phase III studies.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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The aim of this study is to assess the clinical outcome of gemcitabine (GEM) plus molecular targeted agents (MTAs) for treatment of pancreatic cancer, in the purpose of providing fundamental data for clinical practice. Databases like PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched to retrieve phase III clinical randomized controlled trials related to GEM plus MTAs for pancreatic cancer (up to Oct 2013). Literatures were independently screened by two researchers according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted and analyzed by using Stata 11.0 software. Total, 11 studies were included, involving 5,451 participants who were divided into GEM plus MTAs group (n?=?2,729) and GEM plus placebo group (n?=?2,722). There was no significant difference in overall survival, progression-free survival, response rate, complete response, partial response, and clinical benefit rate between two groups. Compared with GEM plus placebo group, stable disease of GEM plus MTAs group was significantly increased (risk ratios (RRs)?=?1.14, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.21, P?=?0.003). Further subgroup analysis indicated that GEM plus epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor use induced higher response rate and clinical benefit rate than GEM plus placebo group (RRs?=?1.19, 95 % CI 1.09-1.31, P?=?0.000; RR?=?1.18, 95 % CI 1.09-1.27, P?=?0.000). In addition, no significant difference in 3-4 grade adverse reactions (incidence, anemia rate, neutropenia rate, and thrombocytopenia rate) was identified between two groups. GEM plus MTAs may be effective and safe for stabilizing patients suffering advanced pancreatic cancer, especially EGFR inhibitor.
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Incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in southwestern China and analysis of risk factors.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The aim of this study was to screen for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in southwestern China and understand the prevalence and risk factors of ROP, which may provide evidence useful in the prevention and treatment of ROP.
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[Establishment and application of quantitative detection for heteroplasmic mtDNA mutation 3243A?G].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To develop a rapid, simple, cost-effective, accurate and sensitive method for quantitative detection of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 3243A?G mutation in order to provide reference for selecting the best detection method under different conditions.
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The role of low levels of fullerene C60 nanocrystals on enhanced learning and memory of rats through persistent CaMKII activation.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Engineered nanomaterials are known to exhibit diverse and sometimes unexpected biological effects. Fullerene nanoparticles have been reported to specifically bind to and elicit persistent activation of hippocampal Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a multimeric intracellular serine/threonine kinase central to Ca(2+) signal transduction and critical for synaptic plasticity, but the functional consequence of that modulation is unknown. Here we show that low doses of fullerene C60 nanocrystals (Nano C60), delivered through intrahippocampal infusion and without any obvious cytotoxicity in hippocampal neuronal cells, enhance the long-term potentiation (LTP) of rats. Intraperitoneal injection of 320 ?g/kg of Nano C60, once daily for 10 days, also enhanced spatial memory of rats in addition to an increase of LTP. In parallel, both the IH and IP administration of Nano C60 increased the autonomous activity and the level of threonine 286 (T286) autophosphorylation of CaMKII, enhanced post-synaptic AMPA/NMDA ratio, and triggered time-dependent activation of ERK and CREB. Our results reveal a striking and highly unexpected ability of Nano C60 in positively modulating learning and memory, an effect that is most likely manifested through locking CaMKII in an active conformation, and may have significant implications for the potential therapeutic applications of fullerene C60, a classic engineered nanomaterial.
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Recent research on the growth plate: Advances in fibroblast growth factor signaling in growth plate development and disorders.
J. Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Skeletons are formed through two distinct developmental actions, intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. During embryonic development, most bone is formed by endochondral ossification. The growth plate is the developmental center for endochondral ossification. Multiple signaling pathways participate in the regulation of endochondral ossification. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling has been found to play a vital role in the development and maintenance of growth plates. Missense mutations in FGFs and FGFRs can cause multiple genetic skeletal diseases with disordered endochondral ossification. Clarifying the molecular mechanisms of FGFs/FGFRs signaling in skeletal development and genetic skeletal diseases will have implications for the development of therapies for FGF-signaling-related skeletal dysplasias and growth plate injuries. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in elucidating the role of FGFs/FGFRs signaling in growth plate development, genetic skeletal disorders, and the promising therapies for those genetic skeletal diseases resulting from FGFs/FGFRs dysfunction. Finally, we also examine the potential important research in this field in the future.
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Risk of breast cancer and family history of other cancers in first-degree relatives in Chinese women: a case control study.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Few studies have systematically reported the relationship between the risk of breast cancer and family history of other cancers. This study was designed to systematically determine the relationship between breast cancer risk and family history of other cancers in first-degree relatives.
