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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Bullying Victimization and Perpetration and Their Correlates in Adolescents Clinically Diagnosed With ADHD.
J Atten Disord
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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To examine the prevalence rates of bullying involvement and their correlates in adolescents diagnosed with ADHD in Taiwan.
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Molecular Differentiation of Treponema pallidum Subspecies in Skin Ulceration Clinically Suspected as Yaws in Vanuatu Using Real-Time Multiplex PCR and Serological Methods.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2014
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We developed a TaqMan-based real-time quadriplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to simultaneously detect Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, and T. pallidum subsp. endemicum, the causative agents of venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel, respectively. The PCR assay was applied to samples from skin ulcerations of clinically presumptive yaws cases among children on Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Another real-time triplex PCR was used to screen for the point mutations in the 23S rRNA genes that have previously been associated with azithromycin resistance in T. pallidum subsp. pallidum strains. Seropositivity by the classical syphilis serological tests was 35.5% among children with skin ulcerations clinically suspected with yaws, whereas the presence of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue DNA was only found in lesions from 15.5% of children. No evidence of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue infection, by either PCR or serology was found in ?59% of cases indicating alternative causes of yaws-like lesions in this endemic area.
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Trends in bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy among Taiwanese women undergoing benign hysterectomy: a population-based, pooled, cross-sectional study.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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This study aims to examine recent trends in the performance of elective bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy at benign hysterectomy and to identify associated patient and provider-related characteristics from 2000 to 2010.
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A smartphone-centric system for the range of motion assessment in stroke patients.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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The range of motion (ROM) in stroke patients is often severely affected. Poststroke rehabilitation is guided through the use of clinical assessment scales for the rROM. Unfortunately, these scales are not widely utilized in clinical practice as they are excessively time-consuming. Although commercial motion-capture systems are capable of providing the information required for the assessments, most systems are either too costly or lack the convenience required for assessments to be conducted on a daily basis. This paper presents the design and implementation of a smartphone-based system for automated motor assessment using low-cost off-the-shelf inertial sensors. The system was used to automate a portion of the upper-extremity Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), which is widely used to quantify motor deficits in stroke survivors. Twelve out of 33 items were selected, focusing mainly on joint angle measurements of the upper body. The system has the ability to automatically identify the assessment item being conducted, and calculate the maximum respective joint angle achieved. Preliminary results show the ability of this system to achieve comparable results to goniometer measurements, while significantly reducing the time required to conduct the assessments. The portability and ease-of-use of the system would simplify the task of conducting range-of-motion assessments.
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Synthesis and molecular properties of tricyclic biselenophene-based derivatives with nitrogen, silicon, germanium, vinylidene, and ethylene bridges.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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A new class of biselenophene-based materials including an sp(3)-silicon-bridged diselenosilole (DSS), an sp(3)-germanium-bridged diselenogermole (DSG), and an sp(3)-nitrogen-bridged diselenopyrrole (DSP) as well as an sp(2)-vinylidene-bridged dicyanodiselenofulvene (CDSF), a diacetylenediselenofulvene (ADSF), and a dioctylethylene-bridged benzodiselenophene (BDS) have been successfully synthesized and characterized. The bridging moieties play an important role in determining the optical and electrochemical properties. The six brominated derivatives are ready to construct various biselenophene-based conjugated materials with tunable properties for organic photovoltaics and field effect transistors.
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HBsAg expression of liver correlates with histological activities and viral replication in chronic hepatitis B.
Ann Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Introduction. The intrahepatic hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) expression is related to disease progression of chronic hepatitis B. We examined the features of intrahepatic HBsAg expression. Material and methods. A total of 181 patients with e antigen positive chronic hepatitis B were enrolled. Patterns and semi-quantitative measurement of intrahepatic HBsAg expression were analyzed. The association of intrahepatic hepatitis HBsAg expression with clinical, viral, and histological characteristics was evaluated. Results. Higher necroinflammation grade and greater fibrosis stage accompanied with lower serum HBV DNA and HBsAg levels were observed in patients with type II ground glass hepatocytes and 2+/3+ scales of intrahepatic HBsAg expression. Basal core promoter T1762/A1764 mutations were strongly associated with the pattern of type II ground glass hepatocytes expression (P < 0.001) and higher level of HBsAg expression (9.3 ± 8.0% vs. 4.3 ± 5.0%, P = 0.008). In multivariate analysis, basal core promoter mutations (Odds ratio: 6.356, 95% confidence interval: 1.204 ~ 33.356, P = 0.029) was associated with 2+/3+ scale of HBsAg expression. Conclusion. Both pattern and levels of intrahepatic HBsAg expression were associated with severity of liver disease in e antigen positive chronic hepatitis B. Strong relationship between intrahepatic HBsAg expression and basal core promoter 1762/A1764 mutations indicated that HBsAg expression may be the histological manifestation of hepatitis B virus genomic evolution under host immune surveillance.
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Donor-acceptor conjugated polymers based on multifused ladder-type arenes for organic solar cells.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Harvesting solar energy from sunlight to generate electricity is considered as one of the most important technologies to address the future sustainability of humans. Polymer solar cells (PSCs) have attracted tremendous interest and attention over the past two decades due to their potential advantage to be fabricated onto large area and light-weight flexible substrates by solution processing at a lower cost. PSCs based on the concept of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) configuration where an active layer comprises a composite of a p-type (donor) and an n-type (acceptor) material represents the most useful strategy to maximize the internal donor-acceptor interfacial area allowing for efficient charge separation. Fullerene derivatives such as [6,6]-phenyl-C61?or?71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) are the ideal n-type materials ubiquitously used for BHJ solar cells. The major effort to develop photoactive materials is numerously focused on the p-type conjugated polymers which are generally synthesized by polymerization of electron-rich donor and electron-deficient acceptor monomers. Compared to the development of electron-deficient comonomers (acceptor segments), the development of electron-rich donor materials is considerably flourishing. Forced planarization by covalently fastening adjacent aromatic and heteroaromatic subunits leads to the formation of ladder-type conjugated structures which are capable of elongating effective conjugation, reducing the optical bandgap, promoting intermolecular ?-? interactions and enhancing intrinsic charge mobility. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on the development of various well-defined new ladder-type conjugated materials. These materials serve as the superb donor monomers to prepare a range of donor-acceptor semi-ladder copolymers with sufficient solution-processability for solar cell applications.
