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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Wavefront-correction for nearly diffraction-limited focusing of dual-color laser beams to high intensities.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We demonstrate wavefront correction of terawatt-peak-power laser beams at two distinct and well-separated wavelengths. Simultaneous near diffraction-limited focusability is achieved for both the fundamental (800 nm) and second harmonic (400 nm) of Ti:sapphire-amplified laser light. By comparing the relative effectiveness of various correction loops, the optimal ones are found. Simultaneous correction of both beams of different color relies on the linear proportionality between their wavefront aberrations. This method can enable two-color experiments at relativistic intensities.
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A Proteomic Study Reveals a Co-occurrence of Gallic Acid-induced Apoptosis and Glycolysis in B16F10 Melanoma Cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Gallic acid (GA) has long been associated with a wide range of biological activities. In this study, its anti-tumor effect against B16F10 melanoma cells was examined by MTT assay, cell migration assay, wound healing assay and flow cytometric analysis. GA with a concentration greater than 200 ?M shows apoptotic activity towards B16F10 cells. According to the Western blotting data, the over-expressions of cleaved forms of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP-1, and proapoptotic Bax and Bad, accompanied with under-expressed antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL indicate that GA induces B16F10 cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway. The 2-DE based comparative proteomics was further employed in B16F10 cells with and without GA treatment for a large-scale protein expression profiling. A total of 41 differential protein spots were quantified and their identities were characterized using LC-MS/MS analysis and database matching. In addition to some regulated proteins that were associated with apoptosis, interestingly, some identified proteins involved in glycolysis such as glucokinase, alpha enolase, aldolase, pyruvate kinase and GAPDH, were simultaneously up-regulated, which reveals that the GA-induced cellular apoptosis in B16 melanoma cells is associated with metabolic glycolysis.
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Current Evidence on the Association between rs3757318 of C6orf97 and Breast Cancer Risk: a Meta-Analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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A common genetic variant rs3757318, located in intron of C6orf97, was firstly identified to be associated with breast cancer (BC) risk by a genome-wide association (GWA) study. However, subsequent validation studies with different ethnicities have yielded conflicting results.
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[Modified limited L incision with distraction bone block arthrodesis for subtalar osteoarthritis].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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To evaluate the functional outcomes of modified limited "L" incision beside the Achilles tendon with distraction bone block arthrodesis in treatment of subtalar osteoarthritis.
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Computed tomography-based study exploring the feasibility of endovascular treatment of type a aortic dissection in the chinese population.
J. Endovasc. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Purpose : To characterize type A aortic dissection (TAAD) in the Chinese population using high-resolution computed tomography (CT) and explore potential candidacy for endovascular repair of TAAD. Methods : The imaging studies and medical records of all 302 patients presenting with TAAD at two Chinese hospitals from 2010 to 2013 were reviewed. Of these, 221 patients were excluded because of missing/inadequate preoperative CT scans. The remaining 91 patients (64 men; mean age 51.1±7.5 years) had CT data adequate to assess anatomical suitability for endovascular treatment. Entry tears were identified using multiplanar reconstructions, while morphological measurements were based on a centerline of flow (CLF) technique. Suitability for endovascular treatment was based on a proximal landing zone ?20 mm long, a true lumen aortic diameter ?38 mm, and a total aortic diameter ?46 mm; no coronary bypass grafts originating from the ascending aorta; no malfunctioning aortic valve; and good cerebral and cardiac perfusion. Results : In the 91 patients, the precise location of the primary proximal entry tear could be identified in only 34 (37.4%) patients; in these patients, the identifiable intimal tears were located 36.4±41.0 mm distal to the closest coronary artery. The CLF was successfully generated in the CT scans of all patients; the mean lumen and total aortic lumen diameters at the entry tear level were 37.6±6.3 and 44.3±13.3 mm, respectively. Based on the CT measurements, stent-graft repair would have been anatomically feasible in 35 (38.5%) patients. No proximal landing zone (n=23), large aortic diameter (n=15), abnormal aortic valve (n=10), previous coronary bypass graft surgery (n=5), and poor cerebral and cardiac perfusion (n=3) were obstacles that affected the suitability for this treatment. Conclusion : Based on high-resolution CT scans, our pilot study suggested that 38% of Chinese patients with TAAD could potentially be treated by stent-grafting based on the anatomical characteristics of the proximal dissection.
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Promoting siRNA delivery via enhanced cellular uptake using an arginine-decorated amphiphilic dendrimer.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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RNA interference (RNAi) with small interfering RNA (siRNA) is expected to offer an attractive means to specifically and efficiently silence disease-associated genes for treating various diseases provided that safe and efficient delivery systems are available. In this study, we have established an arginine-decorated amphiphilic dendrimer composed of a hydrophobic alkyl chain and a hydrophilic PAMAM dendron bearing arginine terminals as nonviral vector for siRNA delivery. Indeed, this dendrimer proved to be very effective at delivering siRNAs in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells and in human hematopoietic CD34+ stem cells, leading to improved gene silencing compared to the corresponding nonarginine decorated dendrimer. Further investigation confirmed that this dendrimer was granted with the capacity to form stable nanoparticles with siRNA and significantly enhance cellular uptake of siRNA. In addition, this dendrimer revealed no discernible cytotoxicity. All these findings demonstrate that decoration of the dendrimer surface with arginine residues is indeed a useful strategy to improve the delivery ability of dendrimers.
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Standard Error of Ability Estimates and the Classification Accuracy and Consistency of Binary Decisions.
Psychometrika
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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While estimation bias is a primary concern in psychological and educational measurement, the standard error is of equal importance in linking key aspects of the assessment structure, especially when the assessment goal concerns the classification of individuals into categories (e.g., master/non-mastery). In this paper, we show analytically how standard error of ability estimates affects expected classification accuracy and consistency when the decision is binary. When standard error decreases, the conditional classification accuracy and consistency increase. Given an examinee population and a cut score, smaller standard error over the entire latent trait continuum guarantees higher overall expected classification accuracy and consistency. We were also able to show the interrelationship between standard error, the expected classification consistency, and reliability. Utilizing the relationship between standard error and expected classification accuracy and consistency, we derive the upper bounds of the overall expected classification accuracy and consistency of a fixed-length computerized adaptive test. The lower bound of the expected classification accuracy and consistency is also derived given a number of stopping rules of variable-length computerized adaptive testing. Implications of these analytical results on operational tests are discussed.
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Mechanism of pretreatment using magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) resin in an ultrafiltration membrane system used in algae-rich water treatment.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling brought by algae-rich water controlling has been the research focus in recent years. The pretreatment of magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (m-PGMA) for sedimental tank effluent was investigated as well as its performance in combined UF processes. The optimal dose of m-PGMA was found to be 5?mL/L, which can bring a significant improvement to the removal efficiency of natural organic matter. With regards to membrane fouling, the use of m-PGMA also resulted in lowered irreversible and reversible membrane resistances in comparison with results obtained when operating without m-PGMA. In addition, four classic filtration models were introduced to analyse the fouling mechanisms. The proportion of standard blocking of pores has been weakened in the mechanism of membrane fouling when the pretreatment of m-PGMA exists. A very loose cake layer and relieved pore blockage were observed by scanning electron microscopy during m-PGMA/UF process.
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Multi-slice computed tomography 5-minute delayed scan is superior to immediate scan after contrast media application in characterization of intracranial tuberculosis.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine whether the diagnosis of intracranial tuberculosis (TB) can be improved when multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) scans are taken with a 5-min delay after contrast media application.