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S100A4 promotes liver fibrosis via activation of hepatic stellate cells.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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S100A4 has been linked to fibrosis of several organs as a marker for fibroblasts. However, the role of S100A4 itself in fibrosis development has little been investigated. Herein, we determined whether S100A4 regulates liver fibrogenesis and examined its mechanism by focusing on activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs).
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[Study on the interaction of doxycycline with human serum albumin].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The present study was designed to investigate the interaction of doxycycline (DC) with human serum albumin (HSA) by the inner filter effects, displacement experiments and molecular docking methods, based on classic multi-spectroscopy. With fluorescence quenching method at 298 and 310 K, the binding constants Ka, were determined to be 2. 73 X 10(5) and 0. 74X 10(5) L mol-1, respectively, and there was one binding site between DC and HSA, indicating that the binding of DC to HSA was strong, and the quenching mechanism was a static quenching. The thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy change, AH and enthropy change, delta S) were calculated to be -83. 55 kJ mol-1 and -176. 31 J mol-1 K-1 via the Vant' Hoff equation, which indicated that the interaction of DC with HSA was driven mainly by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. Based on the Föster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the specific binding distance between Trp-214 (acceptor) and DC (donor) was 4. 98 nm, which was similar to the result confirmed by molecular docking. Through displacement experiments, sub-domain IIA of HSA was assigned to possess the high-affinity binding site of DC. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that the binding of DC to HSA induced the conformation change of HSA and increased the disclosure of some part of hydrophobic regions that had been buried before. The results of FTIR spectroscopy showed that DC bound to HSA led to the slight unfolding of the polypeptide chain of HSA. Furthermore, the binding details between DC and HSA were further confirmed by molecular docking methods, which revealed that DC was bound at sub-domain IIA through multiple interactions, such as hydrophobic effect, polar forces and pi-pi interactions. The experimental results provide theoretical basis and reliable data for the study of the interaction between small drug molecule and human serum albumin
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Experimental demonstration of real-time adaptively modulated DDO-OFDM systems with a high spectral efficiency up to 5.76bit/s/Hz transmission over SMF links.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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In this paper, a FPGAs-based real-time adaptively modulated 256/64/16QAM-encoded base-band OFDM transceiver with a high spectral efficiency up to 5.76bit/s/Hz is successfully developed, and experimentally demonstrated in a simple intensity-modulated direct-detection optical communication system. Experimental results show that it is feasible to transmit a raw signal bit rate of 7.19Gbps adaptively modulated real-time optical OFDM signal over 20km and 50km single mode fibers (SMFs). The performance comparison between real-time and off-line digital signal processing is performed, and the results show that there is a negligible power penalty. In addition, to obtain the best transmission performance, direct-current (DC) bias voltage for MZM and launch power into optical fiber links are explored in the real-time optical OFDM systems.
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Cortisol responses to chronic stress in adult macaques: moderation by a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Accumulating evidence has shown that a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) moderates the association between stress and depressive symptoms. However, the exact etiologies underlying this moderation are not well understood. Here it is reported that among adult female rhesus macaques, an orthologous polymorphism (rh5-HTTLPR) exerted an influence on cortisol responses to chronic stress. It was found that females with two copies of the short allele were associated with increased cortisol responses to chronic stress in comparison to their counterparts who have one or two copies of the long allele. In the absence of stress, no differences related to genotype were observed in these females. This genetic moderation was found without a genetic influence on exposure to stressful situations. Rather it was found to be a genetic modulation of cortisol responses to chronic stress. These findings indicate that the rh5-HTTLPR polymorphism is closely related to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, which may increase susceptibility to depression in females with low serotonin transporter efficiency and a history of stress.
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Controllable multiband terahertz notch filter based on a parallel plate waveguide with a single deep groove.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The influence of the air gap on the response of transmission for a transverse-electric mode parallel plate waveguide with a single deep groove has been experimentally studied. As the air gap is larger than the resonant wavelength of a high-order cavity mode in a single deep grooved waveguide, only the fundamental cavity mode can be excited and the single resonance (band) can be observed in a transmission spectrum. The decrease of the air gap can not only efficiently push the radiation of the fundamental cavity mode into the deep groove but also excite the high-order cavity modes, resulting in multiple resonances (multiband) in the corresponding spectrum. Based on the above observations, a tunable multiband terahertz notch filter has been proposed and the variation of the air gap has turned out to be an effective method to select band number. Experimental data and simulated results verify this band number tunability.