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Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents.
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Modeling of magnetoelastic nanostructures with a fully coupled mechanical-micromagnetic model.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Micromagnetic simulations of magnetoelastic nanostructures traditionally rely on either the Stoner-Wohlfarth model or the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) model, assuming uniform strain (and/or assuming uniform magnetization). While the uniform strain assumption is reasonable when modeling magnetoelastic thin films, this constant strain approach becomes increasingly inaccurate for smaller in-plane nanoscale structures. This paper presents analytical work intended to significantly improve the simulation of finite structures by fully coupling the LLG model with elastodynamics, i.e., the partial differential equations are intrinsically coupled. The coupled equations developed in this manuscript, along with the Stoner-Wohlfarth model and the LLG (constant strain) model are compared to experimental data on nickel nanostructures. The nickel nanostructures are 100 × 300 × 35 nm single domain elements that are fabricated on a Si/SiO2 substrate; these nanostructures are mechanically strained when they experience an applied magnetic field, which is used to generate M vs H curves. Results reveal that this paper's fully-coupled approach corresponds the best with the experimental data on coercive field changes. This more sophisticated modeling technique is critical for guiding the design process of future nanoscale strain-mediated multiferroic elements, such as those needed in memory systems.
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Compact Bis-Adduct Fullerenes and Additive-Assisted Morphological Optimization for Efficient Organic Photovoltaics.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Bis-adduct fullerenes surrounded by two insulating addends sterically attenuate intermolecular interaction and cause inferior electron transportation. In this research, we have designed and synthesized a new class of bis-adduct fullerene materials, methylphenylmethano-C60 bis-adduct (MPC60BA), methylthienylmethano-C60 bis-adduct (MTC60BA), methylphenylmethano-C70 bis-adduct (MPC70BA), and methylthienylmethano-C70 bis-adduct (MTC70BA), functionalized with two compact phenylmethylmethano and thienylmethylmethano addends via cyclopropyl linkages. These materials with much higher-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels successfully enhanced the Voc values of the P3HT-based solar cell devices. The compact phenylmethylmethano and thienylmethylmethano addends to promote fullerene intermolecular interactions result in aggregation-induced phase separation as observed by the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT)/bis-adduct fullerene thin films. The device based on the P3HT/MTC60BA blend yielded a Voc of 0.72 V, a Jsc of 5.87 mA/cm(2), and a fill factor (FF) of 65.3%, resulting in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.76%. The unfavorable morphologies can be optimized by introducing a solvent additive to fine-tune the intermolecular interactions. 1-Chloronaphthalene (CN) having better ability to dissolve the bis-adduct fullerenes can homogeneously disperse the fullerene materials into the P3HT matrix. Consequently, the aggregated fullerene domains can be alleviated to reach a favorable morphology. With the assistance of CN additive, the P3HT/MTC60BA-based device exhibited enhanced characteristics (a Voc of 0.78 V, a Jsc of 9.04 mA/cm(2), and an FF of 69.8%), yielding a much higher PCE of 4.92%. More importantly, the additive-assisted morphological optimization is consistently effective to all four compact bis-adduct fullerenes regardless of the methylphenylmethano or methylthienylmethano scaffolds as well as C60 or C70 core structures. Through the extrinsic additive treatment, these bis-adduct fullerene materials with compact architectures show promise for high-performance polymer solar cells.
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Cool extremities, a diagnostic sign recorded in Shang Han Lun, still good prognosis index for septic patients in today's medical intensive care unit.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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To evaluate and compare the predictive value of the physical signs mentioned by ZHANG Zhong-jing in Treatise on Cold Damaged Diseases (Shang Han Lun), together with other clinically determined diagnostic scores and laboratory values in modern medicine on 28-day mortality in septic patients.
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Epithelial cell transformation sequence 2 is a potential biomarker of unfavorable survival in human gliomas.
Neurol India
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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High-grade primary gliomas are invasive and have poor outcome. The identification of biomarkers predictive of outcome in patients with gliomas is crucial for clinical follow-up. Epithelial cell transformation sequence 2 (ECT2) modulates cancer invasion, progression, metastasis and cell cycle regulation. However, its role in determining the clinical outcome of human gliomas warrants further elucidation.
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Surgical outcomes of total colonic aganglionosis in children: A 26-year experience in a single institute.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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There is a lack of consensus regarding the treatment of total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) with respect to perioperative morbidity, mortality, complications, and functional outcomes. The aim of this study was to review the results of surgical TCA treatment over a 26-year period and characterize the outcomes.
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Acquired macrolide-resistant Treponema pallidum after a human bite.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Syphilis is a systemic disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum that is usually acquired through sexual exposure.
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Trace analysis of methylated and hydroxymethylated cytosines in DNA by isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS: first evidence of DNA methylation in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Since 1986 till now, the popular research model organism Caenorhabditis elegans has been thought to completely lack DNA methylation and seems to lost DNA methylation enzymes from its genomes. Here we report the development of a sensitive and selective assay based on LC-MS/MS to simultaneously measure 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5-mdC) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5-hmdC) in DNA hydrolysates. With the use of isotope internal standards (d3-5-mdC and d3-5-hmdC) and online solid-phase extraction, the detection limits of 5-mdC and 5-hmdC were estimated to be 0.01 and 0.02 pg, respectively, which correspond to 0.000006% and 0.00001% methylation and hydroxymethylation level. This method was applied to investigate whether the DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation exists in C. elegans. Our work for the first time demonstrates that 5-mdC is present in C. elegans genomic DNA (0.0019-0.0033% of cytosine methylated) using LC-MS/MS, while another epigenetic modification 5-hmdC is not detectable. Furthermore, we found that C. elegans DNA was hypomethylated or hypermethylated in a dose-dependent manner by the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)-inhibiting drug decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) or cadmium, respectively. Our data support the possible existence of active DNA methylation mechanism in C. elegans, in which unidentified DNMTs could be involved. Our work highlights the importance that the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation machinery in the nematodes that were traditionally considered to lack functional DNA methylation, needs to be re-evaluated.
