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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Spectroscopic methods applied to component determination and species identification for coffee].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Spectroscopic analysis was applied to the determination of the nutrient quality of ground, instant and chicory coffees. By using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-ES), nine mineral elements were determined in solid coffee samples. Caffeine was determined by ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry and organic matter was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Oxidation-reduction titration was utilized for measuring the oxalate. The differences between ground coffee and instant coffee was identified on the basis of the contents of caffeine, oxalate and mineral elements. Experimental evidence showed that, caffeine in instant coffee was 2-3 times higher than in ground coffee. Oxalate in instant coffee was significantly higher in ground coffee. Mineral elements of Mg, P and Zn in ground coffee is lower than in instant coffee, while Cu is several times higher. The mineral content in chicory coffee is overall lower than the instant coffee. In addition, we determined the content of Ti for different types of coffees, and simultaneously detected the elements of Cu, Ti and Zn in chicory coffee. As a fast detection technique, FTIR spectroscopy has the potential of detecting the differences between ground coffee and instant coffee, and is able to verify the presence of caffeine and oxalate.
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Residue-Specific Force Field Based on Protein Coil Library. RSFF2: Modification of AMBER ff99SB.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Recently, we developed a residue-specific force field (RSFF1) based on conformational free-energy distributions of the 20 amino acid residues from a protein coil library. Most parameters in RSFF1 were adopted from the OPLS-AA/L force field, but some van der Waals and torsional parameters that effectively affect local conformational preferences were introduced specifically for individual residues to fit the coil library distributions. Here a similar strategy has been applied to modify the Amber ff99SB force field, and a new force field named RSFF2 is developed. It can successfully fold ?-helical structures such as polyalanine peptides, Trp-cage miniprotein, and villin headpiece subdomain and ?-sheet structures such as Trpzip-2, GB1 ?-hairpins, and the WW domain, simultaneously. The properties of various popular force fields in balancing between ?-helix and ?-sheet are analyzed based on their descriptions of local conformational features of various residues, and the analysis reveals the importance of accurate local free-energy distributions. Unlike the RSFF1, which overestimates the stability of both ?-helix and ?-sheet, RSFF2 gives melting curves of ?-helical peptides and Trp-cage in good agreement with experimental data. Fitting to the two-state model, RSFF2 gives folding enthalpies and entropies in reasonably good agreement with available experimental results.
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Effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d3 on regulatory T cells in ovariectomized mice.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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To investigate the correlation between regulatory T (Treg) cells and postmenopausal osteoporosis and the antiosteoporotic effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] in relation to Treg cells.
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A novel mutation in the CD40 ligand gene in a Chinese boy with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome.
Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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X-linked hyper-IgM Syndrome (XHIGM) is caused by a mutation of CD40 ligand (CD40L), which is normally expressed on activated CD4+ T cells and is responsible for immunoglobulin class switching. A 7-year-old boy with recurrent sino-pulmonary infections since the age of 3 months had normal CD3+, CD4+, CD8+T lymphocytes, and CD19+B lymphocytes and NK cells, but significantly elevated IgM and extremely decreased IgG and IgA. Sequencing of genomic DNA revealed that the patient had a 34 base deletion in intron 3 and exon 4 of CD40L(g.8172_8205del34bp), which lead to the entire deletion of exon 4 in cDNA (c.347_409del63bp, i.e.,exon 4 skipping) and an in-frame deletion of 21 amino acids in CD40L protein. Moreover, the patient had negligible CD40L expression on activated CD3+CD8-T lymphocytes. His mother and sister were carriers of the CD40L mutation. Our studies demonstrated a novel mutation in CD40L, which, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously.
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[Soil microfauna diversity among Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations based on pyrosequencing].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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In order to study the function of soil microfauna and its responses to environmental changes, we used metagenome analyses of the 18S rDNA gene region to identify differences in microfauna diversity and community structure among fifteen soil samples belonging to five different Cunninghamia lanceolate plantations. The plantations were located in Youxian County, Hunan Province in central China. The trees in these plantations were of different ages (3, 13, and 26 years) and belonged to different ecological successions (first, second, and third successions). The total dataset comprised 94922 high quality sequences with an average length of 436 bp. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples were Chordata, Annelida, Arthropoda, Nematoda, Rotifera and Platyhelminthes with each accounting for 60.8%, 24.0%, 7.4%, 3.6%, 1.5% and 1.2% of the sequences, respectively. There were significant differences in ACE index and Shannon index among the five plantations. The lowest diversity of soil microfauna was in the 13-year old plantation of the first ecological succession. The correlation analysis showed that both ACE and available potassium concentration were negatively correlated to the Chaol index. However, there were no significant correlations between the Shannon, Simpson indices and the physical-chemical properties of soil. Overall, the Jaccard's similarity coefficient was less than 0.4 among samples at each site, and significant differences were found among plantations.
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Cross-inhibition of NMBR and GRPR signaling maintains normal histaminergic itch transmission.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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We previously showed that gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in the spinal cord is important for mediating nonhistaminergic itch. Neuromedin B receptor (NMBR), the second member of the mammalian bombesin receptor family, is expressed in a largely nonoverlapping pattern with GRPR in the superficial spinal cord, and its role in itch transmission remains unclear. Here, we report that Nmbr knock-out (KO) mice exhibited normal scratching behavior in response to intradermal injection of pruritogens. However, mice lacking both Nmbr and Grpr (DKO mice) showed significant deficits in histaminergic itch. In contrast, the chloroquine (CQ)-evoked scratching behavior of DKO mice is not further reduced compared with Grpr KO mice. These results suggest that NMBR and GRPR could compensate for the loss of each other to maintain normal histamine-evoked itch, whereas GRPR is exclusively required for CQ-evoked scratching behavior. Interestingly, GRPR activity is enhanced in Nmbr KO mice despite the lack of upregulation of Grpr expression; so is NMBR in Grpr KO mice. We found that NMB acts exclusively through NMBR for itch transmission, whereas GRP can signal through both receptors, albeit to NMBR to a much lesser extent. Although NMBR and NMBR(+) neurons are dispensable for histaminergic itch, GRPR(+) neurons are likely to act downstream of NMBR(+) neurons to integrate NMB-NMBR-encoded histaminergic itch information in normal physiological conditions. Together, we define the respective function of NMBR and GRPR in itch transmission, and reveal an unexpected relationship not only between the two receptors but also between the two populations of interneurons in itch signaling.
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[Analysis of ND4 gene mutations in acute myelogenous leukemia].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To investigate the relationship of the mutational status of the ND4 gene and the clinical features of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients with ND4 mutations.
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Synthesis, characterization, and antitumor activity of unusual pseudo five coordinate gold(III) complexes: Distinct cytotoxic mechanism or expensive ligand delivery systems?