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Joint production of biodiesel and bioethanol from filamentous oleaginous microalgae Tribonema sp.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Making full use of lipid and carbohydrate in microalgae for joint production of biodiesel and bioethanol may create a potential way to cut the high cost of single biofuel production from microalgae. Compared with conventional unicellular oleaginous microalgae, filamentous microalgae Tribonema sp. is richer in lipid and carbohydrate contents and lower protein content, thus, this study explores the suitability of Tribonema sp. as a substrate for joint production of biodiesel and bioethanol. Acid hydrolysis is the key step to saccharify wall cell into fermentable sugar and release lipid. Microalgae biomass (50g/L) was acid (3% H2SO4) hydrolyzed at 121°C for 45min to reach the maximum hydrolysis efficiency (81.48%). Subsequently, the lipid separated with hexane-ethanol from the hydrolysate was converted into microalgae biodiesel and the conversion rate was 98.47%. With yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the maximum ethanol yield of 56.1% was reached from 14.5g/L glucose in hydrolysate.
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Direct deposition of uniform high-? dielectrics on graphene.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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High quality High-? dielectrics on graphene were achieved by atomic layer deposition directly using remote oxygen plasma surface pretreatment. The uniform coverage on graphene is illustrated by atomic force microscopy and confirmed by high resolution transmission microscopy. The possible surface lattice damage induced by plasma is limited and demonstrated by Raman spectra. The excellent Hall mobility for graphene is maintained at 2.7 × 10(3) cm(2)/V · s, which only decreases by 25%. The excellent electrical characteristic of dielectric presents the low leakage current density and high breakdown voltage. Moreover, the technology is compatible with the traditional CMOS process which brings much possibility to future graphene devices.
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Differential regulation of proteins in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under iron deficiency.
Plant Cell Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Sixty-three proteins were identified to be differentially accumulated due to iron deficiency in shoot and root. The importance of these proteins alterations on shoot physiology is discussed. Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and its accumulation affects the quality of edible plant organs. To investigate the adaptive mechanism of a Chinese rice variety grown under iron deficiency, proteins differentially accumulated in leaves and roots of Yangdao 6, an indica cultivar, under Fe deficiency growth condition, were profiled using a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). The accumulations of seventy-three proteins were detected to be increased or decreased upon iron deficiency, and sixty-three of them were successfully identified. Among the sixty-three proteins, a total of forty proteins were identified in rice leaves, and twenty-three proteins were in roots. Most of these proteins are involved in photosynthesis, C metabolism, oxidative stress, Adenosine triphosphate synthesis, cell growth or signal transduction. The results provide a comprehensive way to understand, at the level of proteins, the adaptive mechanism used by rice shoots and roots under iron deficiency.
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Association of p53/p21 expression and cigarette smoking with tumor progression and poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 80-85% of all lung cancer cases. Cigarette smoking is the number one risk factor which is attributed to more than four out of five cases of lung cancers. The prognostic impact of cell cycle regulation-associated tumor suppressors including p53 and p21 for NSCLC is still controversial. In the present study, we examined p53 and p21 expression using immunoblotting in tumor and adjacent non-cancerous tissues from NSCLC patients. Moreover, tissue microarrays (TMAs) including 150 specimens was used to examine p53 and p21 expression by immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The association between p53/p21 and various clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated. Kaplan-Meier overall survival was used to analyze the association between p53/p21 expression and prognosis of NSCLC patients, as well as the association of cigarette smoking with p53/p21 expression and prognosis. The results of the immunoblotting showed that expression of p53 and p21 in tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in the matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). The IHC results showed that 50.67% of the cases had high expression of p21; however, the percentage of patients having high expression of p53 was 31.3%. Univariate and Cox regression models were used to evaluate the factors related to prognosis with p53 and p21 expression. Multivariate analysis indicated that p53 expression was an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC (P=0.005), while p21 could not serve as an independent prognostic factor (P=0.123). In addition, smoking history was closely related to lung cancer risk (P=0.041), but could not be an independent assessment factor (P=0.740). In this study, we further demonstrated the association of p53/p21 expression and cigarette smoking. Our results suggest that cigarette smoking and overexpression of p53 or p21 are associated with poor prognosis. The combination of p53/p21 expression and smoking history may be a useful biomarker for tumor progression and prognosis of NSCLC patients.