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Development of a cellulolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with enhanced cellobiohydrolase activity.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a promising technology for lignocellulosic ethanol production, and the key is the engineering of a microorganism that can efficiently utilize cellulose. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires high level expression of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases (CBH). In this study, to construct a CBP-enabling yeast with enhanced CBH activity, three cassettes containing constitutively expressed CBH-encoding genes (cbh1 from Aspergillus aculeatus, cbh1 and cbh2 from Trichoderma reesei) were constructed. T. reesei eg2, A. aculeatus bgl1, and the three CBH-encoding genes were then sequentially integrated into the S. cerevisiae W303-1A chromosome via ?-sequence-mediated integration. The resultant strains W1, W2, and W3, expressing uni-, bi-, and trifunctional cellulases, respectively, exhibited corresponding cellulase activities. Furthermore, both the activities and glucose producing activity ascended. The growth test on cellulose containing plates indicated that CBH was a necessary component for successful utilization of crystalline cellulose. The three recombinant strains and the control strains W303-1A and AADY were evaluated in acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob containing media with 5 FPU exogenous cellulase/g biomass loading. The highest ethanol titer (g/l) within 7 days was 5.92 ± 0.51, 18.60 ± 0.81, 28.20 ± 0.84, 1.40 ± 0.12, and 2.12 ± 0.35, respectively. Compared with the control strains, W3 efficiently fermented pretreated corncob to ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first study aimed at creating cellulolytic yeast with enhanced CBH activity by integrating three types of CBH-encoding gene with a strong constitutive promoter Ptpi.
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Generation of 9 MeV ?-rays by all-laser-driven Compton scattering with second-harmonic laser light.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Gamma-ray photons with energy >9??MeV were produced when second-harmonic-generated laser light (3 eV) inverse-Compton-scattered from a counterpropagating relativistic (~450??MeV) laser-wakefield-accelerated electron beam. Two laser pulses from the same laser system were used: one to accelerate electrons and one to scatter. Since the two pulses play very different roles in the ?-ray generation process, and thus have different requirements, a novel laser system was developed. It separately and independently optimized the optical properties of the two pulses. This approach also mitigated the deleterious effects on beam focusing that generally accompany nonlinear optics at high peak-power levels.
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A low level of GPR37 is associated with human hepatocellular carcinoma progression and poor patient survival.
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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GPR37, also known as parkin-associated endothelin-like receptor (Pael-R), is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). It has been reported that GPCRs play vital roles in the development and progression of cancer. To investigate the potential roles of GPR37 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), expression of GPR37 was examined in human HCC samples. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses were performed for GPR37 in 57 hepatocellular carcinoma samples. GPR37 expression was low in hepatocellular carcinoma as compared with the adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Clinicopathological analysis showed that GPR37 expression was significantly correlated with histological grade and the level of alpha fetal protein (AFP) (P=0.000 and 0.002, respectively). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that decreasing GPR37 expression was associated with poor prognosis in HCC patients, while in vitro, following the release from serum starvation of HuH7 HCC cell, the expression of GPR37 was downregulated. In addition, the transient GPR37 knockdown by siRNA in HuH7 cells significantly decreased the apoptosis of hepatoma cells with activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway. Our data suggest that GPR37 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma by affecting the proliferation of H CC cells, and it could be a novel potential molecular therapy target for HCC.
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Induction of caspase-3-like activity in rice following release of cytochrome-f from the chloroplast and subsequent interaction with the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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It has been known that the process of leaf senescence is accompanied by programmed cell death (PCD), and the previous study indicated that dark-induced senescence in detached leaves from rice led to the release of cytochrome f (Cyt f) from chloroplast into the cytoplasm. In this study, the effects of Cyt f on PCD were studied both in vitro and in vivo. In a cell-free system, purified Cyt f activated caspase-3-like protease and endonuclease OsNuc37, and induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, Cyt f-induced caspase-3-like activity could be inhibited by MG132, which suggests that the activity was attributed to the 26S proteasome. Conditional expression of Cyt f in the cytoplasm could also activate caspase-3-like activity and DNA fragmentation. Fluorescein diacetate staining and annexin V-FITC/PI double staining demonstrated that Cyt f expression in cytoplasm significantly increased the percentage of PCD protoplasts. Yeast two-hybrid screening showed that Cyt f might interact with E3-ubiquitin ligase and RPN9b, the subunits of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), and other PCD-related proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that the released Cyt f from the chloroplast into the cytoplasm might activate or rescue caspase-3-like activity by interacting with the UPS, ultimately leading to the induction of PCD.
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Flocculation of algal cells by amphoteric chitosan-based flocculant.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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A kind of amphoteric chitosan-based flocculant (quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan, denoted as QCMC) has been prepared. QCMC presented significant improvement of water solubility in the whole pH range. The effects of pH, dosage, temperature and original turbidity of algal water on the flocculation performance were investigated. The optimal dosages of QCMC at pH 5, 9 and 12 with original turbidity of 20NTU at 20°C were 0.1, 0.6 and 2.0mg/L, respectively, which were much less than that of chitosan, PAM, Al2(SO4)3 and FeCl3. The floc properties during grow, breakage and regrow period were also evaluated at different pH values in terms of floc size, strength and density. It was demonstrated that QCMC produced larger, stronger and denser flocs than Al2(SO4)3. There is every indication that QCMC is more suitable for algal harvesting than other traditional coagulants or flocculants.
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[Study of the Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as the phosphorescence probes to detect the micro-quantity Hg2+].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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In the present paper, the Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots were synthesized in water, and the MPA was used as the stabilizer. Utilizing the strong quenching effect of Hg2+ to the phosphorescence of the ZnS: Mn quantum dots, the method to detect micro-quantity Hg2+ in water was established by using the quantum dots as the phosphorescence probes. Compared to the fluorescence methods, the phosphorescence has longer lifetime and higher selectivity, and avoids the interference of the fluorescence and the scattering light. The result showed that under the optimum conditions, the relationship between the deltaP/P and Hg2 concentration was linearity which was ruled by the Stern-Volmer equation while the Hg2+ concentration was between 1.0 x 10(-5) and 1.0 x 10(-3) mol x L(-1), and the linear correlation coefficient was 0.998 8. The recovery of the method was between 85.2% and 106.1%, the RSD was 3.46%, and the detection limit was 9.7 x 10(-6) mol x L(-1). The mechanism of quenching of phosphorescence was discussed. The interferences of some metal ions could be effectively eliminated by adding appropriate masking agents in the solution.
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Adaptive Amphiphilic Dendrimer-Based Nanoassemblies as Robust and Versatile siRNA Delivery Systems.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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siRNA delivery remains a major challenge in RNAi-based therapy. Here, we report for the first time that an amphiphilic dendrimer is able to self-assemble into adaptive supramolecular assemblies upon interaction with siRNA, and effectively delivers siRNAs to various cell lines, including human primary and stem cells, thereby outperforming the currently available nonviral vectors. In addition, this amphiphilic dendrimer is able to harness the advantageous features of both polymer and lipid vectors and hence promotes effective siRNA delivery. Our study demonstrates for the first time that dendrimer-based adaptive supramolecular assemblies represent novel and versatile means for functional siRNA delivery, heralding a new age of dendrimer-based self-assembled drug delivery in biomedical applications.
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Effects of Chinese herbs combined with in vitro fertilization and embryo transplantation on infertility: a clinical randomized controlled trial.