J. Inorg. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Gold(III) complexes bearing bidentate ligands based on the 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,2'-bipyridine scaffolds have shown promising anticancer activity against a variety of tumor cell lines. In particular, our laboratory has previously found that a pseudo five coordinate gold(III) complex possessing the 2,9-di-sec-butyl-1,10-phenanthroline ligand {[((di-sec-butyl)phen)AuCl3]} exhibits antitumor activity against a panel of five different lung and head-neck tumor cell lines. However, the [((di-sec-butyl)phen)AuCl3] complex was determined to be less active than the free 2,9-di-sec-butyl-1,10-phenanthroline ligand. In order to determine if this class of gold(III) complexes has a distinct mechanism of initiating tumor cell death or if these gold complexes simply release the polypyridyl ligand in the intracellular environment, structural analogues of the [((di-sec-butyl)phen)AuCl3] complex have been synthesized and structurally characterized. These structural congeners were prepared by using mono-alkyl and di-phenyl substituted 1,10-phenanthroline ligands, di-alkyl and di-phenyl substituted 4-methyl-1,10-phenanthroline ligands, and mono-alkyl 2,2'-bipyridine ligands. The redox stability of this library of distorted square pyramidal gold(III) complexes has been studied and the in vitro antitumor activity of gold(III) complexes and corresponding polypyridyl ligands has been determined. The [((di-n-butyl)phen)AuCl3] and [((mono-n-butyl)phen)AuCl3] complexes have been found to be significantly more potent at inhibiting the growth of A549 lung tumor cells than the clinically used drug cisplatin. More importantly, these two gold(III) complexes are significantly more active than their respective free ligands, providing evidence that this class of pseudo five coordinate gold(III) complexes has a mechanism of initiating tumor cell death that is independent of the free ligand.
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Clinical effect analysis of microscopic surgery for epiglottis cysts with coblation.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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This study aims to explore the effects and advantages of coblation combined with microscopy to treat epiglottis cysts. Ninety patients with epiglottis cysts were randomly assigned to three groups: the first group: marsupialisation + electric coagulation group, n = 30; the second group: marsupialisation + coblation, n = 30; and the third group: marsupialisation + coblation + microsurgery, n = 30. To compare the cure rate, intraoperative bleeding volume, postoperative pain, operation time and postoperative complications were investigated among these three groups. The comparison among three procedures showed a significant difference for intraoperative bleeding volume, operation time and postoperative pain (P < 0.05), whereas no significant difference was observed for cure rate (P > 0.05). These three procedures are effective in treating epiglottis cysts. Microscopic surgery with coblation has the advantages of less bleeding, short procedure duration, less pain and few complications. Thus, microscopic surgery is worthy of clinical application.
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Glutathione-coated luminescent gold nanoparticles: a surface ligand for minimizing serum protein adsorption.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Ultrasmall glutathione-coated luminescent gold nanoparticles (GS-AuNPs) are known for their high resistance to serum protein adsorption. Our studies show that these NPs can serve as surface ligands to significantly enhance the physiological stability and lower the serum protein adsorption of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), in addition to rendering the NPs the luminescence property. After the incorporation of GS-AuNPs onto the surface of SPIONs to form the hybrid nanoparticles (HBNPs), these SPIONs' protein adsorption was about 10-fold lower than those of the pure glutathione-coated SPIONs suggesting that GS-AuNPs are capable of providing a stealth effect against serum proteins.
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Effects of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene on end stage renal disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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To investigate whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene associate with the progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD).
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Identification of Novel Selective Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) Inhibitors Using a Pharmacophore Based Virtual Screening Combined with Docking.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) plays an important role in regulating the lysine methylation at residues K4 and K9 on histone H3. High levels of LSD1 expression have been observed in several malignant tumors. In this study, we presented a pharmacophore-based virtual screening of a moderate database of 171 143 small molecules. A pharmacophore of LSD1 inhibitors was constructed for the first time and then used to screen the compound library combined with validated molecular docking tools followed by biochemical assays, led to the identification of 9 novel LSD1 inhibitors, showing their IC50 values in a range of 2.41 ~ 101 ?M. Furthermore, compound XZ09 exhibited less inhibition against the homologous monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and B (MAO-B) displaying its moderate selectivity. Our study provides an effective virtual screening method to identify new LSD1 inhibitors and XZ09 represents a potent and selective lead compound to deserve further optimization for the treatment of LSD1 overexpressing cancers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Bacterial community structure in Apis florea larvae analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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This study characterizes the colonization and composition of bacterial flora in dwarf Asian honeybee (Apis florea) larvae and compares bacterial diversity and distribution among different sampling locations. A. florea larvae were collected from 3 locations in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Bacterial DNA was extracted from each larva using the phenol-chloroform method. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was performed, and the dominant bands were excised from the gels, cloned, and sequenced for bacterial species identification. The result revealed similarities of bacterial community profiles in each individual colony, but differences between colonies from the same and different locations. A. florea larvae harbor bacteria belonging to 2 phyla (Firmicutes and Proteobacteria), 5 classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, and Clostridia), 6 genera (Clostridium, Gilliamella, Melissococcus, Lactobacillus, Saccharibacter, and Snodgrassella), and an unknown genus from uncultured bacterial species. The classes with the highest abundance of bacteria were Alphaproteobacteria (34%), Bacilli (25%), Betaproteobacteria (11%), Gammaproteobacteria (10%), and Clostridia (8%), respectively. Similarly, uncultured bacterial species were identified (12%). Environmental bacterial species, such as Saccharibacter floricola, were also found. This is the first study in which sequences closely related to Melissococcus plutonius, the causal pathogen responsible for European foulbrood, have been identified in Thai A. florea larvae.
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Growth of Desulfovibrio vulgaris when respiring U(VI) and characterization of biogenic uraninite.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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The capacity of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to reduce U(VI) was studied previously with nongrowth conditions involving a high biomass concentration; thus, bacterial growth through respiration of U(VI) was not proven. In this study, we conducted a series of batch tests on U(VI) reduction by D. vulgaris at a low initial biomass (10 to 20 mg/L of protein) that could reveal biomass growth. D. vulgaris grew with U(VI) respiration alone, as well as with simultaneous sulfate reduction. Patterns of growth kinetics and solids production were affected by sulfate and Fe(2+). Biogenic sulfide nonenzymatically reduced 76% of the U(VI) and greatly enhanced the overall reduction rate in the absence of Fe(2+) but was rapidly scavenged by Fe(2+) to form FeS in the presence of Fe(2+). Biogenic U solids were uraninite (UO2) nanocrystallites associated with 20 mg/g biomass as protein. The crystallite thickness of UO2 was 4 to 5 nm without Fe(2+) but was <1.4 nm in the presence of Fe(2+), indicating poor crystallization inhibited by adsorbed Fe(2+) and other amorphous Fe solids, such as FeS or FeCO3. This work fills critical gaps in understanding the metabolic utilization of U by microorganisms and formation of UO2 solids in bioremediation sites.