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Trimodality bladder-sparing approach without neoadjuvant chemotherapy for node-negative localized muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer resulted in comparable cystectomy-free survival.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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To retrospectively review the efficacy and organ preservation experience for muscle-invasive bladder cancer by trimodality therapy at our institution.
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Left common basal pyramid torsion following left upper lobectomy/segmentectomy.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Lobar or segmental lung torsion is a severe complication of lung resection. To the best of our knowledge, common basal pyramid torsion has never been reported. We describe a case of left basal pyramid torsion after left upper lobectomy and superior segmentectomy, which was successfully treated by thoracoscopic surgery.
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Explicit and implicit heroin-related cognitions and heroin use among patients receiving methadone maintenance treatment.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Craving is an important issue in substance use disorder. To achieve a better understanding of the cognitive processing systems of craving, the cognitive processes of craving have been considered as two distinct processes. One system, based on rule-based inferences and named explicit cognition, is more conscious and effortful. The other system, based on prior learned association and named implicit cognition, is unconscious and effortless. How explicit and implicit cognitions are associated with heroin use in patients with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is not clear. This study aimed to explore the relationship between explicit and implicit cognition and heroin use in patients undergoing MMT.
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Psychiatric Diagnoses, Emotional-Behavioral Symptoms and Functional Outcomes in Adolescents Born Preterm with Very Low Birth Weights.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Children born preterm with very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight ?1,500 g) run risks of neurodevelopmental disorders. Studies of adolescent outcome are relatively few. In this follow-up survey, we examined the emotional-behavioral symptoms, psychiatric diagnoses and functional status in a geographically-based birth cohort of VLBW adolescents (average 13.4 years) as registered in a level III center of a recently developed Asian country. Psychiatric interviews were conducted. Parents were asked to fill out the Child Behavioral Checklist and the Current Status Survey. Results revealed that neonatal survival rate was 75.7 % (112/148). In the follow-up, 26.2 % of the adolescents required individualized educational plan; 52.5 % were with at least one neuropsychiatric diagnosis (e.g. cerebral palsy 24.6 %, intellectual disabilities 21.3 %, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder 19.7 %), and 32.8 % of the participants were disabled. Logistic regression found that neonatal sepsis and grade III/IV intraventricular hemorrhage were most predictive of a disabled status in adolescence.
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Cyberbullying among male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Prevalence, correlates, and association with poor mental health status.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence rates and multilevel correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators among male adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were also examined. The experiences of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration in 251 male adolescents with ADHD were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the correlates of cyberbullying victims and perpetrators. The relationships between cyberbullying involvement and depression, anxiety, and suicidality were examined using multiple regression analysis. A total of 48 (19.1%) and 36 (14.3%) participants reported that they were cyberbullying victims or perpetrators, respectively. Those who had increased age and a higher parental occupational socioeconomic status, and reported more severe traditional passive bullying victimization were more likely to be cyberbullying victims. Those who had increased age and combined-type ADHD, and reported lower BAS reward responsiveness, more severe Internet addiction and more severe traditional passive bullying perpetration were more likely to be cyberbullying perpetrators. Cyberbullying victims reported more severe depression and suicidality than those who were not cyberbullying victims. A high proportion of male adolescents with ADHD are involved in cyberbullying. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents should monitor the possibility of cyberbullying involvement among male adolescents with ADHD who exhibit the cyberbullying correlates identified in this study.
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The association of Internet addiction symptoms with anxiety, depression and self-esteem among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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The aims of this study were to examine the associations of the severity of Internet addiction symptoms with various dimensions of anxiety (physical anxiety symptoms, harm avoidance, social anxiety, and separation/panic) and depression symptoms (depressed affect, somatic symptoms, interpersonal problems, and positive affect) and self-esteem among adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Taiwan.
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Plasmalemmal Vesicle Associated Protein (PLVAP) as a therapeutic target for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignancy with poor survival outcome. New treatment options for the disease are needed. In this study, we identified and evaluated tumor vascular PLVAP as a therapeutic target for treatment of HCC.
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Severity of alprazolam dependence and associated features among long-term alprazolam users from psychiatric outpatient clinics in Taiwan.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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The aim of this study was to examine the correlations between the severity of alprazolam dependence and socio-demographic characteristics, the characteristics of alprazolam use, psychiatric comorbidity, and beliefs toward alprazolam use among long-term alprazolam users in Taiwan.
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The inhibition of proactive interference among adults with Internet gaming disorder.
Asia Pac Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Cognitive control plays a pivotal role in the mechanism of addictive behavior. The aim of the study was to evaluate the deficit in inhibition of proactive interference of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) using a directed forgetting task among young adults.
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The right dorsal habenula limits attraction to an odor in zebrafish.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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The habenula consists of an evolutionarily conserved set of nuclei that control neuromodulator release. In lower vertebrates, the dorsal habenula receives innervation from sensory regions, but the significance of this is unclear. Here, we address the role of the habenula in olfaction by imaging neural activity in larval zebrafish expressing GCaMP3 throughout the habenula and by carrying out behavioral assays.
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HIV-1 genital shedding is suppressed in the setting of high genital antiretroviral drug concentrations throughout the menstrual cycle.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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It is not known if fluctuations in genital tract antiretroviral drug concentrations correlate with genital virus shedding in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART).
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Brain correlates of response inhibition in Internet gaming disorder.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The present study aimed to evaluate the brain correlates of response inhibition among subjects with Internet gaming disorder (IGD).
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Harmful alcohol use among Aboriginal people in southern Taiwan: the prevalence, correlates, and adverse drinking effects.