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A novel serine hydroxymethyltransferase from Arthrobacter nicotianae : characterization and improving catalytic efficiency by rational design.
BMC Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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BackgroundSerine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) is the key enzyme in L-serine enzymatic production, suggesting the importance of obtaining a SHMT with high activity.ResultsHere, a novel SHMT gene, glyA, was obtained through degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR and encoded a novel SHMT with 54.3% similarity to the known SHMT from Escherichia coli. The obtained protein AnSHMT showed the optimal activity at 40°C and pH 7.5, and was more stable in weakly alkali conditions (pH 6.5-8.5) than Hyphomicrobium methylovorum¿s SHMT (pH 6.0-7.5), In order to improve the catalytic efficiency of the wild type, the site-directed mutagenesis based on sequences alignment and bioinformatics prediction, was used and the catalytic efficiency of the mutant I249L was found to be 2.78-fold higher than that of the wild-type, with the replacement of isoleucine by leucine at the 249 position.ConclusionsThis research provides useful information about the interesting site, and the application of DOP-PCR in cloning a novel glyA gene.
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Floral glycerolipid profiles in homeotic mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Flowers have distinct glycerolipid composition, yet its floral organ-specific profile remains elusive in Arabidopsis whose flowers are too tiny to dissect different floral organs. Here, we employed known floral homeotic mutants agamous-1 (ag-1) and apetala3-3 (ap3-3) to facilitate sample preparation enriched in different floral organs. The result of analysis on different polar glycerolipid classes and their fatty acid composition demonstrated that flowers of ap3-3 and ag-1 have distinct glycerolipid composition from that of wild type. Moreover, distinct set of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes is expressed in these mutants by qRT-PCR gene expression analysis. These data suggest that glycerolipid profile is distinct among different floral organs of Arabidopsis thaliana.
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Nonoccupational physical activity and risk of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Previous studies concerning the association between nonoccupational physical activity (PA) and risk of ovarian cancer yielded mixed results. We investigated the association by performing a meta-analysis. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE to June 2014. We calculated the summary relative risks (RRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) using random-effects models. The dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline model and multivariate random-effect meta-regression. Nine cohort studies and ten case-control studies involving 730,703 participants and 9,459 cases of ovarian cancer were selected for meta-analysis. The analyses showed that individuals who participated in any amount of nonoccupational PA had a RR of 0.92 (95 % CI?=?0.84-1.00) for risk of ovarian cancer. Those who participated in high or moderate nonoccupational PA had a RR of ovarian cancer risk of 0.89 (95 % CI?=?0.79-1.01) and 0.91 (95 % CI?=?0.85-0.99), respectively. Stratifying by study design and cancer subtype (borderline and invasive tumors), inverse association was only found in case-control studies. A linear but not significant dose-response relationship was found between nonoccupational PA and ovarian cancer risk. In conclusion, a weak inverse association exists between nonoccupational PA and the risk of ovarian cancer. Regarding the significant heterogeneity among included studies, confirmation in further prospective cohort studies with more accurate assessment of PA level is essential.
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SETDB1 accelerates tumorigenesis by regulating WNT signaling pathway.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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We investigated the oncogenic role of SETDB1 focusing on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) having high expression of this protein. A total of 387 lung cancer cases were examined by immunohistochemistry, 72% of NSCLC samples were positive for SETDB1 staining, compared to 46% samples of normal bronchial epithelium (106 cases) (p?
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Exosomes mediate drug resistance transfer in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and a probable mechanism is delivery of P-glycoprotein.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Acquired drug resistance is a major obstacle to chemotherapy of cancers. In this study, we aim to investigate the role of exosomes in drug-resistance transfer between breast cancer cells and detect the probable mechanism. A docetaxel-resistant variant of MCF-7 cell line (MCF-7/DOC) was established and then compared with the drug-sensitive variant (MCF-7/S). Exosomes were expelled from the cell supernatant using ultracentrifugation. Drug resistance was assessed by apoptosis assay and MTT examination. Expressions of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Stained exosomes were absorbed by receipt cells. MCF-7/S in the presence of exosomes extracted from the supernatant of MCF-7/DOC (DOC/exo) acquired drug resistance, while MCF-7/S exposed to their own exosomes (S/exo) did not. P-gp expression patterns of exosomes were similar as the originated cells. P-gp expression of MCF-7/S increased after incubation with DOC/exo and was affected by the amount of exosomes. Exosomes are effective in transferring drug resistance as well as P-gp from drug-resistant breast cancer cells to sensitive ones. The delivery of P-gp via exosomes may be a mechanism of exosome-mediated drug resistance transfer.