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Residue-specific force field based on the protein coil library. RSFF1: modification of OPLS-AA/L.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Traditional protein force fields use one set of parameters for most of the 20 amino acids (AAs), allowing transferability of the parameters. However, a significant shortcoming is the difficulty to fit the Ramachandran plots of all AA residues simultaneously, affecting the accuracy of the force field. In this Feature Article, we report a new strategy for protein force field parametrization. Backbone and side-chain conformational distributions of all 20 AA residues obtained from protein coil library were used as the target data. The dihedral angle (torsion) potentials and some local nonbonded (1-4/1-5/1-6) interactions in OPLS-AA/L force field were modified such that the target data can be excellently reproduced by molecular dynamics simulations of dipeptides (blocked AAs) in explicit water, resulting in a new force field with AA-specific parameters, RSFF1. An efficient free energy decomposition approach was developed to separate the corrections on ? and ? from the two-dimensional Ramachandran plots. RSFF1 is shown to reproduce the experimental NMR (3)J-coupling constants of AA dipeptides better than other force fields. It has a good balance between ?-helical and ?-sheet secondary structures. It can successfully fold a set of ?-helix proteins (Trp-cage and Homeodomain) and ?-hairpins (Trpzip-2, GB1 hairpin), which cannot be consistently stabilized by other state-of-the-art force fields. Interestingly, the RSFF1 force field systematically overestimates the melting temperature (and the stability of native state) of these peptides/proteins. It has a potential application in the simulation of protein folding and protein structure refinement.
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Uranium removal and microbial community in a H2-based membrane biofilm reactor.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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We evaluated a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) for its capacity to reduce and remove hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] from water. After a startup period that allowed slow-growing U(VI) reducers to form biofilms, the MBfR successfully achieved and maintained 94-95% U(VI) removal over 8 months when the U surface loading was 6-11 e(-) mEq/m(2)-day. The MBfR biofilm was capable of self-recovery after a disturbance due to oxygen exposure. Nanocrystalline UO2 aggregates and amorphous U precipitates were associated with vegetative cells and apparently mature spores that accumulated in the biofilm matrix. Despite inoculation with a concentrated suspension of Desulfovibrio vulgaris, this bacterium was not present in the U(VI)-reducing biofilm. Instead, the most abundant group in the biofilm community contained U(VI) reducers in the Rhodocyclaceae family when U(VI) was the only electron acceptor. When sulfate was present, the community dramatically shifted to the Clostridiaceae family, which included spores that were potentially involved in U(VI) reduction.
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Analysis on minimally invasive diagnosis and treatment of 49 cases with solitary nodular ground-glass opacity.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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This study is designed to investigate the treatment approach and prognosis of pulmonary ground-glass-like shadow, especially solitary nodular ground-glass opacity (SNGGO).
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Postnatal maintenance of the 5-Ht1a-Pet1 autoregulatory loop by serotonin in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Despite the importance of 5-HT1A as a major target for the action of several anxiolytics/antidepressant drugs, little is known about its regulation in central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurons.
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A compact representation for compressing converted stereo videos.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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We propose a novel representation for stereo videos namely 2D-plus-depth-cue. This representation is able to encode stereo videos compactly by leveraging the by-product of a stereo video conversion process. Specifically, the depth cues are derived from an interactive labeling process during 2D-to-stereo video conversion—they are contour points of image regions and their corresponding depth models, and so forth. Using such cues and the image features of 2D video frames, the scene depth can be reliably recovered. Experimental results demonstrate that the bit rate can be saved about 10%–50% in coding a stereo video compared with multiview video coding and the 2D-plus-depth methods. In addition, since the objects are segmented in the conversion process, it is convenient to adopt the region-of-interest (ROI) coding in the proposed stereo video coding system. Experimental results show that using ROI coding, the bit rate is reduced by 30%–40% or the video quality is increased by 1.5–4 dB with the fixed bit rate.
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Dorsal raphe neurons signal reward through 5-HT and glutamate.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the midbrain is a key center for serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-expressing neurons. Serotonergic neurons in the DRN have been theorized to encode punishment by opposing the reward signaling of dopamine neurons. Here, we show that DRN neurons encode reward, but not punishment, through 5-HT and glutamate. Optogenetic stimulation of DRN Pet-1 neurons reinforces mice to explore the stimulation-coupled spatial region, shifts sucrose preference, drives optical self-stimulation, and directs sensory discrimination learning. DRN Pet-1 neurons increase their firing activity during reward tasks, and this activation can be used to rapidly change neuronal activity patterns in the cortex. Although DRN Pet-1 neurons are often associated with 5-HT, they also release glutamate, and both neurotransmitters contribute to reward signaling. These experiments demonstrate the ability of DRN neurons to organize reward behaviors and might provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of learning facilitation and anhedonia treatment.
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A novel highly sensitive and selective fluorescent sensor for imaging copper (II) in living cells.
J Fluoresc
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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In this work, we designed and synthesized a novel quinolin-based derivative which exhibited signaling behaviors for Cu(2+). Upon the addition of Cu(2+) to the solution of the molecule, it displayed an obvious fluorescence quenching in a linear fashion due to the formation of a 1:1 metal-ligand complex. This fluorescent sensor exhibited a rare sensitivity toward Cu(II) (the level of magnitude could be 6?×?10(-8)), a rapid response (<10 s) and also high selectivity toward Cu(2+) over other metal ions such as Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Ba(2+), Fe(3+), Mn(2+), Hg(2+), Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Co(2+), Zn(2+) and Al(3+). Simultaneously, the cell imaging experiments and filter paper test demonstrated its extensive applicability.
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Anesthetic Sevoflurane Reduces Levels of Hippocalcin and Postsynaptic Density Protein 95.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Sevoflurane, the commonly used inhalation anesthetic in children, has been shown to enhance cytosolic calcium levels and induce cognitive impairment in young mice. However, the downstream consequences of the sevoflurane-induced elevation in cytosolic calcium levels and the upstream mechanisms of the sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment remain largely to be determined. Hippocalcin is one of the neuronal calcium sensor proteins, and also binds to postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95). We therefore set out to determine the effects of sevoflurane on the levels of hippocalcin and PSD-95 in vitro and in vivo. Hippocampus neurons from mice and 6-day-old mice were treated with 4.1 % sevoflurane for 6 h or 3 % sevoflurane 2 h daily for 3 days, respectively. We then measured the levels of hippocalcin and PSD-95, and assessed whether BAPTA, an intracellular calcium chelator, and memantine, a partial antagonist of the NMDA receptor, could inhibit the sevoflurane's effects. We found that sevoflurane decreased the levels of hippocalcin and PSD-95 in the neurons; and decreased the levels of hippocalcin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus of mice immediately after the anesthesia, but only the PSD-95 levels three weeks after the anesthesia. BAPTA inhibited the sevoflurane's effects in the neurons. Memantine attenuated the sevoflurane-induced reductions in the levels of hippocalcin and PSD-95, as well as the sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in mice. These data suggested that sevoflurane decreased the levels of hippocalcin and PSD-95, which could serve as one of bridge mechanisms between the sevoflurane-induced elevation of cytosolic calcium levels and the sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment.
