Abstract Background: Glossy balloons were used to enhance deep vein thrombolysis. However, thrombi tend to yield in the balloon dilatation due to their smooth surface. It may be preferable to enhance thrombolysis by using balloons with a rough surface, instead of balloons with a smooth surface. Material and methods: Four rabbits were used for the experiment and 60 blood clot samples were obtained, and the samples were randomly separated into one control group and four balloon-solubilised groups. Urokinase solution (5000 U/ml) was used as the thrombolytic drug. The balloon-solubilised groups were enhanced respectively by 1 atm and 2 atm pressurised glossy balloons, and 1 atm and 2 atm pressurised corn-shaped balloons. Thrombolysis rates and residual rates for different granularities of blood clots were calculated for comparasion. Results: Thrombolysis rates of the groups using corn-shaped balloons were higher than those of the groups using glossy balloons (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002). Residual rates of ? ? 3.7 mm blood clots for the groups using corn-shaped balloons were lower than those for the groups using glossy balloons (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). Conclusion: Balloons could be used to enhance thrombolysis; under the same balloon dilatation pressure, thrombolysis rates when using corn-shaped balloons are better than those when using glossy balloons.
Accurate measurements of voltage and current from electrosurgery are the basis of development of electrosurgery with feedback function. We, therefore, developed a parameter measurement system based on PC, with high voltage and current from electrosurgery being sensed with transformers, amplified, filtered, transformed into single-ended signals, and then into RMS signals. The root mean square (RMS) signals were transformed into digital signals through DAQ card and the data was processed in PC with Labview. The process included sampling, displaying and storage. The experiment results indicated that the measurement system could measure the output parameters from electrosurgery steadily and correctly so that the development of the system has been successful. It can be the basis of development of embedded parameters measurement system and can provide accurate feedback information for intellectual electrosurgery.
Successful vascular sealing by radiofrequency (RF)-induced tissue fusion is well established. The present study reports on a novel electrode structure design together with its experimental assessment for RF thermo-fusion of porcine colonic segments.
Thermosensitive genic male-sterile (TGMS) lines, which are male-sterile at restrictive (high) temperatures but male-fertile at permissive (low) temperatures, have been widely used in breeding two-line hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here we find that mutation of thermosensitive genic male sterile 5 (tms5) in rice causes the TGMS trait through a loss of RNase Z(S1) function. We show that RNase Z(S1) processes the mRNAs of three ubiquitin fusion ribosomal protein L40 (UbL40) genes into multiple fragments in vitro and in vivo. In tms5 mutants, high temperature results in increased levels of UbL40 mRNAs. Overaccumulation of UbL40 mRNAs causes defective pollen production and male sterility. Our results uncover a novel mechanism of RNase Z(S1)-mediated UbL40 mRNA regulation and shows that loss of this regulation produces TGMS in rice, a finding with potential applications in hybrid crop breeding.
The wild species of the genus Oryza contain a largely untapped reservoir of agronomically important genes for rice improvement. Here we report the 261-Mb de novo assembled genome sequence of Oryza brachyantha. Low activity of long-terminal repeat retrotransposons and massive internal deletions of ancient long-terminal repeat elements lead to the compact genome of Oryza brachyantha. We model 32,038 protein-coding genes in the Oryza brachyantha genome, of which only 70% are located in collinear positions in comparison with the rice genome. Analysing breakpoints of non-collinear genes suggests that double-strand break repair through non-homologous end joining has an important role in gene movement and erosion of collinearity in the Oryza genomes. Transition of euchromatin to heterochromatin in the rice genome is accompanied by segmental and tandem duplications, further expanded by transposable element insertions. The high-quality reference genome sequence of Oryza brachyantha provides an important resource for functional and evolutionary studies in the genus Oryza.