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Gene-Specific Differential DNA Methylation and Chronic Arsenic Exposure in an Epigenome-Wide Association Study of Adults in Bangladesh.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Inorganic arsenic is one of the most common naturally occurring contaminants found in the environment. Arsenic is associated with a number of health outcomes, with epigenetic modification suggested as a potential mechanism of toxicity.
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Gene expression patterns in bone following lipopolysaccharide stimulation.
Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Bone displays suppressed osteogenesis in inflammatory diseases such as sepsis and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been clearly explained. To identify the gene expression patterns in the bone, we performed Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array with RNA isolated from mouse femurs 4 h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. The gene expressions were confirmed with real-time PCR. The serum concentration of the N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), a bone-formation marker, was determined using ELISA. A total of 1003 transcripts were upregulated and 159 transcripts were downregulated (more than twofold upregulation or downregulation). Increased expression levels of the inflammation-related genes interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) were confirmed from in the period 4 h to 72 h after LPS administration using real-time PCR. Gene ontogene analysis found four bone-related categories involved in four biological processes: system development, osteoclast differentiation, ossification and bone development. These processes involved 25 upregulated genes. In the KEGG database, we further analyzed the transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) pathway, which is strongly related to osteogenesis. The upregulated bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and downregulated inhibitor of DNA binding 4 (Id4) expressions were further confirmed by real-time PCR after LPS stimulation. The osteoblast function was determined through examination of the expression levels of core binding factor 1 (Cbfa1) and osteocalcin (OC) in bone tissues and serum PINP from 4 h to 72 h after LPS administration. The expressions of OC and Cbfa1 decreased 6 h after administration (p < 0.05). Significantly suppressed PINP levels were observed in the later stage (from 8 h to 72 h, p < 0.05) but not in the early stage (4 h or 6 h, p > 0.05) of LPS stimulation. The results of this study suggest that LPS induces elevated expressions of skeletal system development- and osteoclast differentiation-related genes and inflammation genes at an early stage in the bone. The perturbed functions of these two groups of genes may lead to a faint change in osteogenesis at an early stage of LPS stimulation. Suppressed bone formation was found at later stages in response to LPS stimulation.
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Skp2-mediated degradation of p27 regulates cell cycle progression in compressed human bladder smooth muscle cells.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) results in smooth muscle cell hyperplasia, decreased bladder wall compliance, and lower and upper urinary tract pathology. Mechanical stimulus on detrusor tissue is critical to BOO disease progression. Our previous studies confirm that mechanical stimulus triggers human bladder smooth muscle cell (HBSMC) proliferation. To better understand the signal transduction mechanisms for this process we detected cell cycle machinery of HBSMC (Bose ® Biodynamic, Minnetonka, MN, USA). HBSMCs cultured in scaffolds were subjected to four different pressures (0 cmH2O, 100 cmH2O, 200 cmH2O, and 300 cmH2O) for 24 hours, which were controlled by a BOSE BioDynamic bioreactor. Then we used flow cytometry to examine cell cycle distribution, polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting to quantify Skp2, p27, and p21 expression in each group. Additionally, Skp2 was silenced in HBSMCs using small interfering RNA to validate the role of Skp2 in mediating pressure-induced cell cycle progression. Compared with the 0 cmH2O control, HBSMCs in the 200 cmH2O and 300 cmH2O groups exhibited high-level expression of Skp2 gene and low-level expression of p27 protein. However, p21, another downstream signal of Skp2, showed no significant change between groups. In addition, Skp2 silencing abolished increases in cell proliferation induced by pressure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the functional importance of Skp2 in cyclic hydrodynamic pressure stimulated HBSMC proliferation. The signal transduction mechanism for this process involves p27 as well as p21 signaling pathway.
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1,2-trans-1-Dihydroxyboryl benzyl S-glycoside as glycosyl donor.
Carbohydr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Activated by NBS, readily available 1,2-trans-1-dihydroxyboryl benzyl S-glycosides served as glycosyl donors and reacted with certain simple alcohol acceptors to produce pure 1,2-cis-O-glycosides in moderate yields. The boronic acid moiety was revealed essential in the glycosylation for product formation and good anomeric ratio. The preliminary model reactions suggested that glycosyl aryl boronic acids could be used for stereoselective glycosylation.