J Tradit Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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To assess the effects of using Chinese herbs in assisted reproductive technology.
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[Protective effect of acupuncture on heart in mice with hyperlipemia and its mechanism].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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To observe the inhibiting effect of acupuncture on blood lipid, myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis in mice with hyperlipemia, and explore its possible action mechanism.
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[Shang Ring circumcision by transverse incision in the distal penis foreskin and pull-up of the interior board for short frenulum praeputii].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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To investigate the effectiveness of surgical strategies for Shang Ring circumcision in the treatment of short frenulum praeputii in patients with redundant prepuce or phimosis.
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Gastric de novo Muc13 expression and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia during Helicobacter heilmannii infection.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Helicobacter heilmannii is a zoonotic bacterium that has been associated with gastric disease in humans. In this study, the mRNA expression of mucins in the stomach of BALB/c mice was analyzed at several time points during a 1-year infection with this bacterium, during which gastric disease progressed in severity. Markers for acid production by parietal cells and mucous metaplasia were also examined. In the first 9 weeks postinfection, the mRNA expression of Muc6 was clearly upregulated in both the antrum and fundus of the stomach of H. heilmannii-infected mice. Interestingly, Muc13 was upregulated already at 1 day postinfection in the fundus of the stomach. Its expression level remained high in the stomach over the course of the infection. This mucin is, however, not expressed in a healthy stomach, and high expression of this mucin has so far only been described in gastric cancer. In the later stages of infection, mRNA expression of H(+)/K(+)-ATPase ?/? and KCNQ1 decreased, whereas the expression of Muc4, Tff2, Dmbt1, and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) increased starting at 16 weeks postinfection onwards, suggesting the existence of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia in the fundus of the stomach. Mucous metaplasia present in the mucosa surrounding low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma-like lesions was also histologically confirmed. Our findings indicate that H. heilmannii infection causes severe gastric pathologies and alterations in the expression pattern of gastric mucins, such as Muc6 and Muc13, as well as disrupting gastric homeostasis by inducing the loss of parietal cells, resulting in the development of mucous metaplasia.
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Therapeutic efficacy of an Fc-enhanced TCR-like antibody to the intracellular WT1 oncoprotein.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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RMFPNAPYL (RMF), a Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1)-derived CD8 T-cell epitope presented by HLA-A*02:01, is a validated target for T-cell-based immunotherapy. We previously reported ESK1, a high avidity (Kd < 0.2 nmol/L), fully-human monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for the WT1 RMF peptide/HLA-A*02:01 complex, which selectively bound and killed WT1(+) and HLA-A*02:01(+) leukemia and solid tumor cell lines.
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A functional p53 responsive polymorphism in KITLG, rs4590952, does not affect the risk of breast cancer.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Recently, a functional polymorphism in KITLG, rs4590952, was identified to be associated with testicular cancer susceptibility through increasing the p53-dependent KITLG expression and disrupting the function of p53. We performed a hospital-based case-control study, including 1241 breast cancer (BC) patients and 1259 cancer-free controls, to investigate the role of this polymorphism in the risk of BC in Chinese Han population. However, no significant association between rs4590952 and BC risk was identified in allelic model with the odds ratio (OR) of 1.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.73-1.46, P = 0.839) or in any other genetic models. When performed stratified analysis according to the Estrogen Receptor (ER) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) status, rs4590952 was neither associated with ER+/PR+ nor ER-PR- subgroups. Our results suggested that rs4590952 was not associated with the risk of BC in Chinese population, implying that heterogeneous distinct mechanisms might exist in the etiology of different cancers.
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Targeted delivery of Dicer-substrate siRNAs using a dual targeting peptide decorated dendrimer delivery system.
Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Small interfering RNAs (siRNA) are emerging as novel therapeutic agents, providing competent delivery systems that are available. Dendrimers, a special family of synthetic macromolecules, represent an exciting delivery platform by virtue of their well-defined dendritic structure and unique multivalency and cooperativity confined within a nanoscale volume. Here, we report a Dicer-substrate siRNA (dsiRNA) which, when delivered using a structurally flexible triethanolamine-core poly(amidoamine) dendrimer of generation 5 as the nanocarrier, gives rise to a much greater RNAi response than that produced with conventional siRNA. Further decoration of the dsiRNA/dendrimer complexes with a dual targeting peptide simultaneously promoted cancer cell targeting through interacting with integrins and cell penetration via the interaction with neuropilin-1 receptors, which led to improved gene silencing and anticancer activity. Altogether, our results disclosed here open a new avenue for therapeutic implementation of RNAi using dendrimer nanovector based targeted delivery.
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A Novel Wheat- Dasypyrum breviaristatum Substitution Line with Stripe Rust Resistance.
Cytogenet. Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The introduction of genetic variation from wild and cultivated Triticeae species has been a long-standing approach for wheat improvement. Dasypyrumbreviaristatum species harbor novel and agronomically important genes for resistance against multi-fungal diseases. The development of new wheat-D. breviaristatum introgression lines offers chances for the identification of stripe rust resistance gene(s). A wheat line, D11-5, was selected from a cross between wheat line MY11 and wheat-D. breviaristatum partial amphiploid TDH-2. It was characterized by FISH and PCR-based molecular markers. Chromosome counting revealed that the D11-5 line shows a hexaploid set of 2n = 6x = 42 chromosomes. FISH analysis using the Dasypyrum repetitive sequence pDb12H as a probe demonstrated that D11-5 contained a pair of D. breviaristatum chromosomes, while FISH with wheat D-genomic repetitive sequences revealed that the chromosome 2D was absent in D11-5. The functional molecular markers confirmed that the introduced D. breviaristatum chromosomes belong to the homoeologous group 2, indicating that D11-5 was a 2V(b) (2D) disomic substitution line. Field resistance showed that the introduced D. breviaristatum chromosomes 2V(b) were responsible for the stripe rust resistance at the adult plant stage. FISH, C-banding, and PCR-based molecular marker analysis indicated that the chromosome 2V(b) of D. breviaristatum was completely different from the chromosome 2V of D. villosum. The identified wheat-D. breviaristatum chromosome substitution line D11-5 may be applied to produce agronomically desirable stripe rust resistance germplasm. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Identification of the roles of individual amino acid residues of the helix E of the major antenna of photosystem II (LHCII) by alanine scanning mutagenesis.
J. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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The functions of the helix E (W97-F105), an amphiphilic lumenal 310 helix of the major antenna of photosystem II (LHCII), are still unidentified. To elucidate the roles of individual amino acid residue of the helix E, alanine scanning mutagenesis has been performed to mutate every residue of this domain to alanine. The influence of every alanine substitution on the structure and function of LHCII has been investigated biochemically and spectroscopically. The results show that all mutations have little impact on the pigment binding and configuration. However, many mutants presented decreased thermo- or photo-stability compared with the wild type, highlighting the significance of this helix to the stability of LHCII. The most critical residue for stability is W97. The mutant W97A yielded very fragile trimeric pigment protein complexes. The structural analysis revealed that the hydrogen bonding and aromatic interactions between W97, F195, F194 and a water molecule contributed greatly to the stability of LHCII. Moreover, Q103A and F105A have been identified to be able to reinforce the tendency of aggregation in vitro. The structural analysis suggested that the enhancement in aggregation formation for Q103A and F105A might be attributed to the changing hydrophobicity of the region.
