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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Development, Regeneration, and Evolution of Feathers.
Annu Rev Anim Biosci
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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The feather is a complex ectodermal organ with hierarchical branching patterns. It provides functions in endothermy, communication, and flight. Studies of feather growth, cycling, and health are of fundamental importance to avian biology and poultry science. In addition, feathers are an excellent model for morphogenesis studies because of their accessibility, and their distinct patterns can be used to assay the roles of specific molecular pathways. Here we review the progress in aspects of development, regeneration, and evolution during the past three decades. We cover the development of feather buds in chicken embryos, regenerative cycling of feather follicle stem cells, formation of barb branching patterns, emergence of intrafeather pigmentation patterns, interplay of hormones and feather growth, and the genetic identification of several feather variants. The discovery of feathered dinosaurs redefines the relationship between feathers and birds. Inspiration from biomaterials and flight research further fuels biomimetic potential of feathers as a multidisciplinary research focal point. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Animal Biosciences Volume 3 is February 15, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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MicroRNA-199a mediates mucin 1 expression in mouse uterus during implantation.
Reprod. Fertil. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Embryo implantation is a complicated process involving interactions between the blastocyst and the luminal epithelium of the receptive uterus. Mucin 1 (MUC1) is an integral membrane glycoprotein expressed apically by secretory epithelial cells and the glandular epithelium in different organs, including the uterus. It is believed that loss of MUC1 on the surface of uterine epithelial cells is necessary for embryo implantation. The endogenous non-protein coding microRNAs (miRNAs) of 21-24 nucleotides are found in diverse organisms. It has been shown that miRNAs participate in a range of cellular processes by regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In the present study, the regulatory role of miRNA-199a on the expression of MUC1 in mouse uterus during implantation was investigated for its effect on embryo implantation. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry results showed high MUC1 expression on Day 0.5 and low expression by Day 4.5 of pregnancy. In contrast with MUC1 expression, increased miRNA-199a expression was evident at Day 4.5 of pregnancy, as measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In addition, we demonstrated direct binding of miRNA-199a to the 3'-untranslated region of MUC1. Transfection of miRNA-199a into mouse uterine epithelial cells isolated from Day 0.5 of pregnancy also downregulated expression of MUC1. Therefore, the present study provides evidence that MUC1 is a direct target of miRNA-199a and suggests that development of novel strategies to facilitate a successful pregnancy and repair implantation failure humans may include miRNA.
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Epithelial cell transformation sequence 2 is a potential biomarker of unfavorable survival in human gliomas.
Neurol India
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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High-grade primary gliomas are invasive and have poor outcome. The identification of biomarkers predictive of outcome in patients with gliomas is crucial for clinical follow-up. Epithelial cell transformation sequence 2 (ECT2) modulates cancer invasion, progression, metastasis and cell cycle regulation. However, its role in determining the clinical outcome of human gliomas warrants further elucidation.
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Curcumin enhances cell-surface LDLR level and promotes LDL uptake through downregulation of PCSK9 gene expression in HepG2 cells.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Curcumin has been demonstrated as having numerous desirable characteristics, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic activities. We report the hypocholesterolemic effect and molecular mechanism of curcumin.
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Protective effects of garcinol on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Garcinol, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivative, mainly isolated from Garcinia indica fruit rind, has been suggested to exhibit many biological benefits including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protective effects of garcinol on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. The administration of DMN for six consecutive weeks resulted in the decrease of body weights, the elevation of serum aminotransferases, as well as histological lesions in livers. However, oral administration of garcinol remarkably inhibited the elevation of aspartate transaminase (AST) and relieved liver damage induced by DMN. Furthermore, our results revealed that garcinol not only effectively reduced the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components but also inhibited the expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) in livers. The expression of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and the phosphorylation of Smad 2 and Smad 3 were also suppressed by garcinol supplementation. In conclusion, our current study suggested that garcinol exerted hepatoprotective and anti-fibrotic effects against DMN-induced liver injury in rats.