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Quality of D2 lymphadenectomy for advanced gastric cancer: is laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy as effective as open distal gastrectomy?
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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To determine by meta-analysis, whether D2 lymphadenectomy at laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) is as effective as that during open distal gastrectomy (ODG) for patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC).
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Genomic and molecular characterization of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is prevalent worldwide and particularly common in certain regions of Asia. Here we report the whole-exome or targeted deep sequencing of 139 paired ESCC cases, and analysis of somatic copy number variations (SCNV) of over 180 ESCCs. We identified previously uncharacterized mutated genes such as FAT1, FAT2, ZNF750 and KMT2D, in addition to those already known (TP53, PIK3CA and NOTCH1). Further SCNV evaluation, immunohistochemistry and biological analysis suggested their functional relevance in ESCC. Notably, RTK-MAPK-PI3K pathways, cell cycle and epigenetic regulation are frequently dysregulated by multiple molecular mechanisms in this cancer. Our approaches also uncovered many druggable candidates, and XPO1 was further explored as a therapeutic target because it showed both gene mutation and protein overexpression. Our integrated study unmasks a number of novel genetic lesions in ESCC and provides an important molecular foundation for understanding esophageal tumors and developing therapeutic targets.
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Effect of gastrectomy with bursectomy on prognosis of gastric cancer: A meta-analysis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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To evaluate the effect of bursectomy on overall survival, recurrence-free survival and safety of patients with gastric cancer by performing a meta-analysis.
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A Comparison Between Respondent-Driven Sampling and Time-Location Sampling Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Shenzhen, China.
Arch Sex Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a key population for HIV control and prevention in China. It is difficult to acquire representative samples of this hidden population. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS), based on peer referral, and time-location sampling (TLS) based on random selection of venue-day-time periods, are among the most commonly used sampling methods. However, differences in HIV-related characteristics of MSM recruited by these two methods have not been fully evaluated. We compared sociodemographics, risk behaviors, utilization of HIV-related intervention services, and HIV/syphilis infection rates between samples of 621 RDS MSM and 533 TLS MSM in Shenzhen, China in 2010. We found that the HIV prevalence was comparable in RDS and TLS MSM. TLS recruited larger proportions of more marginalized MSM than RDS: MSM recruited by TLS were older, less educated and more likely to be migrants (without Shenzhen hukou registration), to be non-gay identified and to engage in risky sexual behaviors. On the other hand, MSM recruited by TLS were more likely to have been covered by HIV-related intervention services. To conclude, in Shenzhen, TLS is more effective to reach the marginalized population of MSM. But because TLS can only reach MSM who physically attend venues and HIV-related intervention services are already commonly available at gay venues in Shenzhen, RDS is more informative for allocating prevention efforts than TLS. Furthermore, researchers and public health authorities should take into account the different sample compositions of RDS and TLS and apply sampling methods consistently when evaluating trends over time.
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Ventilator-associated pneumonia after cardiac surgery: A meta-analysis and systematic review.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common and serious nosocomial infection that threatens patients who have undergone cardiac surgery. This article summarizes its clinical characteristics and provides theoretical evidence for prevention and treatment.
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Volumetric measurement of polyacrylamide hydrogel injected for breast augmentation using magnetic resonance imaging.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Volumetric measurement of polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAHG) is useful for surgical planning. It is not only a significant factor in the preoperative evaluation of breast augmentation, but may also directly affect the postoperative shape of the breast. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is able to provide precise calculations of injected PAHG volumes. MRI scans of ten randomly selected patients were imported to Mimics software. The volumes of PAHG were obtained following the reconstruction of the injected PAHG. In order to assess the precision and observer independency of the technique, the volumes of PAHG were estimated by three plastic surgeons using this method. No significant differences were identified among the PAHG injection volumes calculated by the three observers (P=0.173). The intra-observer correlation coefficient was 0.964, which indicates the precision and feasibility of this method for calculating the volume of PAHG. The use of MRI in combination with Mimics software to calculate PAHG volumes is likely to be of significant clinical benefit in preoperative surgical planning.
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The genomic landscape of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has extremely skewed ethnic and geographic distributions, is poorly understood at the genetic level and is in need of effective therapeutic approaches. Here we determined the mutational landscape of 128 cases with NPC using whole-exome and targeted deep sequencing, as well as SNP array analysis. These approaches revealed a distinct mutational signature and nine significantly mutated genes, many of which have not been implicated previously in NPC. Notably, integrated analysis showed enrichment of genetic lesions affecting several important cellular processes and pathways, including chromatin modification, ERBB-PI3K signaling and autophagy machinery. Further functional studies suggested the biological relevance of these lesions to the NPC malignant phenotype. In addition, we uncovered a number of new druggable candidates because of their genomic alterations. Together our study provides a molecular basis for a comprehensive understanding of, and exploring new therapies for, NPC.