J Addict Nurs
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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This cross-sectional study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of harmful alcohol use among aboriginal people in southern Taiwan and to examine the associations between harmful alcohol use and adverse drinking effects. Four hundred forty-nine aboriginal adults were recruited from two townships in southern Taiwan to complete the questionnaires. Among the aborigines, 59.7% scored an 8 or above on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, including 26.7% who were found to be hazardous drinkers (AUDIT level II), 18.5% who were harmful drinkers (level III), and 14.5% who were with likely dependence (level IV). Male aborigines who participated less in religious activities, had stressful life events, were cigarette smokers, or were betel quid chewers were more likely to have harmful alcohol use. Harmful alcohol use was also associated with an inability to work and with arguments with other people. Our study suggests that aboriginal people in southern Taiwan experience alcohol-related risks at rates as high as other worldwide populations for which AUDIT results are available. Individuals with AUDIT scores at levels II and III are generally candidates for brief interventions delivered in generalist health settings. Individuals with AUDIT scores at level IV should be referred for an addiction specialty evaluation and possible treatment as well as lower-risk individuals (those with AUDIT levels II-III) if they have concurrent physical or psychiatric disorders.
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Mediating effects of depression and anxiety on the relationship between bullying involvement and pain problems among adolescents in Taiwan.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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This study aimed to examine the mediating effects of depression and anxiety on the relationships of bullying victimization and perpetration with pain among adolescents in Taiwan.
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Assessing clinical outcomes of patients with acute calculous cholecystitis in addition to the Tokyo grading: a retrospective study.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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The management of acute cholecystitis is still based on clinical expertise. This study aims to investigate whether the outcome of acute cholecystitis can be related to the severity criteria of the Tokyo guidelines and additional clinical comorbidities. A total of 103 patients with acute cholecystitis were retrospectively enrolled and their medical records were reviewed. They were all classified according to therapeutic modality, including early cholecystectomy and antibiotic treatment with or without percutaneous cholecystostomy. The impact of the Tokyo guidelines and the presence of comorbidities on clinical outcome were assessed by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. According to Tokyo severity grading, 48 patients were Grade I, 31 patients were Grade II, and 24 patients were Grade III. The Grade III patients had a longer hospital stay than Grade II and Grade I patients (15.2 days, 9.2 days, and 7.3 days, respectively, p < 0.05). According to multivariate analysis, patients with Grade III Tokyo severity, higher Charlson's Comorbidity Score, and encountering complications had a longer hospital stay. Based on treatment modality, surgeons selected the patients with less severity and fewer comorbidities for cholecystectomy, and these patients had a shorter hospital stay. In addition to the grading of the Tokyo guidelines, comorbidities had an additional impact on clinical outcomes and should be an important consideration when making therapeutic decisions.
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One-year follow up of PTSD and depression in elderly aboriginal people in Taiwan after Typhoon Morakot.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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This paper describes a 1-year follow-up of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and depression in an elderly minority population who experienced Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan.
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Clinical correlates of unawareness of deficits among patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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To investigate the associations between unawareness of deficits and clinical correlates, including apathy and depression, among patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD).
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The association between premenstrual dysphoric disorder and internet use disorder.
Women Health
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is an important women's mental health issue. This study aimed to investigate the association between Internet use disorder (IUD), PMDD, and their associated factors, such as stress and impulsivity. Women with PMDD (n = 79) and controls (n = 76) were recruited from the community. The diagnoses of PMDD and IUD were confirmed by psychiatric interviews. Participants were evaluated with the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale in both the premenstrual and follicular phases. Women with PMDD were more likely to have IUD. Women with PMDD had greater severity of IUD, perceived stress, and impulsivity than the control group in the premenstrual phase. Impulsivity mediated the association between PMDD and IUD, while both impulsivity and perceived stress mediated the association between PMDD and IUD severity. Thus, IUD should be evaluated and treated among women with PMDD, particularly for those with higher impulsivity or higher perceived stress. Strategies for stress management and counseling for impulsivity should be provided to women with PMDD, particular to those comorbid with IUD.
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Association between school bullying levels/types and mental health problems among Taiwanese adolescents.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Few studies have compared the risks of mental health problems among the adolescents with different levels and different types of bullying involvement experiences.
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Evaluation of the diagnostic criteria of Internet gaming disorder in the DSM-5 among young adults in Taiwan.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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The DSM-5 proposed the diagnostic criteria of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and suggested that more evidence is necessary before it is included as a standard disorder in the DSM system. The aims of this study were to: 1) evaluate the diagnostic validity of individual criteria of IGD in the DSM-5 and the criteria of craving and irritability; 2) determine the optimal cut-off point for the IGD criteria in the DSM-5. We recruited 75 subjects with IGD, 75 without IGD, and 75 in remission from IGD based on the Diagnostic Criteria of Internet Addiction for College Students (DC-IA-C). All participants underwent a diagnostic interview based on the diagnostic criteria of IGD in the DSM-5 and completed the CIAS and QGU-B. Except for the "deceiving" and "escape" criteria, all criteria of IGD had diagnostic accuracy ranging from 77.3% to 94.7% to differentiate university students with IGD from remitted students. The criterion of craving had diagnostic accuracy of 88% and the criteria of irritability had an accuracy of 68.7%. Fulfilling 5 or more criteria of IGD in the DSM-5 was the best cut-off point to differentiate young adults with IGD from healthy or remitted users.
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The exacerbation of depression, hostility, and social anxiety in the course of Internet addiction among adolescents: a prospective study.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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In adolescent populations worldwide, Internet addiction is prevalent and is often comorbid with depression, hostility, and social anxiety of adolescents. This study aimed at evaluating the exacerbation of depression, hostility, and social anxiety in the course of getting addiction to Internet or remitting from Internet addiction among adolescents.
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Gonadotrophic hormone and reinforcement sensitivity systems in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Behavior inhibition and behavior approach system (BIS/BAS) determine the sensitivity to aversion and rewarding stimuli, respectively. This study aimed at evaluating the BIS/BAS of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and effect of estrogen and progesterone on the BIS/BAS.