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Penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose suppresses EGF-induced eIF3i expression through inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in prostate cancer cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Approximately 70% of prostate cancer patients will develop bone metastasis in axial and other regions of the skeleton. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) generated from bone tissue contributes to prostate cancer metastasis. In a previous study, penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (PGG) suppressed androgen-independent prostate cancer bone metastasis by transcriptionally repressing EGF-induced MMP-9 expression. This study utilized proteomics to analyze the effects of PGG in EGF-induced prostate cancer bone metastasis. This study showed that PGG suppressed EGF-induced eIF3i expression in PC-3 cells. By transfection of eIF3i shRNA, it was observed that reduced eIF3i expression suppressed the invasion of PC-3 cells in vitro. PGG reduced EGF-induced eIF3i expression through inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Therefore, PGG may be able to be used as a potential new therapeutic drug for prostate cancer bone metastasis.
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Genomic organization, transcriptomic analysis, and functional characterization of avian ?- and ?-keratins in diverse feather forms.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Feathers are hallmark avian integument appendages, although they were also present on theropods. They are composed of flexible corneous materials made of ?- and ?-keratins, but their genomic organization and their functional roles in feathers have not been well studied. First, we made an exhaustive search of ?- and ?-keratin genes in the new chicken genome assembly (Galgal4). Then, using transcriptomic analysis, we studied ?- and ?-keratin gene expression patterns in five types of feather epidermis. The expression patterns of ?-keratin genes were different in different feather types, whereas those of ?-keratin genes were less variable. In addition, we obtained extensive ?- and ?-keratin mRNA in situ hybridization data, showing that ?-keratins and ?-keratins are preferentially expressed in different parts of the feather components. Together, our data suggest that feather morphological and structural diversity can largely be attributed to differential combinations of ?- and ?-keratin genes in different intrafeather regions and/or feather types from different body parts. The expression profiles provide new insights into the evolutionary origin and diversification of feathers. Finally, functional analysis using mutant chicken keratin forms based on those found in the human ?-keratin mutation database led to abnormal phenotypes. This demonstrates that the chicken can be a convenient model for studying the molecular biology of human keratin-based diseases.
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Antioxidant defense and hepatoprotection by procyanidins from almond (Prunus amygdalus) skins.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Procyanidins, polymeric flavan-3-ols, are known to possess antioxidant, antiatherogenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. In the present study, we investigated the role of almond (Prunus amygdalus) skin procyanidins (ASP) in regulating the protein expression of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes in HepG2 cells and acetaminophen (APAP)-treated hepatotoxic mice. Treatments of ASP significantly induced the expression of phase II enzymes including
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Breast cancer chemoprevention by dietary natural phenolic compounds: specific epigenetic-related molecular targets.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Breast cancer is a systemic malignant disease that is a major cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide. Recently, multiple lines of evidence from epidemiologic studies have suggested that epigenetic and genetic changes are involved in breast cancer development. In breast cancer patients, hormone receptor status, breast cancer stem-like cell (BCSC) population and tumor microenvironment are reflective of breast cancer progression, drug resistance and tumor recurrence. Strong relationships between a phytochemical-rich diet and a reversal of epigenetic alterations and/or modulated signaling pathways of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion and progression) suggest a potential approach for preventing breast cancer. Additionally, dietary consumption of natural phenolic compounds containing phytoestrogen properties exerts beneficial effects in breast cancer chemoprevention. In this review, we summarize the specific chemopreventive targets of representative phenolic compounds with an emphasis on their efficacy at interfering with epigenetic event-related hormonal and non-hormonal signaling cascades that are responsible for multistage breast carcinogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Experimental investigation of the nature of the magnetoresistance effects in Pd-YIG hybrid structures.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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In bilayers consisting of Pd and yttrium iron garnet (Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) or YIG), we observe vanishingly small room-temperature conventional anisotropic magnetoresistance but large new magnetoresistance that is similar to the spin Hall magnetoresistance previously reported in Pt-YIG bilayers. We report a temperature dependence study of the two magnetoresistance effects in Pt-YIG bilayers. As the temperature is decreased, the new magnetoresistance shows a peak, whereas the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect starts to appear and increases monotonically. We find that the magnetoresistance peak shifts to lower temperatures in thicker Pd samples, a feature characteristic of the spin current effect. The distinct temperature dependence reveals fundamentally different mechanisms responsible for the two effects in such hybrid structures.