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Elevated p53 expression levels correlate with tumor progression and poor prognosis in patients exhibiting esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common histological subtype of esophageal cancer and one of the most aggressive types of malignancy, with a high rate of mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment may improve the prognosis of ESCC and, thus, survival rates. As a significant tumor suppressor, p53 is closely associated with apoptosis and the differentiation of cancer cells. The present study evaluated the expression levels of the p53 protein and the clinical significance in patients presenting with ESCC. The p53 protein expression level of 64 paired ESCC and tumor-adjacent normal tissues was evaluated using western blot analysis. In addition, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to detect the p53 expression level in specimens from 118 paraffin-embedded cancerous tissues. The correlation of the p53 expression level with the clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of the ESCC patients was also analyzed. The p53 protein was identified to be highly expressed in the ESCC tissue, with western blot analysis demonstrating that the expression level of p53 in the cancerous tissue was 1.89 times that of the tumor-adjacent normal tissue (P<0.001); furthermore, IHC indicated that there was a marked positive expression of p53 in the ESCC tissue (49.15%). The expression level of p53 protein was identified to be significantly correlated with the tumor grade (P<0.001), N stage (P=0.010). Additionally, the higher level of p53 expression was found to be associated with a poor survival rate in the ESCC patients (P=0.0404). The univariate analysis showed that the survival time of patients was significantly correlated with the T stage (RR=3.886, P<0.001), N stage (lymph node metastasis; RR=3.620, P<0.001) and TNM stage (RR=3.576, P<0.001). Furthermore, the multivariate analysis revealed that the T stage (RR=3.988, P<0.001) and N stage (RR=4.240, P=0.004) significantly influenced the overall survival of the ESCC patients.
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Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of thioredoxin glutathione reductase from Schistosoma japonicum in complex with FAD.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Thioredoxin glutathione reductase from Schistosoma japonicum (SjTGR), a multifunctional enzyme, plays a vital role in antioxidant pathways and is considered to be a potential drug target for the development of antischistosomal chemotherapy. In this study, two constructs of a truncated form of SjTGR without the last two residues (Sec597-Gly598) were cloned, overexpressed and purified using wild-type and codon-optimized genes. Only SjTGR from the wild-type gene was found to form a complex with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which could be crystallized in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 84.185, b = 86.47, c = 183.164?Å, at 295?K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. One dimer was present in the crystallographic asymmetric unit and the calculated Matthews coefficient (VM) and solvent content were 2.6?Å(3)?Da(-1) and 52.8%, respectively. Structural determination of SjTGR is in progress using the molecular-replacement method.
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Determination of BmKCT-13, a chlorotoxin-like peptide, in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS: application to a preclinical pharmacokinetic study.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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A novel chlorotoxin-like toxin derived from Buthus martensii Karsch, namely BmKCT-13, is a potential candidate for glioma therapy and highly homologous to the chlorotoxin (CTX) derived from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus. In this study, a simple, sensitive, and robust analytical method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of BmKCT-13 in rat plasma using CTX as internal standard (IS). After sample preparation by protein precipitation with 0.1% formic acid in methanol, chromatography was performed on a Hanbon Dubhe C18 column (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 ?m, and 100 Å) using a gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol. Mass spectrometry involved positive electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions at m/z 780.2?69.9 for BmKCT-13 and m/z 800.2?69.7 for CTX. The method was linear over the concentration range 10-1000 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantification of 10 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision (expressed as relative standard deviation, RSD) were ?8.1 and ?7.9%, respectively, with intra-and inter-day accuracy of 94.5-99.0%. Recoveries of BmKCT-13 and IS were more than 65% and matrix effects were not significant. Stability studies showed that BmKCT-13 was stable under a variety of storage conditions. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving intravenous administration of BmKCT-13 to rats.
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A new surgical approach to treat medial or low condylar fractures: the minor parotid anterior approach.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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A new surgical approach, denoted as the minor parotid anterior approach, was designed to treat medial or low mandibular condylar fractures.