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A novel rat model simulating biliary atresia after a kasai operation.
J Invest Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The mechanisms of liver fibrosis in biliary atresia (BA) after a Kasai operation deserve studying to improve the clinical outcomes. This study aimed to create a rat model simulating BA after a Kasai operation.
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Altered brain activation during response inhibition and error processing in subjects with Internet gaming disorder: a functional magnetic imaging study.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impulsivity and brain correlates of response inhibition and error processing among subjects with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). We evaluated the response inhibition and error processing by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in subjects with IGD and controls. Twenty-six men with IGD for at least 2 years and 23 controls with no history of IGD were recruited as the IGD and control groups, respectively. All subjects performed the event-related designed Go/No-go task under fMRI and completed questionnaires related to Internet addiction and impulsivity. The IGD group exhibited a higher score for impulsivity than the control group. The IGD group also exhibited higher brain activation when processing response inhibition over the left orbital frontal lobe and bilateral caudate nucleus than controls. Both the IGD and control groups exhibited activation of the insula and anterior cingulate cortex during error processing. The activation over the right insula was lower in the subjects with IGD than the control group. Our results support the fact that the fronto-striatal network involved in response inhibition, and the salience network, anchored by the anterior cingulate and insula, contributes to error processing. Further, adults with IGD have impaired insular function in error processing and greater activation of the fronto-striatal network in order to maintain their response inhibition performance.
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The association between suicidality and Internet addiction and activities in Taiwanese adolescents.
Compr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations of suicidal ideation and attempt with Internet addiction and Internet activities in a large representative Taiwanese adolescent population.
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Reach out to one and you reach out to many: Social touch affects third-party observers.
Br J Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Casual social touch influences emotional perceptions, attitudes, and behaviours of interaction partners. We asked whether these influences extend to third-party observers. To this end, we developed the Social Touch Picture Set comprising line drawings of dyadic interactions, half of which entailed publicly acceptable casual touch and half of which served as no-touch controls. In Experiment 1, participants provided basic image norms by rating how frequently they observed a displayed touch gesture in everyday life and how comfortable they were observing it. Results implied that some touch gestures were observed more frequently and with greater comfort than others (e.g., handshake vs. hug). All gestures, however, obtained rating scores suitable for inclusion in Experiments 2 and 3. In Experiment 2, participants rated perceived valence, arousal, and likeability of randomly presented touch and no-touch images without being explicitly informed about touch. Image characters seemed more positive, aroused, and likeable when they touched as compared to when they did not touch. Image characters seemed more negative and aroused, but were equally likeable, when they received touch as compared to when there was no physical contact. In Experiment 3, participants passively viewed touch and no-touch images while their eye movements were recorded. Differential gazing at touch as compared to no-touch images emerged within the first 500 ms following image exposure and was largely restricted to the characters' upper body. Gazing at the touching body parts (e.g., hands) was minimal and largely unaffected by touch, suggesting that touch processing occurred outside the focus of visual attention. Together, these findings establish touch as an important visual cue and provide novel insights into how this cue modulates socio-emotional processing in third-party observers.
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Synthesis and supramolecular assembly of pentacyclic dithienofluorene and diselenophenofluorene derivatives.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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2,7-Diiodo-3,6-dibromofluorene and 2,7-dichloro-3,6-dibromofluorene have been successfully synthesized. The two key intermediates enable us to implement a regioselective Sonogashira reaction followed by intramolecular thiolate/acetylene cyclization, forming two regiospecific pentacyclic dithieno[2,3-b:7,6-b']fluorene (2,7-DTF) and dithieno[3,2-b:6,7-b']fluorene (3,6-DTF) isomeric molecules, respectively. By using a similar strategy, selenophene-based diselenopheno[2,3-b:7,6-b']fluorene (2,7-DSF) as well as diselenopheno[3,2-b:6,7-b']fluorene (3,6-DSF) were also prepared. The isomeric and sulfur/selenium effects determine the optical, electrochemical, and orbital properties. X-ray crystallography revealed that 2,7-DTF and 3,6-DTF molecules assemble into supramolecular helical structures.
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Dependence, misuse, and beliefs regarding use of hypnotics by elderly psychiatric patients taking zolpidem, estazolam, or flunitrazepam.
Asia Pac Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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To examine the prevalence rates and correlates of dependence on, misuse of, and beliefs regarding use of hypnotics in elderly psychiatric patients with long-term use of zolpidem, estazolam, or flunitrazepam.
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Bidirectional associations between family factors and Internet addiction among adolescents in a prospective investigation.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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This study aimed at evaluating the effect of family factors on the occurrence of Internet addiction and determining whether Internet addiction could make any difference in the family function.
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Brain activation for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction in internet gaming disorder.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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We evaluated neural substrates related to the loss of control in college students with internet gaming disorder (IGD). We hypothesized that deficit in response inhibition under gaming cue distraction was the possible mechanism for the loss of control internet use. Eleven cases of IGD and 11 controls performed Go/NoGo tasks with/without gaming distraction in the functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. When the gaming picture was shown as background while individuals were performing Go/NoGo tasks, the IGD group committed more commission errors. The control group increased their brain activations more over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and superior parietal lobe under gaming cue distraction in comparison with the IGD group. Furthermore, brain activation of the right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe were negatively associated with performance of response inhibition among the IGD group. The results suggest that the function of response inhibition was impaired under gaming distraction among the IGD group, and individuals with IGD could not activate right DLPFC and superior parietal lobe to keep cognitive control and attention allocation for response inhibition under gaming cue distraction. This mechanism should be addressed in any intervention for IGD.
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College students with Internet addiction decrease fewer Behavior Inhibition Scale and Behavior Approach Scale when getting online.
Asia Pac Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The aim of the study is to compare the reinforcement sensitivity between online and offline interaction. The effect of gender, Internet addiction, depression, and online gaming on the difference of reinforcement sensitivity between online and offline were also evaluated.