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Anticancer activities of citrus peel polymethoxyflavones related to angiogenesis and others.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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Citrus is a kind of common fruit and contains multiple beneficial nutrients for human beings. Flavonoids, as a class of plant secondary metabolites, exist in citrus fruits abundantly. Due to their broad range of pharmacological properties, citrus flavonoids have gained increased attention. Accumulative in vitro and in vivo studies indicate protective effects of polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) against the occurrence of cancer. PMFs inhibit carcinogenesis by mechanisms like blocking the metastasis cascade, inhibition of cancer cell mobility in circulatory systems, proapoptosis, and antiangiogenesis. This review systematically summarized anticarcinogenic effect of citrus flavonoids in cancer therapy, together with the underlying important molecular mechanisms, in purpose of further exploring more effective use of citrus peel flavonoids.
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The anti-tumor efficiency of pterostilbene is promoted with a combined treatment of Fas signaling or autophagy inhibitors in triple negative breast cancer cells.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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High expression of vimentin, a canonical mesenchymal marker, is linked with poor prognosis in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), implying that vimentin may be a potential biomarker in the application of TNBC therapy. Pterostilbene (PTE) has shown anti-invasion activity, and thus, we investigated whether PTE inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in TNBC. Here, we show that PTE decreases the vimentin expression, but that the effect was transient. PTE stimulated Fas signaling, which drives EMT by the ERK1/2 and GSK3?/?-catenin pathways, supporting Fas signaling induction involved in EMT regulation. PTE also triggered autophagy in TNBC. The treatment of TNBC with 3-methyladenine an autophagy inhibitor, not only sustained PTE-inhibited EMT but also significantly promoted anti-proliferation, which indicates that autophagy plays a cyto-protective role and is associated with EMT. Taken together, these data showed that Fas signaling and autophagy accelerated the aggressiveness of TNBC. Inhibition of autophagy or Fas signaling may provide novel targets for TNBC therapy.
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Pro-apoptotic effects of the novel tangeretin derivate 5-acetyl-6,7,8,4'-tetramethylnortangeretin on MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Citrus polymethoxyflavone tangeretin (5,6,7,8,4'-pentamethoxyflavone, TAN) displays multiple biological activities, but previous reports showed that TAN failed to induce MCF-7 human breast cancer cells apoptosis. Herein, we prepared 5-acetyl-6,7,8,4'-tetramethylnortangeretin (5-ATAN), and evaluated its cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cells. 5-ATAN revealed stronger cytotoxicity than that of parent TAN in the growth inhibition of MCF-7 cells. 5-ATAN induced apoptosis via both caspase-independent and -dependent pathways, in which 5-ATAN induced the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor and phosphorylation of H2AX as well as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, caspase-3 activation. However, 5-ATAN did not affect extrinsic markers caspase-8, BID, and FADD. Further, 5-ATAN induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) by regulating the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Loss of ??m led to the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c which triggered activation of caspase-9. In conclusion, these data indicate that 5-ATAN plays pro-apoptotic cytotoxic roles in MCF-7 cells through both caspase-dependent intrinsic apoptosis and caspase-independent apoptosis pathways.
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Garlic essential oil protects against obesity-triggered nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through modulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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This study investigated the protective properties of garlic essential oil (GEO) and its major organosulfur component (diallyl disulfide, DADS) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal or high-fat diet (HFD) with/without GEO (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) or DADS (10 and 20 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. GEO and DADS dose-dependently exerted antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects by reducing HFD-induced body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, and serum biochemical parameters. Administration of 50 and 100 mg/kg GEO and 20 mg/kg DADS significantly decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver, accompanied by elevated antioxidant capacity via inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 expression during NAFLD development. The anti-NAFLD effects of GEO and DADS were mediated through down-regulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, as well as stimulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. These results demonstrate that GEO and DADS dose-dependently protected obese mice with long-term HFD-induced NAFLD from lipid accumulation, inflammation, and oxidative damage by ameliorating lipid metabolic disorders and oxidative stress. The dose of 20 mg/kg DADS was equally as effective in preventing NAFLD as 50 mg/kg GEO containing the same amount of DADS, which demonstrates that DADS may be the main bioactive component in GEO.