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Simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy for esophageal cancer: A feasibility study.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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To establish the feasibility of simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy (SMART) in esophageal cancer (EC).
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Surface-chemistry effect on cellular response of luminescent plasmonic silver nanoparticles.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Cellular response of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) is strongly dependent on their surface chemistry. By taking advantage of robust single-particle fluorescence and giant Raman enhancements of unique polycrystalline silver NPs (AgNPs), we quantitatively investigated effects of two well-known surface chemistries, passive PEGylation and active c-RGD peptide conjugation, on in vitro behaviors of AgNPs at high temporal and spatial resolution as well as chemical level using fluorescence and Raman microscopy. The results show that specific c-RGD peptide-?v?3 integrin interactions not only induced endosome formation more rapidly, enhanced constrained diffusion, but also minimized nonspecific chemical interactions between the NPs and intracellular biomolecules than passive PEGylation chemistry; as a result, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals of c-RGD peptides were well resolved inside endosomes in the live cells, while Raman signals of PEGylated AgNPs remained unresolvable due to interference of surrounding biomolecules, opening up an opportunity to investigate specific ligand-receptor interactions in real time at the chemical level.
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Effect of growth conditions on microbial activity and iron-sulfide production by Desulfovibrio vulgaris.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can produce iron sulfide (FeS) solids with mineralogical characteristics that may be beneficial for a variety of biogeochemical applications, such as long-term immobilization of uranium. In this study, the growth and metabolism of Desulfovibrio vulgaris, one of the best-studied SRB species, were comprehensively monitored in batch studies, and the biogenic FeS solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Controlling the pH by varying the initial pH, the iron-to-sulfate ratio, or the electron donor - affected the growth of D. vulgaris and strongly influenced the formation and growth of FeS solids. In particular, lower pH (from initial conditions or a decrease caused by less sulfate reduction, FeS precipitation, or using pyruvate as the electron donor) produced larger-sized mackinawite (Fe1+xS). Greater accumulation of free sulfide, from more sulfate reduction by D. vulgaris, also led to larger-sized mackinawite and particularly stimulated mackinawite transformation to greigite (Fe3S4) when the free sulfide concentration was 29.3mM. Furthermore, sufficient free Fe(2+) led to the additional formation of vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2·8(H2O)]. Thus, microbially relevant conditions (initial pH, choice of electron donor, and excess or deficiency of sulfide) are tools to generate biogenic FeS solids of different characteristics.
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HIV infection and microbial diversity in saliva.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition.
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ARID1A/BAF250a as a prognostic marker for gastric carcinoma: a study of 2 cohorts.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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ARID1A/BAF250a has been recently implicated as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. We sought to clarify the clinical significance of BAF250a/ARID1A in relation to other clinical parameters and relevant biomarkers in gastric carcinoma. Cases from 2 separate cohorts of patients with gastric carcinoma from Vancouver (n = 173) and Toronto (n = 80) were selected for the construction of tissue microarrays, which were used to assess the immunohistochemical status of BAF250a (anti-ARID1A), mismatch repair proteins and p53, as well as in situ hybridization for HER2 amplification and Epstein-Barr virus infection. The Toronto cohort contained a higher proportion of early stage cases (P = .019) and a smaller proportion of cases from the proximal stomach (P < .001). Overall, immunohistochemical loss of BAF250a was observed in 22.5% of gastric adenocarcinomas from the Vancouver group and 20% from Toronto. In both cohorts, loss of BAF250a was positively associated with loss of mismatch repair protein expression (P < .0001 and P = .035, respectively). Loss of BAF250a expression was independently associated with poor overall survival in the Toronto cohort (P = .0015), whereas no significant association with survival was observed in the Vancouver cohort. BAF250a loss was not significantly associated with any additional clinical parameters in either cohort. HER2 amplification was confirmed as a negative prognostic factor in both cohorts. These findings suggest that ARID1A/BAF250a may be of prognostic significance in a subset of patients with early stage gastric cancer and that pathological assessment should increasingly use a multimarker approach.
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[Dexamethasone induces PC12 cell apoptosis by down-regulating glucose uptake].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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To observe the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) on rat PC12 chromaffin tumor cells and glucose uptake.
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NO oxidation catalysis on copper doped hexagonal phase LaCoO3: a combined experimental and theoretical study.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Cobalt-based perovskite catalysts showed excellent performance towards NO-NO2 oxidation. We systematically investigated the influence of different levels of Cu-doping on the catalytic performance of hexagonal phase LaCoO3 (LaCo1-xCuxO3 (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3)) for NO oxidation. The catalytic activities of the oxide catalysts followed the sequence: LaCo0.9Cu0.1O3 > LaCoO3 > LaCo0.8Cu0.2O3 > LaCo0.7Cu0.3O3 where the highest NO conversion for LaCo0.9Cu0.1O3 was 82% at 310 °C. The relevant structural characterizations were conducted by XRD, BET, FTIR and TEM. The interaction between Co and Cu promoted the conversion of NO to NO2. Upon increasing the Cu doping content, a decrease of the performance resulted from the generation of isolated CuO on the surface of the oxides, confirmed using H2-TPR and XPS. Combined with first-principle calculations, we explored the reaction mechanism of NO oxidation on the surface and found that Cu doping would facilitate the reaction by decreasing the energy of oxygen vacancy formation and the NO2 desorption barrier from Co- or Cu-nitrite.
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Mining seasonal marine microbial pattern with greedy heuristic clustering and symmetrical nonnegative matrix factorization.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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With the development of high-throughput and low-cost sequencing technology, a large number of marine microbial sequences were generated. The association patterns between marine microbial species and environment factors are hidden in these large amount sequences. Mining these association patterns is beneficial to exploit the marine resources. However, very few marine microbial association patterns are well investigated in this field. The present study reports the development of a novel method called HC-sNMF to detect the marine microbial association patterns. The results show that the four seasonal marine microbial association networks have characters of complex networks, the same environmental factor influences different species in the four seasons, and the correlative relationships are stronger between OTUs (taxa) than with environmental factors in the four seasons detecting community.
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B-type natriuretic peptide is neither itch-specific nor functions upstream of the GRP-GRPR signaling pathway.