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Effects of teriparatide on lung function and pain relief in women with multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.
Surg Neurol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Osteoporosis is predominantly a condition of the elderly. In this study, we evaluated the effects of teriparatide on lung function and pain relief in elderly women with multiple osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures.
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Midkine expression in high grade gliomas: Correlation of this novel marker with proliferation and survival in human gliomas.
Surg Neurol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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High-grade primary glioma have poor prognosis and predictive biomarkers is very important. Midkine (MDK), a heparin-binding growth factor, is important in regulating carcinogenesis, cell proliferation, mitogenesis, and angiogenesis. This study aimed to identify over-expression of MDK in gliomas and correlate this with clinical outcomes. The authors put forward their hypothesis correlating proliferation and poor survival with over-expression of this novel protein.
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Full-endoscopic interlaminar removal of chronic lumbar epidural hematoma after spinal manipulation.
Surg Neurol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Spinal manipulation is widely used for low back pain treatments. Complications associated with spinal manipulation are seen. Lumbar epidural hematoma (EDH) is one of the complications reported in the literature. If lumbar chronic EDH symptoms are present, which are similar to those of a herniated nucleus pulposus, surgery may be considered if medical treatment fails. Percutaneous endoscopic discectomy utilizing an interlaminar approach can be successfully applied to those with herniated nucleus pulposus. We use the same technique to remove the lumbar chronic EDH, which is the first documented report in the related literature.
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Durotomy repair in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion by nonpenetrating clips.
Surg Neurol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Closure of the dura defect may be easy to perform in open lumbar surgery but could be difficult in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusions (MIS-TLIF) since MIS-TLIF was done through a small tube, which limited the use of standard dural repair instruments. We used nonpenetrating titanium clips that were originally designed for the vascular anastomoses to repair the dura defect, which is never described in the literature.
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Reducing Regioisomers of Fullerene-Bisadducts by Tether-Directed Remote Functionalization: Investigation of Electronically and Sterically Isomeric Effects on Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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C60 bis-adduct containing a mixture of regio-isomers with different LUMO energy levels and steric geometries could greatly affect the morphological and bulk properties. To investigate the regio-isomer effect on solar cell performance, we have successfully designed and synthesized a regio-selective 4-acetatephenyl-4-methylphenylmethano C60 bis-adduct (S-APM-CBA) by "tether-directed remote functionalization" strategy and a random 4-acetatephenyl-4-methylphenylmethano C60 bis-adduct denoted as R-APM-CBA by traditional cyclopropanation. The dramatic reduction in the number of regio-isomers in S-APM-CBA is confirmed by the (1)H NMR and HPLC measurements and theoretical calculation. Compared to the R-APM-CBA-based device with a Jsc of 6.63 mA/cm(2), an FF of 44.3% and a PCE of 2.46%, the device using S-APM-CBA yielded a much lower Jsc of 1.48 mA/cm(2), an FF of 32.2%, and a PCE of 0.38%. Consistently, the electron-only device using S-AMP-CBA exhibited lower electron mobility than the R-AMP-CBA-based device. These results imply that the electronic shallow-trap effect ascribed to the LUMO energy variations turned out to be insignificant in the AMP-CBA system. The lower efficiency and mobility of S-AMP-CBA might due to the assumption that the most probable trans-4-III isomer in S-AMP-CBA prevents the intermolecular facial contact of fullerenes, thereby hindering the electron transporting. Furthermore, the nanomorphology of S-AMP-CBA and R-AMP-CBA active layers could be different because of their different three-dimensional structures. This research demonstrated that steric effect of regio-isomers in a given C60 bis-adduct is more crucial than electronic shallow-trap effect.
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Altered neurochemical metabolites in Alzheimers disease patients with unawareness of deficits.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2013
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ABSTRACT Background: Unawareness of deficits is common and is associated with poor outcomes in Alzheimers disease (AD); however, little is known about correlated neurobiochemical changes. Methods: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to examine neurobiochemical correlates of unawareness of deficits as assessed by the Dementia Deficit Scale in 36 patients with AD. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectra were acquired from the anterior cingulate area and right orbitofrontal area. Concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total creatine, and other neurometabolites were calculated. Results: Nineteen (52.8%) participants had relative unawareness of deficits. This condition was negatively correlated with NAA/creatine in the anterior cingulate area (? = -0.36, p = 0.025) and positively correlated with NAA/creatine in the right orbitofrontal area (? = 0.41, p = 0.009) after controlling for dementia severity. Conclusions: These findings suggest unawareness of deficits in AD was associated with the altered neurochemical metabolites in the anterior cingulate area and right orbitofrontal area. However, the two areas might have opposite neuronal functions in unawareness of deficits.
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Etiology of genital ulcer disease and association with HIV infection in Malawi.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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The World Health Organization recommends the use of syndromic management for patients presenting with genital ulcer disease (GUD) in developing countries. However, effective treatment guidelines depend on a current country-specific GUD etiological profile, which may change over time.
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Improved CCT uniformity of white LED using remote phosphor with patterned sapphire substrate.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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The light distribution of a light-emitting diode (LED), using remote phosphor with a patterned sapphire substrate, is evaluated in this study. Three kinds of substrates of the remote phosphors, including planar sapphire (PS), partially patterned sapphire (PPS), and fully patterned sapphire (FPS) are prepared. The LED with the remote phosphor of FPS delivers much better uniformity of the correlated color temperature (CCT) in a far-field pattern than the CCT obtained in the cases of PS and PPS. The results are majorly attributed to the improvement in the scattering ability of the blue light in the FPS; thereby increasing the excitation of the phosphor particles in comparison to the ability of the device assembled with the remote phosphor of PS or PPS.
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The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.
J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety.
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Parallel programming of saccades during natural scene viewing: evidence from eye movement positions.