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Hypolipidemic activity of Taraxacum mongolicum associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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This study investigated the hypolipidemic effect and potential mechanisms of T. mongolicum extracts. T. mongolicum was extracted by refluxing three times with water (TM-1), 50% ethanol (TM-2) and 95% ethanol (TM-3). TM-2 contained components with the most effective hypolipidemic potentials in HepG2 cells. Extended administration of TM-2 stimulated a significant reduction in body weight and levels of serum triglyceride LDL-C and total cholesterol in rats. To evaluate the bioactive compounds, we successively fractionated TM-2 with n-hexane (TM-4), dichloromethane (TM-5), ethyl acetate (TM-6), and water (TM-7). TM-4 fraction had the most effective hypolipidemic potential in HepG2 cells, and it decreased the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and inhibited the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) through the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Linoleic acid, phytol and tetracosanol are bioactive compounds identified from TM-4. These results suggest that T. mongolicum is expected to be useful for hypolipidemic effects.
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Global hunger: a challenge to agricultural, food, and nutritional sciences.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Hunger has been a concern for generations and has continued to plague hundreds of millions of people around the world. Although many efforts have been devoted to reduce hunger, challenges such as growing competitions for natural resources, emerging climate changes and natural disasters, poverty, illiteracy, and diseases are posing threats to food security and intensifying the hunger crisis. Concerted efforts of scientists to improve agricultural and food productivity, technology, nutrition, and education are imperative to facilitate appropriate strategies for defeating hunger and malnutrition. This paper provides some aspects of world hunger issues and summarizes the efforts and measures aimed to alleviate food problems from the food and nutritional sciences perspectives. The prospects and constraints of some implemented strategies for alleviating hunger and achieving sustainable food security are also discussed. This comprehensive information source could provide insights into the development of a complementary framework for dealing with the global hunger issue.
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Osthole inhibits insulin-like growth factor-1-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition via the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in human brain cancer cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most lethal types of tumors and highly metastatic and invasive. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the crucial step for cancer cells to initiate the metastasis and could be induced by many growth factors. In this study, we found that GBM8401 cells were converted to fibroblastic phenotype and the space between the cells became expanded in response to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) treatment. Epithelial markers were downregulated and mesenchymal markers were upregulated simultaneously after IGF-1 treatment. Our results illustrate that IGF-1 was able to induce EMT in GBM8401 cells. Osthole would reverse IGF-1-induced morphological changes, upregulated the expression of epithelial markers, and downregulated the expression of mesenchymal markers. Moreover, wound-healing assay also showed that osthole could inhibit IGF-1-induced migration of GBM8401 cells. By using dual-luciferase reporter assay and real-time PCR, we demonstrated that osthole inhibited IGF-1-induced EMT at the transcriptional level. Our study found that osthole decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3? and recovered the GSK3? bioactivity in inhibiting EMT transcription factor Snail and Twist expression. These results showed that osthole inhibited IGF-1-induced EMT by blocking PI3K/Akt pathway. We hope that osthole can be used in anticancer therapy and be a new therapeutic medicine for GBM in the future.
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p-Coumaric acid and ursolic acid from Corni fructus attenuated ?-amyloid(25-35)-induced toxicity through regulation of the NF-?B signaling pathway in PC12 cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Neuroinflammatory responses induced by amyloid-beta peptide (A?) are important causes in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Blockade of A? has emerged as a possible therapeutic approach to control the onset of AD. This study investigated the neuroprotective effects and molecular mechanisms of p-coumaric acid (p-CA) and ursolic acid (UA) from Corni fructus against A?(25-35)-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. p-CA and UA significantly inhibited the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in A?(25-35)-injured PC12 cells. Blockade of nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and phosphorylation of I?B-? was also observed after p-CA and UA treatment. For the upstream kinases, UA exclusively reduced ERK1/2, p-38, and JNK phosphorylation, but p-CA suppressed ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation. Both compounds comprehensively inhibited NF-?B activity, but possibly with different upstream pathways. The results provide new insight into the pharmacological modes of p-CA and UA and their potential therapeutic application to AD.