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Design and synthesis of novel iminothiazinylbutadienols and divinylpyrimidinethiones as ARE inducers.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Novel iminothiazinylbutadienols and divinylpyrimidinethiones were designed and synthesized as analogues of curcumin with its diketone moiety masked as a heterocyclic adduct with thiourea. The chemical stability of these novel heterocyclic compounds was improved as compared to curcumin. They exhibit longer half-lives and do not react with nucleophilic thiols under physiological conditions. In an ARE-luciferase reporter assay, some of these new curcumin analogues are more effective ARE activators than curcumin and isothiocyanates.
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Spectroscopic study on the reactions of bis-salophen with uranyl and then with fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and the analytical application.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The chelating reaction of bis-salophen with uranyl to form binuclear complex uranyl-bis-salophen (UBS) was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. The coordination reaction of UBS with fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-BP) to form supramolecular polymer was then studied by resonance light scattering (RLS) spectroscopy. The reaction of bis-salophen with uranyl results in a remarkable enhancement of fluorescence intensity. The maximum emission wavelength of the fluorescence is at 471nm. The reaction of UBS with F-1,6-BP results in a remarkable enhancement of RLS intensity. The maximum scattering wavelength of the RLS is at 460nm. The two reactions were used to establish fluorescence method for the determination of uranium (VI) and RLS method for the determination of F-1,6-BP, respectively. Under optimum conditions, the linear ranges for the detection of uranium (VI) and F-1,6-BP are 0.003-0.35nmol/mL and 0.05-5.0nmol/mL, respectively. The detection limits are 0.0017nmol/mL and 0.020nmol/mL, respectively. The proposed fluorescence method has been successfully applied for the determination of uranium (VI) in environmental water samples with the recoveries of 97.0-104.0%. The proposed RLS method has also been successfully applied for the determination of F-1,6-BP in medicine injection samples with the recoveries of 98.5-102.3%.
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MiR-378 overexpression attenuates high glucose-suppressed osteogenic differentiation through targeting CASP3 and activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hyperglycemia is one of the possible causes for osteoporosis and bone fracture in diabetes mellitus. Here we modeled diabetes-induced osteoporosis in vitro using preosteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 and a diabetic mice model for in vivo studies. We found that in addition to reducing osteoblast viability and differentiation (mineralization), culture in elevated glucose down regulated microRNA-378 (miR-378) expression but ectopic miR-378 expression reversed the effects of high glucose. We identified caspase-3 (CASP3) as a target of miR-378 and showed that miR-378 repressed CASP3 mRNA and protein expression under high glucose condition. We further showed that both miR-378 expression and CASP3 silencing independently restored alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expression of osteoblastic differentiation markers Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteorix (Osx), collagen I (Col I), osteocalcin (OCN), and osteonectin (ON). We also found that under high glucose conditions miR-378 activated the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and down regulated pro-apoptotic CytC, Apaf-1 and Bax proteins via the PI3K/Akt pathway. Collectively, these results suggest that miR-378 overexpression attenuates high glucose-suppressed osteogenic differentiation through targeting CASP3 and activating the PI3K/Akt pathway.
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CREPT expression correlates with poor prognosis in patients with retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Retroperitoneal leiomyosarcomas (LMSs) are rare gynecological malignancies that display poor prognosis and high mortality. Cell cycle-related and expression-elevated protein in tumor (CREPT) is an oncogene that is involved in the regulation of many cell cycle-related proteins. However, its distribution and clinical significance in retroperitoneal LMS remains poorly understood. This study assessed the histological classifications of postoperative tumor samples from 71 cases of retroperitoneal LMS that were collected at The General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army from January 1998 to December 2012. We found that more than half of the patients displayed positive expressions of CREPT, Ki-67 and PCNA via immunohistochemical analysis. The expression of CREPT correlated with histological grade (P = 0.044), and the PCNA expression level correlated with the differentiation of tumor cells and histological grade (P < 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that survival was associated with histological grade and the expression level of CREPT (P = 0.011 and P = 0.012, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the patients lacking CREPT expression exhibited significantly longer overall postoperative survival (median, 60.0 months) than the patients displaying CREPT expression (median, 33.0 months), and CREPT expression correlated with distant recurrence within 5 years after surgery (P = 0.004). Western blot analyses showed that CREPT was more strongly expressed in the retroperitoneal LMS tumor tissue than in paired control tissue. Based on the above data, we concluded that CREPT displays unique immunostaining for retroperitoneal LMS tissue and can be used to supplement other currently available retroperitoneal LMS markers.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.