Mol Pain
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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A recent study by Mishra and Hoon identified B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) as an important peptide for itch transmission and proposed that BNP activates spinal natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA) expressing neurons, which release gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) to activate GRP receptor (GRPR) expressing neurons to relay itch information from the periphery to the brain (Science 340:968-971, 2013). A central premise for the validity of this novel pathway is the absence of GRP in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. To this end, they showed that Grp mRNA in DRG neurons is either absent or barely detectable and claimed that BNP but not GRP is a major neurotransmitter for itch in pruriceptors. They showed that NPRA immunostaining is perfectly co-localized with Grp-eGFP in the spinal cord, and a few acute pain behaviors in Nppb-/- mice were tested. They claimed that BNP is an itch-selective peptide that acts as the first station of a dedicated neuronal pathway comprising a GRP-GRPR cascade for itch. However, our studies, along with the others, do not support their claims.
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A ubiquitin shuttle DC-UbP/UBTD2 reconciles protein ubiquitination and deubiquitination via linking UbE1 and USP5 enzymes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The ubiquitination levels of protein substrates in eukaryotic cells are delicately orchestrated by various protein cofactors and enzymes. Dendritic cell-derived ubiquitin (Ub)-like protein (DC-UbP), also named as Ub domain-containing protein 2 (UBTD2), is a potential Ub shuttle protein comprised of a Ub-like (UbL) domain and a Ub-binding domain (UBD), but its biological function remains largely unknown. We identified two Ub-related enzymes, the deubiquitinating enzyme USP5 and the Ub-activating enzyme UbE1, as interacting partners of DC-UbP from HEK 293T cells. Biochemical studies revealed that the tandem UBA domains of USP5 and the C-terminal Ub-fold domain (UFD) of UbE1 directly interacted with the C-terminal UbL domain of DC-UbP but on the distinct surfaces. Overexpression of DC-UbP in HEK 293T cells enhanced the association of these two enzymes and thus prompted cellular ubiquitination, whereas knockdown of the protein reduced the cellular ubiquitination level. Together, DC-UbP may integrate the functions of USP5 and UbE1 through interacting with them, and thus reconcile the cellular ubiquitination and deubiquitination processes.
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Analysis of kidney biopsy data from a single center in the midland rural area of china, 1996-2010.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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To survey the clinical epidemiology and correlations between pathology and clinical features of major groups of kidney diseases in a rural area of China.
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Keratins as the main component for the mechanical integrity of keratinocytes.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Keratins are major components of the epithelial cytoskeleton and are believed to play a vital role for mechanical integrity at the cellular and tissue level. Keratinocytes as the main cell type of the epidermis express a differentiation-specific set of type I and type II keratins forming a stable network and are major contributors of keratinocyte mechanical properties. However, owing to compensatory keratin expression, the overall contribution of keratins to cell mechanics was difficult to examine in vivo on deletion of single keratin genes. To overcome this problem, we used keratinocytes lacking all keratins. The mechanical properties of these cells were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and magnetic tweezers experiments. We found a strong and highly significant softening of keratin-deficient keratinocytes when analyzed by AFM on the cell body and above the nucleus. Magnetic tweezers experiments fully confirmed these results showing, in addition, high viscous contributions to magnetic bead displacement in keratin-lacking cells. Keratin loss neither affected actin or microtubule networks nor their overall protein concentration. Furthermore, depolymerization of actin preserves cell softening in the absence of keratin. On reexpression of the sole basal epidermal keratin pair K5/14, the keratin filament network was reestablished, and mechanical properties were restored almost to WT levels in both experimental setups. The data presented here demonstrate the importance of keratin filaments for mechanical resilience of keratinocytes and indicate that expression of a single keratin pair is sufficient for almost complete reconstitution of their mechanical properties.
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Two new compounds from Crataegus pinnatifida and their antithrombotic activities.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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One new sesquiterpene, (1?,4a?,8a?)-1-isopropanol-4a-methyl-8-methylenedecahydronaphthalene (1), with one new phenylpropanoid, threo-2-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-ethoxypropan-1-ol (2), along with four known phenylpropanoids were isolated from Crataegus pinnatifida. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR analyses, and HR-ESI-MS. The antithrombotic activity in vitro of all isolates was assayed, and only compound 1 exhibited potent antithrombotic activity by inhibiting platelet aggregation in rat plasma by 81.4% at 1 mg/ml.
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[Endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation vs. endoscopic sphincteropapillotomy for common bile duct stones: a meta analysis].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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To evaluate the safety and efficacy between endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) and endoscopic sphincteropapillotomy ( EST) for common bile duct stones using meta-analysis method.
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Automated quantification of DNA aneuploidy by image cytometry as an adjunct for the cytologic diagnosis of malignant effusion.
Anal Cell Pathol (Amst)
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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DNA aneuploidy is a cancer biomarker, which may have a potential diagnostic value in body effusion specimen. DNA aneuploidy is determined by measuring the DNA content of tested cells and comparing them with diploid cells (2c). In order to assess the value of automated DNA image cytometry (DNA-ICM) in the cytologic diagnosis of effusion, we measured DNA ploidy using an automated DNA-ICM analysis system in 126 consecutive effusion specimens and followed the cases for histologic diagnosis. Half of each effusion specimen was used to prepare cytologic smears for conventional cytologic diagnosis, while the other half was used to prepare a monolayer slide stained by Feulgen stain for automated ICM. By using Youden index, we found that 4 cells exceeding 2.5c is the optimal cut off value for aneuploidy, which has a sensitivity of 88.3% and specificity of 100% for diagnosis of malignant effusion. We also found that the DNA aneuploidy thresholds used for other types of cytologic specimens cannot be used in the diagnosis of effusion specimens. Our study demonstrated that automated DNA image cytometry is a simple, practical and cost-effective method for adjunct diagnosis of malignant effusion.
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Luminescent gold nanoparticles: a new class of nanoprobes for biomedical imaging.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Our fundamental understanding of cell biology and early diagnosis of human diseases have been greatly benefited from the development of fluorescent probes. Over the past decade, luminescent gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with diverse structural parameters including particle size, surface ligands, valence state and grain size have been synthesized and have begun to emerge as a new class of fluorescent probes for bioimaging because of their great biocompatibility, robust photophysical properties and tunable emissions from the visible range to the near infrared region. In this minireview, we summarize the recent progress in applications of different-sized luminescent AuNPs as imaging probes for both in vitro and in vivo levels.
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An ionic liquid-mediated electrochemiluminescent sensor for the detection of sulfur dioxide at the ppb level.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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A novel portable SO2 gas sensor based on ionic liquid (IL) mediated electrochemiluminescence (ECL) for detecting SO2 at the ppb levels has been developed. The sensing system for SO2 detection is based on the strong quenching effect of SO2 on the ECL of the tris(2,2-bipyridine)ruthenium(ii) (Ru(bpy)3(2+))/O2 coreactant system in the IL film. Over the potential window between -1.0 and +1.3 V, O2 can act as an effective coreactant for Ru(bpy)3(2+) ECL in ILs, giving a bright ECL emission. The ECL of the Ru(bpy)3(2+)/O2 system can be strongly inhibited by SO2 through the direct quenching of the excited state of the luminophore, i.e. Ru(bpy)3(2+)*, by SO2 molecules. The inhibited ECL intensity is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the range from 40 to 2000 ppb with a detection limit of 20 ppb. The proposed SO2 ECL sensor can be operated at room temperature and shows high selectivity, good reproducibility and long-term stability in a dry atmosphere.