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Drying effect on flavonoid composition and antioxidant activity of immature kumquat.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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A seven flavonoids in hot water extract of immature kumquat (Citrus japonica var. margarita) were identified and quantified (mg/100g fresh fruit): 3',5'-di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin (DGPP, 285.9±2.9mg/100g), acacetin 8-C-neohesperidoside (margaritene, 136.2±2.6mg/100g), acacetin 6-C-neohesperidoside (isomargaritene, 119.1±1.8mg/100g), fortunellin (acacetin 7-O-neohesperidoside, 28.5±0.7mg/100g), apigenin 8-C-neohesperidoside (16.9±0.1mg/100g), poncirin (isosakuranetin 7-O-neohesperidoside, 5.1±0.1mg/100g), and rhoifolin (apigenin 7-O-neohesperidoside, 2.0±0.1mg/100g). When immature kumquat was dried at 110 and 130°C for 0.5h, the antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and identified flavonoids increased. The UV absorbance of browning products of immature kumquat dried at 130°C for 1.5h increased dramatically, while the identified flavonoids decreased. Therefore, it was concluded that drying below 130°C for 1.0h, could release phenolic compounds, which resulted in the increasing antioxidant activity. Drying at 130°C for 1.5h, it might be due to the effect of formed browning products.
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The methanol extract of Euonymus laxiflorus, Rubia lanceolata and Gardenia jasminoides inhibits xanthine oxidase and reduce serum uric acid level in rats.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Chinese herbal medicinal plants, Euonymus laxiflorus (EL), Rubia lanceolata (RL) and Gardenia jasminoides (GJ), have been used wildly to treat arthritis and gout in Taiwan for decades. To understand the beneficial effects of these three plants, their xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity in vitro and hypouricaemic activity in vivo were investigated. Our results suggested that methanol extracts were better than water extracts for inhibition of XO activity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, except the water extract of GJ, which exhibited the strongest radical scavenging effect. In animal study, the serum urate level was significantly decreased after oral administration of higher dose (0.39g/kg) methanol extract of the mixture of three plants (ERG). In addition, methanol extract of ERG reduced the pain reaction time in the second phase of formalin induced pain. The results provide useful information on the pharmacological activities of these plants for the potential in treating hyperuricemia.
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Essential Structural Requirements and Additive Effects for Flavonoids to Scavenge Methylglyoxal.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Reactive dicarbonyl species, such as methylglyoxal (MGO), are considered as the major precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are believed to be one of the physiological causes of diabetes and its complications. Scavenging of reactive dicarbonyl species using naturally occurring flavonoids has been proposed as an effective way to prevent diabetic complications. To elucidate the structural requirements of flavonoids in scavenging MGO, seven flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, epicatechin, genistein, daidzein, apigenin, and phloretin) and five sub-components of the flavonoids (gallic acid, phloroglucinol, pyrogallol, pyrocatechol, and resorcinol) were examined in this study. Our results showed the following: (1) 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene (pyrogallol) has higher MGO scavenging activity than 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene and 1,2- and 1,3-dihydroxybenzene, and substitution at position 5 of pyrogallol diminished the scavenging activity, indicating that position 5 is the active site of pyrogallol; (2) the A ring is the active site of flavonoids in contributing the MGO-trapping efficacy, and the hydroxyl group at C-5 on the A ring enhances the trapping efficacy; (3) the double bond between C-2 and C-3 on the C ring could facilitate the trapping efficacy; and (4) the number of hydroxyl groups on the B ring does not significantly influence the trapping efficacy. In addition, we found there is an additive effect in MGO trapping by two common flavonoids, quercetin and phloretin, indicating that flavonoid-enriched foods and beverages hold great promise to prevent the development of diabetic complications.