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TERT promoter mutations in renal cell carcinomas and upper tract urothelial carcinomas.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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TERT promoter mutations are identified in many malignancies including bladder cancer (BC) and upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). In contrast, no mutations were found in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as reported in a recent study. Because the mutant TERT promoter in urine DNA was recently tested as a marker for BC, it is important to ascertain whether these mutations are truly absent in RCCs. Here we determined TERT promoter mutations in 109 patients with RCC and 14 patients with UTUC. The mutations were found in 9/96 (9.3%) clear cell RCC (ccRCC) tumors and 1/8 (13%) chromophobe RCC tumors. Among ccRCC patients, the mutation was correlated with the advanced stages and metastasis, and higher TERT expression. Among UTUCs, the mutation was detected in tumors from 3/5 (60%) patients with renal pelvic cancer and 1/9 (11%) patients with ureter cancer. The mutation was also detected in 1 of 4 urine samples from patients with mutation+ UTUC. Collectively, TERT promoter mutations do occur in RCCs and are associated with aggressive disease. The mutation is more frequent in renal pelvic cancer. Thus, the mutant TERT promoter found in urine may come from not only BC, but also RCC or UTUC.
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The PsbS protein plays important roles in photosystem II supercomplex remodeling under elevated light conditions.
J. Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Leaves from three different Arabidopsis lines with different expression levels of PsbS protein showed different levels of non-photochemical quenching. The PsbS deficient plant npq4 showed remarkable reduction of electron transport rate, while the other two lines with a moderate amount (wild type) or an overexpression of PsbS (L17) presented unchanged electron transport rates under the same range of high light intensities. Biochemical investigation revealed that the plant with the highest PsbS content (L17) sustained the highest level of stable PSII-LHCII supercomplex structure, and displayed the smallest fluorescence quenching in the thylakoid membranes, the most efficient linear electron transport and the smallest cyclic electron transport. Based on these observations, it is proposed that the remodeling of PSII-LHCII supercomplexes affected by PsbS plays important roles in regulating the energy balance in thylakoid membrane and in ensuring the sophisticated coordination between energy excitation and dissipation.
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Heterologous expression and functional characterization of a novel cellulose-disruptive protein LeEXP2 from Lycopersicum esculentum.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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There has been little research reported on the synergism of plant expansins in cellulose hydrolysis because of the difficulty of heterologous expression. In this study, the expansin gene LeExp2 of Lycopersicum esculentum was expressed for the first time in Pichia pastoris to identify its function in vitro. The optimal expression level was obtained by adding PMSF and a commercial protease inhibitor, and the maximum expression level was 70.9mg/L. The affinity-purified LeEXP2 displayed cellulose-weakening activity and synergism with cellulase, and the reducing sugar yield in the reaction mixture with LeEXP2 was 1.4-9.8-fold that of control. The optimum pH and temperature for reducing-sugar liberation by LeEXP2 and endoglucanase were pH 4.8 and 50°C. Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) notably increased the synergistic activity of LeEXP2, and Co(2+) enhanced the activity of endoglucanase but failed to improve synergism. LeEXP2 exhibited a high level of robustness to reagents and heat, indicating its potential application for cellulose decomposition. LeEXP2 preferentially bound to cellulose over lignin, and the binding capability to given substrates was not related to the crystallinity. This is the first study to characterize the functional role of LeEXP2 in cellulose degradation.
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A TCR-mimic antibody to WT1 bypasses tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in human BCR-ABL+ leukemias.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Acute and chronic leukemias, including CD34(+) CML cells, demonstrate increased expression of the Wilms tumor gene 1 product (WT1), making WT1 an attractive therapeutic target. However, WT1 is a currently undruggable, intracellular protein. ESKM is a human IgG1 T-cell receptor mimic monoclonal antibody directed to a 9-amino acid sequence of WT1 in the context of cell surface HLA-A*02. ESKM was therapeutically effective, alone and in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), against Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute leukemia in murine models, including a leukemia with the most common, pan-TKI, gatekeeper resistance mutation, T315I. ESKM was superior to the first-generation TKI, imatinib. Combination therapy with ESKM and TKIs was superior to either drug alone, capable of curing mice. ESKM showed no toxicity to human HLA-A*02:01(+) stem cells under the conditions of this murine model. These features of ESKM make it a promising nontoxic therapeutic agent for sensitive and resistant Ph(+) leukemias.
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Fuzheng Huayu recipe alleviates hepatic fibrosis via inhibiting TNF-alpha induced hepatocyte apoptosis.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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What was the relationship of Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis and HSC activation at different stage of liver fibrosis? In order to answer this question, the study was carried out to dynamically observe FZHY's effect on hepatocyte apoptosis and HSC activation and further explored underling mechanism of FZHY against hepatocyte apoptosis.
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Nonreciprocal phase shift caused by magnetic-thermal coupling of a polarization maintaining fiber optic gyroscope.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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A theory for nonreciprocal phase shift caused by cross coupling generated in a polarization maintaining (PM) fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) under the combined action of magnetic and temperature fields is proposed. The magnetic-thermal coupling in the FOG originates from the interaction of the magnetic field, fiber twist, birefringence caused by thermal stress, and the intrinsic and bending birefringence of the fiber. The cross coupling changes with temperature. When the PM fiber has a diameter of 250 ?m, beat length of 3 mm, length of 500 m, twist rate of 1??rad/m, and optical source wavelength of 1310 nm, the maximum degree of magnetic-thermal coupling generated by a 1 mT radial magnetic field within the temperature range of -20°C??to 60°C is -5.47%.
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Identification of differentially expressed genes and their subpathways in recurrent versus primary bone giant cell tumors.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Giant cell tumor (GCT) of the bone is a benign but locally aggressive bone neoplasm with a strong tendency to develop local recurrent and metastatic disease. Thus, it provides a useful model system for the identification of biological mechanisms involved in bone tumor progression and metastasis. This study profiled 24 cases of recurrent versus primary bone GCT tissues using QuantiGene 2.0 Multiplex Arrays that included Human p53 80-Plex Panels and Human Stem Cell 80-Plex Panels. A total of 32 differentially expressed genes were identified, including the 20 most upregulated genes and the 12 most downregulated genes in recurrent GCT. The genes identified are related to cell growth, adhesion, apoptosis, signal transduction and bone formation. Furthermore, iSubpathwayMiner analyses were performed to identify significant biological pathway regions (subpathway) associated with this disease. The pathway analysis identified 11 statistically significant enriched subpathways, including pathways in cancer, p53 signaling pathway, osteoclast differentiation pathway and Wnt signaling pathway. Among these subpathways, four genes (IGF1, MDM2, STAT1 and RAC1) were presumed to play an important role in bone GCT recurrence. The differentially expressed MDM2 protein was immunohistochemically confirmed in the recurrent versus primary bone GCT tissues. This study identified differentially expressed genes and their subpathways in recurrent GCT, which may serve as potential biomarkers for the prediction of GCT recurrence.
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Identification and pharmacokinetics of multiple constituents in rat plasma after oral administration of Yinchenzhufu decoction.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Yinchenzhufu decoction (YCZFD) is a classical Chinese herbal formula and has been used to treat severe jaundice in chronic liver injuries since the Qing Dynasty (18th century CE). To identify the components absorbed into the blood in YCZFD and explore their pharmacokinetic profile for understanding the effective ingredients of YCZFD.
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A new periplogenin cardenolide from the seeds of Antiaris toxicaria.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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A new periplogenin cardenolide, periplogulcoside (1), together with three known cardenolides, was isolated from the seeds of Antiaris toxicaria. The structure of the new compound was characterized as periplogenin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-D-glucopyranoside (1) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, HR-TOF-MS, and CD spectrometry, and the known compounds were identified by comparison of their NMR and HR-TOF-MS data with those reported in the literature. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxicity against Hela and HepG-2 cell lines.