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Gender disparity in early death after ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Females with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have a higher risk of adverse outcomes because of receiving less evidence-based medical care. Our aim was to investigate the gender disparity in early death after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the current era.
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[Perception of facial profile attractiveness of lower anterior face height in orthodontic treatment seeking people].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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To evaluate the most acceptable lower anterior face height of male and female by orthodontic treatment seeking people.
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Enzymatic production of D-3-phenyllactic acid by Pediococcus pentosaceus D-lactate dehydrogenase with NADH regeneration by Ogataea parapolymorpha formate dehydrogenase.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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3-Phenyllactic acid (PLA) is an antimicrobial compound with broad and effective antimicrobial activity against both bacteria and fungi. Enzymatic production of PLA can be carried out from phenylpyruvic acid by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); however, the enzymatic reaction is accompanied by NADH oxidation that inhibits PLA biotransformation. Here, NADH regeneration was achieved using the formate dehydrogenase from Ogataea parapolymorpha and introduced into the D-PLA production process using the D-LDH from Pediococcus pentosaceus. Optimum PLA production by dual enzyme treatment was at pH 6.0 and 50 °C with both enzymes at 0.4 ?M. Using 0.2 mM NADH, D-PLA production by NADH regeneration system reached 5.5 mM, which was significantly higher than that by a single-enzyme reaction.
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Synthesis of five-membered osmacycloallenes and conversion into six-membered osmacycloallenes.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Highly stable five-membered metallacycloallenes were synthesized under mild conditions. Calculations revealed that the incorporation of transition-metal moieties relieves considerable strain and indicates a trend toward ring enlargement in the five-membered metallacycloallenes. Conversion into six-membered metallacycloallenes was confirmed experimentally.
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The effect of smoking on the risk of gallbladder cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Cigarette smoking has been shown to cause many nonpulmonary cancers, including those of liver, pancreas and bladder. However, results of epidemiologic studies examining the association between smoking and gallbladder cancer (GBC) have been mixed. To clarify the association of cigarette smoking and GBC, we performed a meta-analysis of observational studies.
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Cytotoxic and antioxidant dihydrobenzofuran neolignans from the seeds of Crataegus pinnatifida.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Eight new dihydrobenzofuran neolignans, pinnatifidanin C I-VIII (1-8), together with two known analogs (9-10) were isolated from the seeds of Crataegus pinnatifida. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, especially 1D, 2D NMR and CD spectra. The cytotoxic activities of all isolates against human cancer cell lines were assayed, and most interestingly, compound 10 revealed preferred cytotoxicity on the HT-1080 cell line and displayed much stronger inhibitory activity (IC50=8.86 ?M) compared with positive control 5-fluorouracil (IC50=35.62 ?M). Meanwhile, antioxidant activities of all the isolates were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-pikrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays, and the results showed that most of the isolates exhibited potent antioxidant activity.
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[Construction of dengue virus-specific full-length fully human antibody libraries by mammalian display technology].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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To construct dengue virus-specific full-length fully human antibody libraries using mammalian cell surface display technique.
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Aesthetic perception and factors associated with dentofacial midline awareness.
Aust Orthod J
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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To examine orthodontic patients aesthetic perception and factors likely to influence the detection of a dentofacial midline discrepancy.
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The cytotoxicity of 8-O-4 neolignans from the seeds of Crataegus pinnatifida.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Nine new 8-O-4 neolignans, named pinnatifidanin B I-IX (1-9), together with 9 known analogs (10-18) were isolated from the seeds of Crataegus pinnatifida. The structures of 1-18 were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D, 2D NMR, CD and HRESIMS analysis. Compounds 8-11, 17 and 18 displayed potent cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines, and most interestingly, none of the 6 compounds displayed inhibitory activity against human lung cell line (Mrc5). The 6 cytotoxic compounds are considered to be potential as antitumor agents, which could significantly inhibit the cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner and are probably safer than positive control drug.
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[Accurate calculation of spectral line profiles by considering influence of varying pressure and temperature in a gas].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Accurate calculation of spectral line profiles of a gas is very important for gas sensing. As we know, a variation in pressure (temperature) of a gas will result in the corresponding variation in temperature (pressure) of the gas. In the present paper we calculated spectral line profiles of a gas by considering the changes in both temperature and pressure. The authors found that in our case the Lorentzian profile has broader applicable ranges of pressure and temperature, and the Gaussian profile is only applicable in some extreme conditions. Furthermore, the authors found that the influence of variations in pressure and temperature has to be considered in calculating the peak values of the spectral line profiles such as Gaussian, Lorentzian, and Voigt; otherwise the resultant relative errors of the calculated peak values can exceed 0.1. The similar observations were also found for other gases such as CH4, CO2, CO, and NO, although the parameters such as wavelength, coefficient of pressure-broadening, relative molecular mass, and temperature were different.
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[Construction of full-length human bladder cancer-specific antibody libraries based on mammalian display technology].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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To construct full-length human bladder cancer-specific antibody libraries for efficient display of full-length antibodies on the surface of mammalian cells.
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Structural transformation of the amyloidogenic core region of TDP-43 protein initiates its aggregation and cytoplasmic inclusion.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa) is a major deposited protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia with ubiquitin. A great number of genetic mutations identified in the flexible C-terminal region are associated with disease pathologies. We investigated the molecular determinants of TDP-43 aggregation and its underlying mechanisms. We identified a hydrophobic patch (residues 318-343) as the amyloidogenic core essential for TDP-43 aggregation. Biophysical studies demonstrated that the homologous peptide formed a helix-turn-helix structure in solution, whereas it underwent structural transformation from an ?-helix to a ?-sheet during aggregation. Mutation or deletion of this core region significantly reduced the aggregation and cytoplasmic inclusions of full-length TDP-43 (or TDP-35 fragment) in cells. Thus, structural transformation of the amyloidogenic core initiates the aggregation and cytoplasmic inclusion formation of TDP-43. This particular core region provides a potential therapeutic target to design small-molecule compounds for mitigating TDP-43 proteinopathies.
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Molecular characterization and functional analysis of Toll-like receptor 3 gene in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).