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Pulsed electromagnetic fields partially preserve bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength by promoting bone formation in hindlimb-suspended rats.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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A large body of evidence indicates that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), as a safe and noninvasive method, could promote in vivo and in vitro osteogenesis. Thus far, the effects and underlying mechanisms of PEMF on disuse osteopenia and/or osteoporosis remain poorly understood. Herein, the efficiency of PEMF on osteoporotic bone microarchitecture, bone strength, and bone metabolism, together with its associated signaling pathway mechanism, was systematically investigated in hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rats. Thirty young mature (3-month-old), male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally assigned to control, HU, and HU + PEMF groups. The HU + PEMF group was subjected to daily 2-hour PEMF exposure at 15 Hz, 2.4 mT. After 4 weeks, micro-computed tomography (µCT) results showed that PEMF ameliorated the deterioration of trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture. Three-point bending test showed that PEMF mitigated HU-induced reduction in femoral mechanical properties, including maximum load, stiffness, and elastic modulus. Moreover, PEMF increased serum bone formation markers, including osteocalcin (OC) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP); nevertheless, PEMF exerted minor inhibitory effects on bone resorption markers, including C-terminal crosslinked telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-I) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAcP5b). Bone histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that PEMF increased mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and osteoblast numbers in cancellous bone, but PEMF caused no obvious changes on osteoclast numbers. Real-time PCR showed that PEMF promoted tibial gene expressions of Wnt1, LRP5, ?-catenin, OPG, and OC, but did not alter RANKL, RANK, or Sost mRNA levels. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of PEMF on disuse-induced osteopenia were further confirmed in 8-month-old mature adult HU rats. Together, these results demonstrate that PEMF alleviated disuse-induced bone loss by promoting skeletal anabolic activities, and imply that PEMF might become a potential biophysical treatment modality for disuse osteoporosis.
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CCT327 enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the induction of death receptors and downregulation of cell survival proteins in TRAIL-resistant human leukemia cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis?inducing ligand (TRAIL) has potential application in cancer therapy and it has the ability to selectively kill cancer cells without affecting normal cells. However, the development of resistance to TRAIL in cancer cells cannot be avoided. This study investigated the effects of 2-(5-methylselenophen?2?yl)?6,7?methylenedioxyquinolin?4-one (CCT327), an analogue of quinolin-4-one, on the sensitization of cancer cells to TRAIL and on TRAIL?induced apoptosis in TRAIL?resistance human leukemia cells (HL60?TR). We found that CCT327 enhanced TRAIL?induced apoptosis through upregulation of death receptors DR4 and DR5. In addition to upregulating DRs (death receptors), CCT327 suppressed the expression of decoy receptor DcR1 and DcR2. CCT327 significantly downregulated the expression of FLICE inhibitory protein (cFLIP) and other antiapoptotic proteins. We also demonstrated that CCT327 could activate p38 and JNK. Moreover, CCT327-induced induction of DR5 and DR4 was mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) blocked the induction of DRs by CCT327. Taken together, these results showed that CCT327 combined with TRAIL treatment may provide an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer.
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Changes in protein expression in testes of L2 strain Taiwan country chickens in response to acute heat stress.
Theriogenology
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Heat stress causes a decrease of fertility in roosters. Yet, the way acute heat stress affects protein expression remains poorly understood. This study investigated differential protein expression in testes of the L2 strain of Taiwan country chickens following acute heat stress. Twelve 45-week-old roosters were allocated into four groups, including control roosters kept at 25 °C, roosters subjected to 38 °C acute heat stress for 4 hours without recovery, with 2 hours of recovery, and with 6 hours of recovery. Testis samples were collected for morphologic assay and protein analysis. Some of the differentially expressed proteins were validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Abnormal and apoptotic spermatogenic cells were observed at 2 hours of recovery after acute heat stress, especially among the spermatocytes. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that 119 protein spots were differentially expressed in chicken testes following heat stress, and peptide mass fingerprinting revealed that these spots contained 92 distinct proteins. In the heat-stressed samples, the heat shock proteins, chaperonin containing t-complex, and proteasome subunits were downregulated, and glutathione S-transferase, transgelin, and DJ-1 were upregulated. Our results demonstrate that acute heat stress impairs the processes of translation, protein folding, and protein degradation, and thus results in apoptosis and interferes with spermatogenesis. On the other hand, the increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione S-transferase and DJ-1, may attenuate heat-induced damage. These findings may have implications for breeding chickens that can tolerate more extreme conditions.