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Cuticular differences associated with aridity acclimation in African malaria vectors carrying alternative arrangements of inversion 2La.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Principal malaria vectors in Africa, An. gambiae and An. coluzzii, share an inversion polymorphism on the left arm of chromosome 2 (2La/2L+a) that is distributed non-randomly in the environment. Genomic sequencing studies support the role of strong natural selection in maintaining steep clines in 2La inversion frequency along environmental gradients of aridity, and physiological studies have directly implicated 2La in heat and desiccation tolerance, but the precise genetic basis and the underlying behavioral and physiological mechanisms remain unknown. As the insect cuticle is the primary barrier to water loss, differences in cuticle thickness and/or epicuticular waterproofing associated with alternative 2La arrangements might help explain differences in desiccation resistance.
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Two photon absorption energy transfer in the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC-II) modified with organic boron dye.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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The plant light-harvesting complexes of photosystem II (LHC-II) play important roles in collecting solar energy and transferring the energy to the reaction centers of photosystems I and II. A two photon absorption compound, 4-(bromomethyl)-N-(4-(dimesitylboryl)phenyl)-N-phenylaniline (DMDP-CH2Br), was synthesized and covalently linked to the LHC-II in formation of a LHC-II-dye complex, which still maintained the biological activity of LHC-II system. Under irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses at 754 nm, the LHC-II-dye complex can absorb two photons of the laser light effectively compared with the wild type LHC-II. The absorbed excitation energy is then transferred to chlorophyll a with an obvious fluorescence enhancement. The results may be interesting and give potentials for developing hybrid photosystems.
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Parity and pancreatic cancer risk: evidence from a meta-analysis of twenty epidemiologic studies.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Multiple studies have hypothesized parity is associated with pancreatic cancer risk but obtained conflicting results. We conducted a meta-analysis (including a dose-response approach) of current available epidemiologic studies to investigate the association between parity and risk of pancreatic cancer. Ten cohort studies and ten case-control studies including 8205 cases were eligible for inclusion. The combined RR (relative risk) of pancreatic cancer for the parous vs. nulliparous was 0.91 (95% CI, confidence interval = 0.85-0.97, I(2) = 39.0%, P(h) = 0.01). We observed an inverse association between giving birth to two children pancreatic cancer risk with RR of 0.86 (95% CI = 0.80-0.93, I(2) = 8.7%, P(h) = 0.36). And no evidence supported there was non-linear (P = 0.33) or linear relationship (P = 0.14) between number of parity and risk of pancreatic cancer. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that giving birth to two children has the lowest pancreatic cancer risk, mechanism of this protective effect needs further investigation.
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Identification of OSBPL2 as a novel candidate gene for progressive nonsyndromic hearing loss by whole-exome sequencing.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Purpose:Various forms of hearing loss have genetic causes, but many of the responsible genes have not yet been identified. Here, we describe a large seven-generation Chinese family with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss that has been excluded as being caused by known deafness gene mutations associated with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss with the aim of identifying a novel causative gene involved in deafness.Methods:Whole-exome sequencing was conducted in three affected family members, and cosegregation analysis was performed on other members of the family.Results:Whole-exome sequencing and subsequent segregation analysis identified a heterozygous frameshift mutation (c.153_154delCT, p.Gln53Argfs*100) in the oxysterol binding protein-like 2 (OSBPL2) gene in 25 affected family members. The deletion mutation is predicted to lead to premature truncation of the OSBPL2 protein. Modeling and structure-based analysis support the theory that this gene deletion is functionally deleterious. Our finding was further confirmed by the detection of another missense mutation, a c.583C>A transversion (p.Leu195Met) in exon 7 of OSBPL2, in an additional sporadic case of deafness.Conclusion:Based on this study, OSBPL2 was identified as an excellent novel candidate gene for autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss; this study is the first to implicate OSBPL2 mutations in autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss.Genet Med advance online publication 31 July 2014Genetics in Medicine (2014); doi:10.1038/gim.2014.90.
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Pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling quantifies cerebral blood flow in patients with acute ischemic stroke and chronic lacunar stroke.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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We employed non-invasive pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) to quantify cerebral blood flow (CBF) in infarcted and nearby neural regions in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and chronic lacunar stroke (CLS). The results were compared with CBF in healthy individuals.
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Distribution, source, fate and bioaccumulation of methyl siloxanes in marine environment.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Studies have shown that some cyclic methyl siloxanes were identified as characterized of persistent, bioaccumulated, toxic, and potential to ecological harm. In this study, we determined methyl siloxanes in seawater, sediment and bottom fish samples collected from marine environment in Northeast China. The mean concentrations of total methyl siloxanes were 46.1 ± 27.2 ng/L, 12.4 ± 5.39 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 5.10 ± 1.34 wet weight (ww) in seawater, sediment and fish, respectively. Very strong and significant correlations (r = 0.94, p < 0.0001) were found in compositions of methyl siloxanes between seawater and sewage, indicating that sewage was the main source of methyl siloxanes in the marine area studied. It was found that the mean value of biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) was.0.716 ± 0.456 for D4, 0.103 ± 0.0771 for D5, 1.06 ± 0.528 for D6 and 0.877 ± 0.530 for D7.
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NOTCH1 signaling promotes chemoresistance via regulating ABCC1 expression in prostate cancer stem cells.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Chemotherapy is a strategy for patients with advanced prostate cancer, especially those with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs) are believed to be the origin of cancer recurrence following therapy intervention, including chemotherapy. The mechanisms underlying the chemoresistance of PCSCs are still poorly understood. In the present study, fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to isolate PCSCs from LNCaP and PC3 cell lines. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide was used to measure the cell viability. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were utilized to evaluate the mRNA and protein levels. ShRNA was employed to knock down target gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was performed to explore the detailed mechanism underlying ABCC1 expression. Our results revealed that the sorted PCSCs showed enhanced chemoresistance ability than matched non-PCSCs. Protein level of activated form of NOTCH1(ICN1) was significantly higher in PCSCs. Inhibition of NOTCH1 with shRNA could decrease ABCC1 expression, and improve chemosensitivity in PCSCs. Finally, ChIP-PCR showed ICN1 could directly bind to the promoter region of ABCC1. In conclusion, NOTCH1 signaling could transactivate ABCC1, resulting in higher chemoresistance ability of PCSCs, which might be one of the important mechanisms underlying the chemoresistance of PCSCs.
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A single poly-Si gate-all-around junctionless fin field-effect transistor for use in one-time programming nonvolatile memory.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This work demonstrates a feasible single poly-Si gate-all-around (GAA) junctionless fin field-effect transistor (JL-FinFET) for use in one-time programming (OTP) nonvolatile memory (NVM) applications. The advantages of this device include the simplicity of its use and the ease with which it can be embedded in Si wafer, glass, and flexible substrates. This device exhibits excellent retention, with a memory window maintained 2 V after 10(4) s. By extrapolation, 95% of the original charge can be stored for 10 years. In the future, this device will be applied to multi-layer Si ICs in fully functional systems on panels, active-matrix liquid-crystal displays, and three-dimensional (3D) stacked flash memory.