J Vis
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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Previous studies have shown that saccade plans during natural scene viewing can be programmed in parallel. This evidence comes mainly from temporal indicators, i.e., fixation durations and latencies. In the current study, we asked whether eye movement positions recorded during scene viewing also reflect parallel programming of saccades. As participants viewed scenes in preparation for a memory task, their inspection of the scene was suddenly disrupted by a transition to another scene. We examined whether saccades after the transition were invariably directed immediately toward the center or were contingent on saccade onset times relative to the transition. The results, which showed a dissociation in eye movement behavior between two groups of saccades after the scene transition, supported the parallel programming account. Saccades with relatively long onset times (>100 ms) after the transition were directed immediately toward the center of the scene, probably to restart scene exploration. Saccades with short onset times (<100 ms) moved to the center only one saccade later. Our data on eye movement positions provide novel evidence of parallel programming of saccades during scene viewing. Additionally, results from the analyses of intersaccadic intervals were also consistent with the parallel programming hypothesis.
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Adaptive behaviors in high-functioning taiwanese children with autism spectrum disorders: an investigation of the mediating roles of symptom severity and cognitive ability.
J Autism Dev Disord
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness Scale. Correlational and regression analyses were used to explore the relationships among the constructs of cognitive, symptomatic and adaptive domains. Results revealed that average General Adaptive Composites of these children (home: 74.0; school: 74.6) was below average FSIQ. Profile analysis revealed that Social domain was the weakness among the adaptive abilities assessed at school and home. Cognitive abilities had positive relationship with adaptive function, while autistic severity had a weak negative relationship with adaptive function. Also, the younger the age the child got diagnosed, the less severe the current symptoms of autism were. The implication for emphasizing adaptive skills intervention was discussed.
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Synthesis and Molecular Properties of Four Isomeric Dialkylated Angular-Shaped Naphthodithiophenes.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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A new strategy to synthesize 4,9- and 5,10-dialkylated ?-aNDTs as well as 4,9- and 5,10-dialkylated ?-aNDTs is described. Four isomeric precursors with different dithienyl-ene-diyne arrangements undergo base-induced double 6?-cyclization to construct the central naphthalene cores, leading to the formation of the regiospecific products. These 2,7-distannylated dialkylated aNDT-based monomers can be used for Stille cross-coupling to produce promising conjugated materials for various optoelectronic applications.
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A structural model of the influence of immigrant mothers depressive symptoms and home environment on their childrens early developmental outcomes in Taiwan.
Res Nurs Health
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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In this cross-sectional study of 61 immigrant mothers and their 6- to 24-month-old children in Taiwan, we examined the structure of relationships among maternal depressive symptoms, quality of the child-rearing home environment, and child development using a partial least squares approach. Maternal depressive symptoms as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale had a direct and negative effect on the quality of the home environment as measured by the IT-HOME, which in turn had a direct and positive effect on child development as measured by the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers. Maternal depressive symptoms did not directly affect child development, suggesting that the quality of the home environment mediated the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and child development.
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Nodal regulates energy metabolism in glioma cells by inducing expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1?.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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A shift in glucose metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic glycolysis is the biochemical hallmark of malignant cancer cells.
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A new ladder-type benzodi(cyclopentadithiophene)-based donor-acceptor polymer and a modified hole-collecting PEDOT:PSS layer to achieve tandem solar cells with an open-circuit voltage of 1.62 V.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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We have developed a new ladder-type conjugated polymer and a robust interconnecting layer (ICL) integrating a hole-collecting m-PEDOT:PSS layer with an electron-collecting ZnO layer. The inverted device using exhibited a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.76% with a Voc of 0.81 V, a Jsc of 12.82 mA cm(-2), and a FF of 55.5%. The inverted tandem device incorporating the and ICL achieves a Voc of 1.62 V leading to a PCE of 7.08%.
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Traditional chinese medicine diagnosis "yang-xu zheng": significant prognostic predictor for patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2013
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Pathogenesis of sepsis includes complex interaction between pathogen activities and host response, manifesting highly variable signs and symptoms, possibly delaying diagnosis and timely life-saving interventions. This study applies traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Zheng diagnosis in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock to evaluate its adaptability and use as an early predictor of sepsis mortality. Three-year prospective observational study enrolled 126 septic patients. TCM Zheng diagnosis, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, and blood samples for host response cytokines measurement (tumor necrosis factor- ? , Interleukin-6, Interleukin-8, Interleukin-10, Interleukin-18) were collected within 24 hours after admission to Intensive Care Unit. Main outcome was 28-day mortality; multivariate logistic regression analysis served to determine predictive variables of the sepsis mortality. APACHE II score, frequency of Nutrient-phase heat, and Qi-Xu and Yang-Xu Zhengs were significantly higher in nonsurvivors. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified Yang-Xu Zheng as the outcome predictor. APACHE II score and levels of five host response cytokines between patients with and without Yang-Xu Zheng revealed significant differences. Furthermore, cool extremities and weak pulse, both diagnostic signs of Yang-Xu Zheng, were also proven independent predictors of sepsis mortality. TCM diagnosis "Yang-Xu Zheng" may provide a new mortality predictor for septic patients.
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Gender differences in heroin users receiving methadone maintenance therapy in Taiwan.
J Addict Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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This study examined gender differences in heroin users who first received MMT. Compared with men, female heroin users were younger and more likely to be unemployed, to have family members using illicit substances, to initiate heroin use at a younger age, to begin MMT earlier after starting heroin use, to have methamphetamine use, to initiate methamphetamine use at a younger age, and to report a child-raising burden and a prior history of traumatic experiences. Men were more likely to have use of betel quid, and to initiate alcohol, nicotine and betel quid use at a younger age than women.