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Garcinol suppresses inflammation-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Garcinol is a polyisoprenylated benzophenone derivative isolated from the fruit rind of Garcinia indica and has exhibited chemopreventive effects on azoxymethane)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in mice. In this study, we investigated whether garcinol protects against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis/inflammation and azoxymethane/DSS-induced inflammation-related colon tumorigenesis in male ICR mice. We also aimed to delineate the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects.
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Medial acoustic neuromas: clinical and surgical implications.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Medial acoustic neuroma is a rare entity that confers a distinct clinical syndrome. It is scarcely discussed in the literature and is associated with adverse features. This study evaluates the clinical and imaging features, pertinent surgical challenges, and treatment outcome in a large series of this variant. The authors postulate that the particular pathological anatomy with its arachnoidal rearrangement has a profound implication on the surgical technique and outcome.
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Formulated extract from multiple citrus peels impairs dendritic cell functions and attenuates allergic contact hypersensitivity.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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It has been reported that gold lotion (GL), a formulated product made from the peels of six citrus fruits, has many pharmacological properties, such as anti-tumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of GL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated mouse bone marrow-derived DC maturation and function. Our experimental results have shown that GL significantly impaired the pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine secretion, suppressed the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I/II and costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86), increased phagocytic capacity, and reduced propensity to stimulate the autologous CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation of LPS-induced DCs. Furthermore, we found that oral administration of GL attenuated the 2,4-Dinitro-1-fluorobenzene induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in animal models. Subsequently, our molecular mechanism studies showed that GL interfered with LPS-induced MAPK-JNK, p38 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-?B p65. In an essence, these findings are the first report to provide new insight in the immunopharmacological role of GL in terms of its effects on DC.
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Soluble and insoluble phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of immature calamondin affected by solvents and heat treatment.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Hot water extract of immature calamondin peel contains high total phenolic content, which shows significant correlation to DPPH scavenging potency. By heat treatment, the extraction yields of naringin, tangeretin, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and gallic acid increased, but the amount of 3',5'-di-C-?-glucopyranosylphloretin (DGPP) decreased drastically. The major soluble phenolic compounds in the nonpolar extract are nobiletin and tangeretin, while DGPP and hesperidin are in the hot water extract. For insoluble phenolic compounds, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and sinapic acid are mainly in ester linkage form. After heat treatment, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid are the major increased soluble and insoluble phenolic acids, respectively. This indicates that high temperature heating (150°C) probably produces two major effects: (1) degradation of flavonoids, such as DGPP and hesperidin; (2) destruction of the cell wall structure, leading to an increase in soluble nobiletin, tangeretin and gallic acid, as well as insoluble ferulic and p-coumaric acids.
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Chemical constituents of Rhododendron formosanum show pronounced growth inhibitory effect on non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Rhododendron formosanum Hemsl. (Ericaceae), an endemic species in Taiwan, exhibits antineoplastic potential against non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). R. formosanum was successively extracted with methanol and then separated into dichloromethane (RFL-DCM), ethyl acetate (RFL-EA), n-butanol (RFL-BuOH), and water (RFL-H2O) fractions. Among these extracts, RFL-EA exhibited the most effective antineoplastic effect. This study also demonstrated that fractions 2 and 3 from the RFL-EA extract (RFL-EA-2, RFL-EA-3) possessed the strongest antineoplastic potential against NSCLC cells. The major phytochemical constituents of RFL-EA-2 and RFL-EA-3 were ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, and betulinic acid. This study indicated that ursolic acid demonstrated the most efficient antineoplastic effects on NSCLC cells. Ursolic acid inhibited growth of NSCLC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and stimulated apoptosis. Apoptosis was substantiated by activation of caspase-3 and -9, and a decrease in Bcl-2 and an elevation of the Bax were also observed following ursolic acid treatment. Ursolic acid activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and then inhibited the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which controls protein synthesis and cell growth. Moreover, ursolic acid decreased the expression and/or activity of lipogenic enzymes, such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) via AMPK activation. Collectively, these data provide insight into the chemical constituents and anticancer activity of R. formosanum against NSCLC cells, which are worthy of continued study.