Gene
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) plays an important role in activating innate immune responses during viral infection. In this report, TLR3 (EcTLR3) was characterized and analyzed for the first time in Epinephelus coioides. The full-length EcTLR3 cDNA is predicted to encode a 909 amino acid polypeptide that contains a signal peptide sequence, 18 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motifs, a transmembrane region and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the EcTLR3 mRNA was much more abundant in the liver than in other immune organs, and that the expression levels were very low in hemocyte and muscle. During development of the grouper, the levels of EcTLR3 transcripts increased with age, with very low expression levels at the early stages of development. EcTLR3 mRNA levels were examined in the liver at different times after treatment with polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (Poly I:C), and in nervous necrosis virus (NNV)-infected larval groupers. The results suggested that EcTLR3 plays an important role in a fishs defense against viral infection.
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Promising properties of a formate dehydrogenase from a methanol-assimilating yeast Ogataea parapolymorpha DL-1 in His-tagged form.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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The cDNA gene coding for formate dehydrogenase (FDH) from Ogataea parapolymorpha DL-1 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme was purified by nickel affinity chromatography and was characterized as a homodimer composed of two identical subunits with approximately 40 kDa in each monomer. The enzyme showed wide pH optimum of catalytic activity from pH 6.0 to 7.0. It had relatively high optimum temperature at 65 °C and retained 93, 88, 83, and 71 % of its initial activity after 4 h of exposure at 40, 50, 55, and 60 °C, respectively, suggesting that this enzyme had promising thermal stability. In addition, the enzyme was characterized to have significant tolerance ability to organic solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide, n-butanol, and n-hexane. The Michaelis-Menten constant (K m), turnover number (k cat), and catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) values of the enzyme for the substrate sodium formate were estimated to be 0.82 mM, 2.32 s(-1), and 2.83 mM(-1) s(-1), respectively. The K m for NAD(+) was 83 ?M. Due to its wide pH optimum, promising thermostability, and high organic solvent tolerance, O. parapolymorpha FDH may be a good NADH regeneration catalyst candidate.
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[Comparison of operative techniques in single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: suture-suspension versus three-device method].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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To compare the operative techniques of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) via suture-suspension versus three-device method.
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[Clinical analysis of Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in children].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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The primary infection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may results in hemophagocytic syndrome, known as EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS), but the clinical risk factors complicating this fatal disease in children with infectious mononucleosis (IM) are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify clinical features of EBV-AHS and to evaluate the curative effect of HLH-2004 protocol. The clinical and laboratory data of 644 IM children including 27 children developed into EBV-AHS and 43 HPS children associated with other diseases were retrospectively analyzed and logistic regression was used to identify the clinical risk factors complicating EBV-AHS. The results showed as follows: (1) the prevalence of EBV-AHS in IM children was 4.2% (27/644), and the prevalence in group aged younger than 3 years was higher than in other age groups. The incidence age of EBV-AHS was significantly younger than that of other HPS patients; (2) Liver function damage of group aged older than 7 years was much more severe in HPS patients. (3) Compared with other HPS patients, male patients were more common and liver function damage was severe in EBV-AHS patients, especially in the patients aged at 2 years or younger. (4) The fatality rate in the EBV-AHS patients was 37.0% (10/27). (5)After treatment with HLH-2004 protocol, the fatality rate in patients with EBV-AHS decreased from 50.0% to 18.2%, the overall survival (OS) of 3 years significantly increased (P = 0.032). It is concluded that IM is a benign self-limited disease, of which only about 4.2% patients will develop into EBV-AHS. Clinical risk factors identified in this study may be helpful for early diagnosis of IM children with complicated EBV-ASH, the HLH-2004 protocol can obviously improve prognosis of EBV-HPS.
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Influence of different polymers on crystallization tendency and dissolution behavior of cilnidipine in solid dispersions.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Abstract Context: Cilnidipine (CN) is a novel dihydropyridine calcium antagonist that is practically insoluble in aqueous media and exhibits a low oral bioavailability or limited clinical efficacy. Objective: This study investigated the effects of three commercial and chemically diverse polymers - PVP, PVP/VA and Soluplus - on crystallization tendency and in vitro dissolution profiles of CN in order to determine an optimum carrier for composing the preferred solid dispersion (SD) of CN. Methods: All these co-evaporated systems were characterized up to 3 months by thermoanalytical (DSC), crystallographic (POM, PXRD), microscopic (SEM) and spectroscopic (FTIR) techniques. Results: The results showed that the polymers could be sorted by their effects of inhibiting CN crystallization in the ascending order: Soluplus, PVP/VA, PVP. The sequence was in accordance with that of the strength of drug-polymer hydrogen bonds revealed by FTIR spectra. It could be ascribed to relative hydrogen-bonding acceptor strengths of N-vinylpyrrolidone moiety in the polymer molecules. On the other hand, all the SDs showed enhanced dissolution profiles compared to pure CN alone. On their effects of enhancing CN dissolution, the polymers could be sorted in the descending order: Soluplus, PVP, PVP/VA. Conclusions: It implied that the dissolution behavior of CN could bear a close relationship to both hydration capacity and hydrogen-bonding interaction tendency of moieties of the polymers. It might suggest an optimal formulation for CN comprising both PVP and Soluplus.
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[Inflammatory factors promote the expression of PD-L1 in Tca8113].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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To investigate the mechanism of immunologic escape in the tumor microenvironment, study the expression of programmed death 1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) in Tca8113 with treatment of inflammatory factors.
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Structural basis for recognition of the third SH3 domain of full-length R85 (R85FL)/ponsin by ataxin-7.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Ataxin-7 (Atx7) is a component of the nuclear transcription co-activator complex; its polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion may cause nuclear accumulation and recruit numerous proteins to the intranuclear inclusion bodies. Full-length R85 (R85FL) is such a protein sequestered by polyQ-expanded Atx7. Here, we report that Atx7 specifically interacts with the third SH3 domain (SH3C) of R85FL through its second portion of proline-rich region (PRR). NMR structural analysis of the SH3C domain and its complex with PRR revealed that SH3C contains a large negatively charged surface for binding with the RRTR motif of Atx7. Microscopy imaging demonstrated that sequestration of R85FL by the polyQ-expanded Atx7 in cell is mediated by this specific SH3C-PRR interaction, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of spinocerebellar ataxia 7.
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Chronic itch development in sensory neurons requires BRAF signaling pathways.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Chronic itch, or pruritus, is associated with a wide range of skin abnormalities. The mechanisms responsible for chronic itch induction and persistence remain unclear. We developed a mouse model in which a constitutively active form of the serine/threonine kinase BRAF was expressed in neurons gated by the sodium channel Nav1.8 (BRAFNav1.8 mice). We found that constitutive BRAF pathway activation in BRAFNav1.8 mice results in ectopic and enhanced expression of a cohort of itch-sensing genes, including gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and MAS-related GPCR member A3 (MRGPRA3), in nociceptors expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). BRAFNav1.8 mice showed de novo neuronal responsiveness to pruritogens, enhanced pruriceptor excitability, and heightened evoked and spontaneous scratching behavior. GRP receptor expression was increased in the spinal cord, indicating augmented coding capacity for itch subsequent to amplified pruriceptive inputs. Enhanced GRP expression and sustained ERK phosphorylation were observed in sensory neurons of mice with allergic contact dermatitis- or dry skin-elicited itch; however, spinal ERK activation was not required for maintaining central sensitization of itch. Inhibition of either BRAF or GRP signaling attenuated itch sensation in chronic itch mouse models. These data uncover RAF/MEK/ERK signaling as a key regulator that confers a subset of nociceptors with pruriceptive properties to initiate and maintain long-lasting itch sensation.