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The effect of serotonin 1A receptor polymorphism on the cognitive function of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
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Estrogen and serotonin play vital roles in the mechanism of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Cognitive deficit in the premenstrual phase contributes to impaired life function among women with PMDD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties in cognitive control and working memory (WM) in PMDD and to explore the effects of gonadotropic hormone and polymorphism of serotonin 1A receptor (HTR1A; rs6295) on cognitive deficit in PMDD. Women with PMDD completed diagnostic interviewing, questionnaire assessment, the Go/Nogo task, 2-back and 3-back tasks, and gonadotropic hormone analysis in the premenstrual and follicular phases. Further, they were followed up for two menstrual cycles to confirm two consecutive symptomatic cycles. A total of 59 subjects with PMDD and 74 controls completed all evaluation, fulfilled the criteria, and entered into the final analysis. The results demonstrated cognitive control and WM decline in the premenstrual among women with PMDD. The G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) was found to be associated with impaired WM in the premenstrual phase and premenstrual decline of cognitive function. It also contributed to the vulnerability of cognitive function to the menstrual cycle effect and PMDD effect. As the G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) involves in reducing serotonin neurotransmission, our results provide insight into the serotonin mechanism of cognitive function among women with PMDD.
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A bidirectional approach for portal vein stent placement in a child with complete portal vein occlusion after living donor liver transplantation.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Delayed PV complications are not rare in pediatric liver transplantation. Although PTPV offers a treatment and minimizes surgical revision, in case of complete PV thrombosis (PVT), the failure rate of PTPV is high. Herein, we report a successful technique of PTPV in a case of complete PVT with a stent placement using a bidirectional approach in a child with living donor liver transplantation.
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Interface engineering to enhance the efficiency of conventional polymer solar cells by alcohol-/water-soluble C60 materials doped with alkali carbonates.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Two new C60-based n-type materials, EGMC-OH and EGMC-COOH, functionalized with hydrophilic triethylene glycol groups (TEGs), have been synthesized and employed in conventional polymer solar cells. With the assistance of the TEG-based surfactant, EGMC-OH and EGMC-COOH can be dissolved in highly polar solvents to implement the polar/nonpolar orthogonal solvent strategy, forming an electron modification layer (EML) without eroding the underlying active layer. Multilayer conventional solar cells on the basis of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PC61BM/EML/Ca/Al configuration with the insertion of the EGMC-OH and EGMC-COOH EML between the active layer and the electrode have thus been successfully realized by cost-effective solution processing techniques. Moreover, the electron conductivity of the EML can be improved by incorporating alkali carbonates into the EGMC-COOH EML. Compared to the pristine device with a PCE of 3.61%, the devices modified by the Li2CO3-doped EGMC-COOH EML achieved a highest PCE of 4.29%. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the formation of the EGMC-COOH EML can be utilized as a general approach in the fabrication of highly efficient multilayer conventional devices. With the incorporation of the EGMC-COOH doped with 40 wt % Li2CO3, the PCDCTBT-C8:PC71BM-based device exhibited a superior PCE of 4.51%, which outperformed the corresponding nonmodified device with a PCE of 3.63%.
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Arsenic induces reactive oxygen species-caused neuronal cell apoptosis through JNK/ERK-mediated mitochondria-dependent and GRP 78/CHOP-regulated pathways.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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Arsenic (As), a well-known high toxic metal, is an important environmental and industrial contaminant, and it induces oxidative stress, which causes many adverse health effects and diseases in humans, particularly in inorganic As (iAs) more harmful than organic As. Recently, epidemiological studies have suggested a possible relationship between iAs exposure and neurodegenerative disease development. However, the toxicological effects and underlying mechanisms of iAs-induced neuronal cell injuries are mostly unknown. The present study demonstrated that iAs significantly decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in Neuro-2a cells. iAs also increased oxidative stress damage (production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and ROS, and reduction of Nrf2 and thioredoxin protein expression) and induced several features of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals, including: mitochondrial dysfunction, the activations of PARP and caspase cascades, and the increase in caspase-3 activity. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) effectively reversed these iAs-induced responses. iAs also increased the phosphorylation of JNK and ERK1/2, but did not that p38-MAPK, in treated Neuro-2a cells. NAC and the specific JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) abrogated iAs-induced cell cytotoxicity, caspase-3/-7 activity, and JNK and ERK1/2 activation. Additionally, exposure of Neuro-2a cells to iAs triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress identified through several key molecules (GRP 78, CHOP, XBP-1, and caspase-12), which was prevented by NAC. Transfection with GRP 78- and CHOP-specific si-RNA dramatically suppressed GRP 78 and CHOP expression, respectively, and attenuated the activations of caspase-12, -7, and -3 in iAs-exposed cells. Therefore, these results indicate that iAs induces ROS causing neuronal cell death via both JNK/ERK-mediated mitochondria-dependent and GRP 78/CHOP-triggered apoptosis pathways.
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Clinical significance of serum HBsAg levels and association with liver histology in HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Despite its recognized role as a prognostic marker for antiviral treatment, the clinical significance of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) level in the immune-clearance stage of chronic hepatitis B remains unclear.
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Brain activation deficit in increased-load working memory tasks among adults with ADHD using fMRI.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Working memory (WM) is impaired among adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to investigate the brain activation deficit for low-level or increased-load WM among adults with ADHD. A total of 20 adults with ADHD and controls were recruited according to diagnostic interviewing by a psychiatrist. Phonological and visual-spatial 2-back and 3-back tasks were performed under functional magnetic resonance scanning. The results demonstrated that both the adults with ADHD and the controls exhibited activation of the fronto-parietal network for WM, and the intensity was greater in the adult ADHD group. The ADHD group had higher brain activation over the bilateral anterior cingulate, left inferior frontal lobe, hippocampus, and supplementary motor area (SMA) for phonological WM than the control group. When the task loading increased from 2-back to 3-back tasks, the adults with ADHD perceived greater difficulty. The control group exhibited increased brain activation over the frontal-parietal network in response to increased phonological WM load. However, the ADHD group showed decreased brain activation over the left precuneus, insula, and SMA. Further analysis demonstrated that the ADHD group exhibited a greater decrease in brain activation over the left fronto-parietal network, including the precuneus, SMA, insula/inferior frontal lobe, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, than the control group. These results suggest that adults with ADHD pay more effort to low demanding phonological WM. On the other hand, brain activation of the left fronto-parietal network is impaired when the demands of WM exceed the capacity of adults with ADHD.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.