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Retrograde tracing of medial vestibular nuclei connections to the kidney in mice.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Vestibular nuclei have been identified as a uniform multifunctional structure in order to maintain physiological homeostasis, including the participation of renal sympathetic activity. In this study, the medial vestibular nuclei (MVe) of 10 adult male C57BL/6J strain mice were mapped retrograde using injections of pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614. The virus, injected into the kidney, was specifically transported to the medial vestibular nuclei (MVe). We used a fluorescence immunohistochemistry to characterize the chemical neuroanatomical substrate of MVe innervating the kidney in the mouse. At five days after PRV-614 injection in the kidney, PRV-614 infected neurons were retrogradely labeled in MVeMC and MVePC; PRV-614/tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) double-labeled neurons located predominantly in MVeMC and not in MVePC, whereas PRV-614/tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) neurons were not localized in MVeMC and MVePC. Our results revealed direct neuroanatomical evidence to identify catecholaminergic projections from the MVeMC to the kidney, suggesting that medial vestibulo-renal pathway may be catecholaminergic.
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Identification of neuroanatomic circuits from spinal cord to stomach in mouse: retrograde transneuronal viral tracing study.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To determine the spinal innervation and neuronal connections is important for studying gastric carbohydrate metabolism and motor responses. Neurons involved in the efferent control of the stomach were identified following visualization of pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614 retrograde tracing. PRV-614 was injected into the ventral stomach wall in 13 adult C57BL/6J strain male mice. On the fifth day postinjection, animals were humanely sacrificed, and spinal cords were removed and sectioned, and processed for PRV visualization. The virus injected into the ventral stomach wall was specifically transported to the thoracic spinal cord. At 5 d after injection of the PRV-614, stomach enlargement and tissue edema were found, and PRV-614 positive cells were found in the intermediolateral cell column, the intercalates nucleus or the central autonomic nucleus of spinal cord segments T3 to L1, and major PRV-614 labeled cells were focused in the T6-10 segment. Our results revealed neuroanatomical circuits between stomach and the spinal intermediolateral cell column neurons.
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Central circuits regulating the sympathetic outflow to lumbar muscles in spinally transected mice by retrograde transsynaptic transport.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Despite considerable interest in the mechanisms that control the hyperalgesia associated with muscle inflammation, the CNS descending pathways that coordinate autonomic circuits regulating lumbar muscles are not adequately understood. Here we used both pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614 retrograde transsynaptic tracing and spinally transected method in 33 C57BL/6J mice to map the polysynaptic pathways between lumbar muscle and CNS. Tissues were processed for dual-label immunocytochemical detection between PRV-614 and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-expressing neurons in CNS. In intact mice, PRV-614 was transported to the intermediolateral column (IML) and ventral horn (VH) of spinal cord, with subsequent transport to many brain regions, including the medullary raphe nuclei, rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), A5 cell group regions (A5), locus coeruleus (LC), the medullary and pontine reticular formation nucleus (MRN and PRN), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), and other central sites. However, PRV-614 in spinally transected mice produced retrograde infection of IML, with subsequent transport to main brain regions that have been shown to contribute to regulating sympathetic circuits, including RVLM, Lateral paragigantocellular reticular nucleus (LPGi), A5, LC, and PVN, whereas PRV-614 labeling in VH and MRN was eliminated in almost every case. In above five brain regions, dual-labeling immunocytochemistry showed coexpression of PRV-614/TPH and PRV-614/TH immunoreactive (IR) neurons involved in these regulatory circuits. Our results reveal a hierarchical organization of central autonomic circuits controlling the lumbar muscles, thus providing neuroanatomical substrates for the central catecholaminergic and serotonergic system to regulate the lumbar muscles.
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Structure-function relationship of SW-AT-1, a serpin-type protease inhibitor in silkworm.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although SW-AT-1, a serpin-type trypsin inhibitor from silkworm (Bombyx mori), was identified in previous study, its structure-function relationship has not been studied. In this study, SW-AT-1 was cloned from the body wall of silkworm and expressed in E. coli. rSW-AT-1 inhibited both trypsin and chymotrypsin in a concentration-dependent manner. The association rate constant for rSW-AT-1 and trypsin is 1.31×10-5 M-1s-1, for rSW-AT-1 and chymotrpsin is 2.85×10-6 M-1s-1. Circular dichroism (CD) assay showed 33% ?-helices, 16% ?-sheets, 17% turns, and 31% random coils in the secondary structure of the protein. Enzymatic and CD analysis indicated that rSW-AT-1 was stable at wide pH range between 4-10, and exhibited the highest activity at weakly acidic or alkaline condition. The predicted three-dimensional structure of SW-AT-1 by PyMOL (v1.4) revealed a deductive reactive centre loop (RCL) near the C-terminus, which was extended from the body of the molecule. In addition to trypsin cleavage site in RCL, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry indicated that the chymotrypsin cleavage site of SW-AT-1 was between F336 and T337 in RCL. Directed mutagenesis indicated that both the N- and C-terminal sides of RCL have effects on the activity, and G327 and E329 played an important role in the proper folding of RCL. The physiological role of SW-AT-1 in the defense responses of silkworm were also discussed.
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SMYD3 as an Oncogenic Driver in Prostate Cancer by Stimulation of Androgen Receptor Transcription.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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Androgen receptor (AR) is critical for prostate tumorigenesis and is frequently overexpressed during prostate cancer (PC) progression. However, few studies have addressed the epigenetic regulation of AR expression.
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Risk of GWAS-identified genetic variants for breast cancer in a Chinese population: a multiple interaction analysis.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of breast cancer (BC) have identified multiple risk variants. However, the multiple interactions among these variants are still not well established. In this study, we utilized the multi-analytic strategy combing random forest (RF), multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR), and logistic regression approaches to investigate the high-order interactions among ten genetic variants recently identified by GWAS in 477 BC patients and 534 healthy controls. Expectedly, six variants, rs1219648, rs3757318, rs1926657, rs6556756, rs2046210, and rs4973768, were significantly associated with BC risk under independent analysis. In RF analysis, rs3757318, rs2046210, and rs4973768 were ranked as the top three important risk factors and were selected as the best set which taking interactions into consideration. Subsequently, the MDR analysis of the ten variants found that the three-factor model including rs3757318, rs2046210, and rs4973768 interpret the best interaction model with the maximized testing accuracy of 0.6183 and cross-validation consistency of 10/10. Intriguingly, cumulative effect was observed in the manner of dose-dependent with increasing numbers of risk alleles (P trend = 9.80 × 10(-5)), and the individuals carrying 4-6 risk alleles had a threefold higher risk of BC than carrying 0 risk alleles (OR 3.27, 95 % CI 1.96-5.48). Our findings emphasized the proof of principle that multiple interactions of genetic variants, including rs3757318, rs2046210, and rs4973768 may play important roles in the susceptibility of BC though the biological mechanisms underlying the observed associations need to be elucidated.
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[Effects of cordyceps acid and cordycepin on the inflammatory and fibrogenic response of hepatic stellate cells].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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To investigate the effects of cordyceps acid and cordycepin on the inflammatory phenotype and fibrogenic property of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs).