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[Research progress on postoperative analgesia for pectus excavatum in pediatric patients after Nuss procedure].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Pectus excavatum is the common congenital chest wall deformity in children, and Nuss procedure is the conventional surgical treatment for this disease. Nuss procedure is superior to Ravitch correction for it is less harmful in terms of the surgical technique. However, Nuss procedure is associated with severe postoperative pain, thus adequate postoperative analgesia is important. In this review, factors that influence the postoperative pain after Nuss procedure, the pain managements, the related complications and the side effects of drugs are discussed.
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A europium(III)-based PARACEST agent for sensing singlet oxygen by MRI.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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A europium(III) DOTA-tetraamide complex was designed as a MRI sensor of singlet oxygen ((1)O2). The water soluble, thermodynamically stable complex reacts rapidly with (1)O2 to form an endoperoxide derivative that results in an ?3 ppm shift in the position of the Eu(III)-bound water chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) peak. The potential of using this probe to detect accumulation of the endoperoxide derivative in biological media by ratiometric CEST imaging was demonstrated.
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Safety and efficacy of a non-polymeric paclitaxel-eluting microporous stent in real-world percutaneous coronary intervention.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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At present, there is an increasing focus on stents that have a biodegradable polymer coating, rather than a permanent polymer coating. This is due to the fact that following the implantation of a drug-eluting stent (DES) with a permanent polymer coating, the continued existence of the coating may result in a foreign body reaction and delayed re-endothelialization. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a non-polymeric paclitaxel-eluting microporous (YINYI™) stent in real-life percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 686 YINYI™ stents were implanted in 404 patients with CAD in a PCI procedure and outpatient follow-ups were performed 1, 6, 12 and 15 months subsequent to the PCI, respectively. The observation endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), including cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), restenosis, target lesion revascularization, stent thrombosis and recurrence of angina pectoris. The average follow-up time was 15 months. The results revealed that the cumulative incidences of MACEs were as follows: mortality, 0.99%; non-fatal MI, 0.74%; restenosis, 4.0%; and target lesion revascularization, 2.7%. The results at the short- and long-term clinical follow-ups indicated that YINYI™ stents are effective and safe for use in PCI for patients with CAD.
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Passive Tumor Targeting of Renal-Clearable Luminescent Gold Nanoparticles: Long Tumor Retention and Fast Normal Tissue Clearance.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Glutathione-coated luminescent gold nanoparticles (GS-AuNPs) with diameters of ?2.5 nm behave like small dye molecules (IRDye 800CW) in physiological stability and renal clearance but exhibit a much longer tumor retention time and faster normal tissue clearance, indicating that the well-known enhanced permeability and retention effect, a unique strength of conventional NPs in tumor targeting, still exists in such small NPs. These merits enable the AuNPs to detect tumor more rapidly than the dye molecules without severe accumulation in reticuloendothelial system organs, making them very promising for cancer diagnosis and therapy.
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A soft-templated method to synthesize sintering-resistant Au-mesoporous-silica core-shell nanocatalysts with sub-5 nm single-cores.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Nano-gold (sub-5 nm)@mesoporous-silica (m-SiO2) core-shell nanospheres with controlled size and core number were prepared via a soft-templated method. The single-core Au@m-SiO2 particles showed great sintering-resistance at 750 °C and kept high catalytic activity for CO oxidation after the treatment.
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Laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy vs three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a large-scale retrospective study.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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To perform a large-scale retrospective comparison of laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy (LESSC) and three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TPLC) in a single institution.
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The actin-regulating kinase homologue MoArk1 plays a pleiotropic function in Magnaporthe oryzae.
Mol. Plant Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Endocytosis is an essential cellular process in eukaryotic cells that involves concordant functions of clathrin and adaptor proteins, various protein and lipid kinases, phosphatases and the actin cytoskeleton. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ark1p is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase (SPK) family that affects profoundly the organization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. To study the function of MoArk1, an Ark1p homologue identified in Magnaporthe oryzae, we disrupted the MoARK1 gene and characterized the ?Moark1 mutant strain. The ?Moark1 mutant exhibited various defects ranging from mycelial growth and conidial formation to appressorium-mediated host infection. The ?Moark1 mutant also exhibited decreased appressorium turgor pressure and attenuated virulence on rice and barley. In addition, the ?Moark1 mutant displayed defects in endocytosis and formation of the Spitzenkörper, and was hyposensitive to exogenous oxidative stress. Moreover, a MoArk1-green fluorescent protein (MoArk1-GFP) fusion protein showed an actin-like localization pattern by localizing to the apical regions of hyphae. This pattern of localization appeared to be regulated by the N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins MoSec22 and MoVam7. Finally, detailed analysis revealed that the proline-rich region within the MoArk1 serine/threonine kinase (S_TKc) domain was critical for endocytosis, subcellular localization and pathogenicity. These results collectively suggest that MoArk1 exhibits conserved functions in endocytosis and actin cytoskeleton organization, which may underlie growth, cell wall integrity and virulence of the fungus.
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Sensitive and reliable multianalyte quantitation of herbal medicine in rat plasma using dynamic triggered multiple reaction monitoring.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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There is a growing need both clinically and experimentally to improve the determination of the blood levels of multiple chemical constituents in herbal medicines. The conventional multiple reaction monitoring (cMRM), however, is not well suited for multi-component determination and could not provide qualitative information for identity confirmation. Here we apply a dynamic triggered MRM (DtMRM) algorithm for the quantification of 20 constituents in an herbal prescription Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang (BZYQT) in rat plasma. Dynamic MRM (DMRM) dramatically reduced the number of concurrent MRM transitions that are monitored during each MS scan. This advantage has been enhanced with the addition of triggered MRM (tMRM) for simultaneous confirmation, which maximizes the dwell time in the primary MRM quantitation phase, and also acquires sufficient MRM data to create a composite product ion spectrum. By allowing optimized collision energy for each product ion and maximizing dwell times, tMRM is significantly more sensitive and reliable than conventional product ion scanning. The DtMRM approach provides much higher sensitivity and reproducibility than cMRM.
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Single-incision vs three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy: prospective randomized study.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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To compare the clinical outcome of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) with three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TPLC).
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Long-term outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with esophageal cancer following radiotherapy.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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To evaluate long-term outcomes and prognostic factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with three dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.