The aim of this study was to validate a modified method of using a laparoscopic compression anastomosis clip (LapCAC) for gastrointestinal anastomosis in an animal experiment and two clinical cases. Anastomotic surgery of the upper digestive tract was performed on dogs using the conventional and modified methods for LapCAC. The animals were sacrificed postoperatively at different time points to obtain sections from the anastomotic site for pathologic study. Anastomotic outcomes of the two methods were also verified in two clinical cases. The animal experiments and the two clinical cases showed that no anastomotic leakage occurred with the modified method, and that the new method was simple, convenient and reliable as compared with the conventional method. The mean time of placing the anastomosis clip was shorter, and the mean numbers of operation attempts, secondary actions and sutures in the operating holes were reduced. The serosa at the anastomosis healed completely, the muscular layer and submucosal fibers proliferated well, and the anastomosis was covered with mucosa within two weeks after the operation. LapCAC offered a better surgical outcome when it was used according to the modified method, where anastomoses formed smoothly and completely within two weeks after the operation.
A fiber confocal backscattering (FCBS) spectrometer is developed based on fiber confocal microscopy and light scattering theory. The FCBS spectrometer can provide imaging and spectral information simultaneously at the cellular scale. Normal stomach epithelial cell line GES-1 and cancerous cell line NCI-N87 are measured and their spectral results show that backscattering intensity from NCI-N87 cells is stronger than that from GES-1 cells in 500 to 800 nm, and the GES-1 cells scattering spectra show regular intensity changes, while the NCI-N87 cells do not. The experiments prove that the FCBS spectrometer is able to distinguish cancerous cells from normal stomach cells at the cellular level. The spectrometer could be further developed into a noninvasive optical technology for early cancer detection.
Microsomal cytochrome b (5) is a ubiquitous, 15.2 kDa haemoprotein implicated in a number of cellular processes such as fatty acid desaturation, drug metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis and methaemoglobin reduction. As a consequence of these functions this protein has been considered essential for life. Most of the ascribed functions of cytochrome b (5), however, stem from in vitro studies and for this reason we have carried out a germline deletion of this enzyme. We have unexpectedly found that cytochrome b (5) null mice were viable and fertile, with pups being born at expected Mendelian ratios. However, a number of intriguing phenotypes were identified, including altered drug metabolism, methaemoglobinemia and disrupted steroid hormone homeostasis. In addition to these previously identified roles for this protein, cytochrome b (5) null mice displayed skin defects closely resembling those observed in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis and retardation of neonatal development, indicating that this protein, possibly as a consequence of its role in the de novo biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, plays a central role in skin development and neonatal nutrition. Results from fatty acid profile analysis of several tissues suggest that cytochrome b (5) plays a role controlling saturated/unsaturated homeostasis. These data demonstrate that regional concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids are controlled by endogenous metabolic pathways and not by diet alone.
High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) is finding increasing application and acceptance as a non-invasive approach to the treatment of targeted malignancy. Despite the wealth of research and interest in HIFU, there are still a number of issues that need to be overcome to extend its clinical applications. These relate to the accuracy of placing the HIFU beam, the ability to visualize the target volume, and the understanding of the beam interaction with tissue. In this paper, the output characteristics of a single element HIFU transducer have been investigated with the assistance of a six-axis modified industrial robot. It is shown in the experimental results that clearly defined thermal or mechanical damage can be produced by changing the parameters of the HIFU. The nature and patterns of damage produced by pre-programmed treatment are now being investigated in tissue.
Haptic feedback plays a significant role in minimally invasive robotic surgery (MIRS). A major deficiency of the current MIRS is the lack of haptic perception for the surgeon, including the commercially available robot da Vinci surgical system. In this paper, a dynamics model of a haptic robot is established based on Newton-Euler method. Because it took some period of time in exact dynamics solution, we used a digital PID arithmetic dependent on robot dynamics to ensure real-time bilateral control, and it could improve tracking precision and real-time control efficiency. To prove the proposed method, an experimental system in which two Novint Falcon haptic devices acting as master-slave system has been developed. Simulations and experiments showed proposed methods could give instrument force feedbacks to operator, and bilateral control strategy is an effective method to master-slave MIRS. The proposed methods could be used to tele-robotic system.
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