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[Effects of exogenous Ca2+ on the seed germination of Koelreuteria paniculata in limestone area of Southwest China under drought stress].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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In this paper, different arid environments in the limestone area of Southwest China were simulated by using different concentrations (0%, 5%, 15%, 25%, and 30%) of PEG6000 (polyethylene glycol), and a gradient of exogenous Ca2+ (0, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mmol x L(-1) of CaCl2) was installed to simulate the high calcium soil environments, aimed to study the effects of different concentration PEG6000, CaCl2, and their interactions on the seed germination characteristics of Koelreuteria bipinnata, one of the preferred species in the ecological restoration in limestone area. Under the action of CaCl2 alone, medium or low concentration exogenous Ca2+ had lesser effect on the seed germination parameters, but high concentration exogenous Ca2+ had inhibition effect on the seed germination. Medium or low concentration CaC12 could increase the seedling fresh biomass. When the PEG6000 concentration increased from 0% to 25%, the seed germination rate, germination potential, germination index, and vigor index showed a significant decreasing trend, and the seedling fresh biomass decreased remarkably. When certain concentration of exogenous Ca2+ was exerted to the drought treatment groups, medium or low concentration CaCl2 improved the seed germination characteristics, which compensated the loss from drought stress to a certain degree. When the CaCl2 concentration was up to 30 mmol x L(-1), the seeds were hard to germinate. Additionally, no seeds germinated under the condition of PEG with the concentration of 30%. It was suggested that applying definite concentration of exogenous Ca2+ could increase the seedling fresh biomass under PEG6000 stress, and make the seedlings more adapt to arid environment.
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Salvianolic acid B inhibits hepatic stellate cell activation through transforming growth factor beta-1 signal transduction pathway in vivo and in vitro.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is a major water soluble component extracted from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae, a traditional Chinese herb widely used for treating cardiovascular and hepatic diseases. Sal B has been reported to inhibit transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-stimulated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation and collagen type I expression. In this study, we further investigated the mechanisms of Sal B on liver fibrosis relating to TGF-?/Smads signalling pathway, especially to TGF-?1 receptors. Liver fibrosis model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) for four weeks. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal, model, and Sal B groups. Rats in Sal B group were treated by oral administration of Sal B for four weeks from the first day of DMN exposure. Hydroxyproline (Hyp) content in liver tissue was assayed using Jamalls method and collagen deposition was visualized using Sirius red staining. HSCs were isolated from normal rats, and were cultured primarily in uncoated plastics. At day 4 after isolation, cells were stimulated with 2.5?ng/mL TGF-?1, and treated with 1 and 10?µmol/L Sal B and 10?µmol/L SB-431542 (T?R-I inhibitor) for 24?h, respectively. Cell proliferation was examined with 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine assay. The expressions of alpha smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and Smad3 were assayed by immunofluorescent stain and Western blotting. The expression of T?R-I was analysed by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The activity of T?R-I kinase was measured by ADP-Glo kinase assay. The results showed that Sal B could inhibit collagen deposition and reduce Hyp content significantly, and decrease expressions of TGF-?1 and T?R-I in fibrotic liver in vivo. Also, Sal B decreased the expressions of ?-SMA and T?R-I, inhibited Smad3 nuclear translocation and down-regulated T?R-I kinase activity in vitro. These findings suggested that Sal B could prevent HSCs activation through TGF-? signalling pathway, i.e. inhibiting TGF-?1 expression, activity of T?R-I kinase and Smads phosphorylation.
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Relationship between the phase value of ESWAN and fractional anisotropy of diffusion tensor imaging in patients with cerebral microbleeds: preliminary results.
Eur. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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The purpose of the present study was to measure phase values (PVs) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) using phase and FA map, and to investigate the potential relationship between PVs and FAs in CMBs in vivo.
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[Protective effect of Tanreqing injection on acute hepatic injury induced by CCl4 in rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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To observe the protective effect of Tanreqing injection(TRQ) on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatic injury in rats.
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[Study of CdTe quantum dots as fluorescence probe to detect trace amount of Pb2+].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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The surface modified quantum dots (QDs) as fluorescence probe to quantitatively detect the Pb2+ in water phase was studied in the paper. Using the mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as the stabilizer, the CdTe quantum dots were synthesized in water phase. Based on the quenching effect of the Pb2+ on the QDs fluorescence, the method for detecting trace Pb2+ using QDs as probe was established. The results showed that the relationship between the Pb2+ concentration and the quenching intensity of the QDs (Delta F) while the Pb2+ concentration ranged from 1.0 x 10(-8) to 1.0 x 10(-6) mol x L(-1) was fairly linear, and the correlation coefficient was 0.997 2. The detection limit was 9.3 x 10(-10) mol x L(-1). The RSD was 5.9%, and the recovery rate was between 86% and 110%. The study of the interference of the metal ions showed that the method was highly selective.
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Impact of siRNA overhangs for dendrimer-mediated siRNA delivery and gene silencing.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Small interfering RNA (siRNA) have attracted considerable attention, as compelling therapeutics providing safe and competent delivery systems are available. Dendrimers are emerging as appealing siRNA delivery vectors thanks to their unique, well-defined architecture and the resulting cooperativity and multivalency confined within a nanostructure. We have recently disclosed the structurally flexible fifth-generation TEA-core PAMAM dendrimer (G5) as an effective nanocarrier for delivery of sticky siRNA bearing long complementary sequence overhangs (dA)n/(dT)n (n = 5 or 7). Here, using combined experimental/computational approaches, we successfully clarified (i) the underlying mechanisms of interaction between the dendrimer nanovector G5 and siRNA molecules bearing either complementary or noncomplementary sequence overhangs of different length and chemistry and (ii) the impact of siRNA overhangs contributing toward the improved delivery potency. Using siRNA with complementary overhangs offer the best action in term of gene silencing through the formation of concatemers, that is, supramolecular structures resulting from synergistic and cooperative binding via (dA)n/(dT)n bridges (n = 5 or 7). On the other hand, although siRNA bearing long, noncomplementary overhangs (dA)n/(dA)n or (dT)n/(dT)n (n = 5 or 7) are endowed with considerably higher gene silencing potency than normal siRNA with (dT)2/(dT)2, they remain less effective than their sticky siRNA counterparts. The observed gene silencing potency depends on length, nature, and flexibility of the overhangs, which behave as a sort of clamps that hold and interact with the dendrimer nanovectors, thus impacting siRNA delivery performance and, ultimately, gene silencing. Our findings can be instrumental in designing siRNA entities with enhanced capability to achieve effective RNA interference for therapeutic applications.
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The prevalence of osteoarthritis of the atlanto-odontoid joint in adults using multidetector computed tomography.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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The prevalence of osteoarthritis of the atlanto-odontoid joint has been reported by radiology, autopsy, and conventional computed tomography (CT), but the prevalence has not yet been assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT).
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Normative data on axial rotation of atlanto-occipital joint on 3 Tesla MRI using a simple and reliable method of calculation.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Various methods have been used to image and measure the normal range of axial rotation of the atlanto-occipital joint (AOJ), but a simple, precise, and reliable method is needed for everyday practice.
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STAT3-mediated attenuation of CCl4-induced mouse liver fibrosis by the protein kinase inhibitor sorafenib.
J. Autoimmun.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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There have been major advances in defining the immunological events associated with fibrosis in various chronic liver diseases. We have taken advantage of this data to focus on the mechanisms of action of a unique multi-kinase inhibitor, coined sorafenib, on CCl4-induced murine liver fibrosis, including the effects of this agent in models of both acute and chronic CCl4-mediated pathology. Importantly, sorafenib significantly attenuated chronic liver injury and fibrosis, including reduction in liver inflammation and histopathology as well as decreased expression of liver fibrosis-related genes, including ?-smooth muscle actin, collagen, matrix metalloproteinases and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1. Furthermore, sorafenib treatment resulted in translocation of cytoplasmic STAT3 to the nucleus in its active form. Based on this observation, we used hepatocyte-specific STAT3 knockout (STAT3(Hep-/-)) mice to demonstrate that hepatic STAT3 was critical for sorafenib-mediated protection against liver fibrosis, and that the upregulation of STAT3 phosphorylation was dependent on Kupffer cell-derived IL-6. In conclusion, these data reflect the clinical potential of the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib for the prevention of fibrosis as well as the treatment of established liver fibrosis and illustrate the immunological mechanisms that underlie the protective effects of sorafenib.
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[Intervention of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle by Chinese medical herbs for Shen tonifying, blood nourishing and activating: a randomized clinical trial].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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To study the effect of Chinese medical herbs for Shen tonifying, blood nourishing and activating (CMHSTBNA) on the cycle of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) of assisted reproductive technique (ART).
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Fabrication, characterization and simulation of ?-gate twin poly-Si FinFET nonvolatile memory.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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This study proposed the twin poly-Si fin field-effect transistor (FinFET) nonvolatile memory with a structure that is composed of ?-gate nanowires (NWs). Experimental results show that the NW device has superior memory characteristics because its ?-gate structure provides a large memory window and high program/erase efficiency. With respect to endurance and retention, the memory window can be maintained at 3.5 V after 104 program and erase cycles, and after 10 years, the charge is 47.7% of its initial value. This investigation explores its feasibility in the future active matrix liquid crystal display system-on-panel and three-dimensional stacked flash memory applications.
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Sparse logistic regression with a L1/2 penalty for gene selection in cancer classification.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Microarray technology is widely used in cancer diagnosis. Successfully identifying gene biomarkers will significantly help to classify different cancer types and improve the prediction accuracy. The regularization approach is one of the effective methods for gene selection in microarray data, which generally contain a large number of genes and have a small number of samples. In recent years, various approaches have been developed for gene selection of microarray data. Generally, they are divided into three categories: filter, wrapper and embedded methods. Regularization methods are an important embedded technique and perform both continuous shrinkage and automatic gene selection simultaneously. Recently, there is growing interest in applying the regularization techniques in gene selection. The popular regularization technique is Lasso (L1), and many L1 type regularization terms have been proposed in the recent years. Theoretically, the Lq type regularization with the lower value of q would lead to better solutions with more sparsity. Moreover, the L1/2 regularization can be taken as a representative of Lq (0
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Androgen-producing steroid cell ovarian tumor in a young woman and subsequent spontaneous pregnancy.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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To describe the presentation and fertility sparing treatment of a young woman found to have a steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified (NOS) and her spontaneous pregnancy and delivery shortly after surgery.
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An evaluation of the feasibility of assessment of volume perfusion for the whole lung by 128-slice spiral CT.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Lung perfusion based on dynamic scanning cannot provide a quantitative assessment of the whole lung because of the limited coverage of the current computed tomography (CT) detector designs.
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Suppression of KIF3B Expression Inhibits Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Proliferation.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common fatal cancers and an important health problem worldwide, but its mechanism is still unclear. Microtubule (MT) kinesin motor proteins orchestrate a variety of cellular processes (e.g. mitosis, motility and organelle transportation) and have been involved in human carcinogenesis. KIF3B, the kinesin superfamily of proteins (KIFs), plays an important role in the regulation of mitotic progression.
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Spinal IFN-?-induced protein-10 (CXCL10) mediates metastatic breast cancer-induced bone pain by activation of microglia in rat models.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a common clinical problem in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. Recent studies shows chemokines are novel targets for treatment of CIBP. In this study, we intra-tibial inoculated with Walker 256 rat mammary gland carcinoma cells into rat bone to established metastatic breast cancer. Then we measured the expression of CXCL10 in the spinal cord of metastatic bone cancer rats, investigated the role of CXCL10 in the development of CIBP, and the underlying mechanism. Results revealed that after intra-tibial inoculation with Walker 256 cells, rats showed up-regulation of CXCL10 and its receptor CXCR3 in the spinal cord. Interestingly, intrathecally injection of recombinant CXCL10 protein induced mechanical allodynia in naïve rats. Blocking the function of CXCL10/CXCR3 pathway via anti-CXCL10 antibody or CXCR3 antagonist prevented the development of CIBP and microglial activation. Moreover, CXCL10-induced mechanical allodynia was rescued by minocycline treatment during the late-stage of CIBP, days 10-14. The regulation of CXCL10 expression involved microglial activation in a manner of autocrine positive feedback. These results suggest that CXCL10 may be a necessary algogenic molecule, especially in the development of CIBP. Its function was partly mediated via spinal microglial activation. This study provides a novel insight into the biological function of chemokine CXCL10 in the molecular mechanism underlying cancer pain. It also provides new target for clinical treatment of metastatic breast cancer-induced bone pain in future.
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Investigation of the absorbed and metabolized components of Danshen from Fuzheng Huayu recipe and study on the anti-hepatic fibrosis effects of these components.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) was formulated on the basis of Chinese medicine theory in treating liver fibrosis. It has a significant efficacy against liver fibrosis caused by chronic hepatitis B, with the action mechanisms of inhibition of hepatic stellate cell activation, protection of hepatocyte oxidative injury and regulations of hepatic matrix remodeling etc.
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Structurally flexible triethanolamine-core poly(amidoamine) dendrimers as effective nanovectors to deliver RNAi-based therapeutics.
Biotechnol. Adv.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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RNAi-based nucleic acid molecules have attracted considerable attention as compelling therapeutics providing safe and competent delivery systems are available. Dendrimers are emerging as appealing nanocarriers for nucleic acid delivery thanks to their unique well-defined architecture and the resulting cooperativity and multivalency confined within a nanostructure. The present review offers a brief overview of the structurally flexible triethanolamine-core poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers developed in our group as nanovectors for the delivery of RNAi therapeutics. Their excellent activity for delivering different RNAi therapeutics in various disease models in vitro and in vivo will be highlighted here.
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Tuning interactions between zeolite and supported metal by physical-sputtering to achieve higher catalytic performances.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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To substitute for petroleum, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is an environmentally benign process to produce synthetic diesel (n-paraffin) from syngas. Industrially, the synthetic gasoline (iso-paraffin) can be produced with a FTS process followed by isomerization and hydrocracking processes over solid-acid catalysts. Herein, we demonstrate a cobalt nano-catalyst synthesized by physical-sputtering method that the metallic cobalt nano-particles homogeneously disperse on the H-ZSM5 zeolite support with weak Metal-Support Interactions (MSI). This catalyst performed the high gasoline-range iso-paraffin productivity through the combined FTS, isomerization and hydrocracking reactions. The weak MSI results in the easy reducibility of the cobalt nano-particles; the high cobalt dispersion accelerates n-paraffin diffusion to the neighboring acidic sites on the H-ZSM5 support for isomerization and hydrocracking. Both factors guarantee its high CO conversion and iso-paraffin selectivity. This physical-sputtering technique to synthesize the supported metallic nano-catalyst is a promising way to solve the critical problems caused by strong MSI for various processes.
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Approaching untargetable tumor-associated antigens with antibodies.
Oncoimmunology
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Approved therapeutic antineoplastic antibodies have targeted extracellular or cell-surface molecules. ESK1 is the first fully human T-cell receptor-like antibody targeting an intracellular tumor-associated antigen, Wilms tumor 1 (WT1). In murine xenograft models, ESK1 exhibits a high specificity and exert robust antineoplastic effects against human cancers that express WT1 epitopes on HLA-A201 molecules.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.