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Potent anti-cancer effect of 3'-hydroxypterostilbene in human colon xenograft tumors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Here we report that 3'-hydroxypterostilbene (HPSB), a natural pterostilbene analogue, was more potent than pterostilbene against the growth of human cancer cells (COLO 205, HCT-116, and HT-29) with measured IC50 values of 9.0, 40.2, and 70.9 µM, respectively. We found that HPSB effectively inhibited the growth of human colon cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and autophagy. Autophagy occurred at an early stage and was observed through the formation of acidic vesicular organelles and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II production. At the molecular levels, the results from western blot analysis showed that HPSB significantly down-regulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signalings including decreased the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Significant therapeutic effects were demonstrated in vivo by treating nude mice bearing COLO 205 tumor xenografts with HPSB (10 mg/kg i.p.). These inhibitory effects were accompanied by mechanistic down-regulation of the protein levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and cyclin D1, as well as by the induction of apoptosis in colon tumors. Our findings suggest that HPSB could serve as a novel promising agent for colon cancer treatment.
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Inhibition of Fumonisin B1 Cytotoxicity by Nanosilicate Platelets during Mouse Embryo Development.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nanosilicate platelets (NSP), the form of natural silicate clay that was exfoliated from montmorillonite (MMT), is widely used as a feed additive for its high non-specific binding capacity with mycotoxins such as fumonisin B1 (FB1), and has been evaluated its safety for biomedical use including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and lethal dosage (LD). In the study, we further examined its toxicity on the development of CD1 mouse embryos and its capacity to prevent teratogenesis-induced by FB1. In vitro cultures, NSP did not disturb the development and the quality of intact pre-implantation mouse embryos. Further, newborn mice from females consumed with NSP showed no abnormalities. NSP had an unexpected high adsorption capacity in vitro. In contrast to female mice consumed with FB1 only, a very low residual level of FB1 in the circulation, reduced incidence of neutral tube defects and significantly increased fetal weight were observed in the females consumed with FB1 and NSP, suggesting a high alleviation effect of NSP on FB1 in vivo. Furthermore, FB1 treatment disturbed the gene expression of sphingolipid metabolism enzymes (longevity assurance homolog 5, LASS 5; sphingosine kinase 1, Sphk1; sphingosine kinase 2, Sphk2; sphingosine 1- phosphate lyase, Sgpl1; sphingosine 1-phosphate phosphatase, Sgpp1) in the maternal liver, uterus, fetus, and placenta, but NSP administration reversed the perturbations. Based on these findings, we conclude that NSP is a feasible and effective agent for supplementary use in reducing the toxicity of FB1 to animals.
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Moderate-intensity rotating magnetic fields do not affect bone quality and bone remodeling in hindlimb suspended rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Abundant evidence has substantiated the positive effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) and static magnetic fields (SMF) on inhibiting osteopenia and promoting fracture healing. However, the osteogenic potential of rotating magnetic fields (RMF), another common electromagnetic application modality, remains poorly characterized thus far, although numerous commercial RMF treatment devices have been available on the market. Herein the impacts of RMF on osteoporotic bone microarchitecture, bone strength and bone metabolism were systematically investigated in hindlimb-unloaded (HU) rats. Thirty two 3-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the Control (n?=?10), HU (n?=?10) and HU with RMF exposure (HU+RMF, n?=?12) groups. Rats in the HU+RMF group were subjected to daily 2-hour exposure to moderate-intensity RMF (ranging from 0.60 T to 0.38 T) at 7 Hz for 4 weeks. HU caused significant decreases in body mass and soleus muscle mass of rats, which were not obviously altered by RMF. Three-point bending test showed that the mechanical properties of femurs in HU rats, including maximum load, stiffness, energy absorption and elastic modulus were not markedly affected by RMF. µCT analysis demonstrated that 4-week RMF did not significantly prevent HU-induced deterioration of femoral trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture. Serum biochemical analysis showed that RMF did not significantly change HU-induced decrease in serum bone formation markers and increase in bone resorption markers. Bone histomorphometric analysis further confirmed that RMF showed no impacts on bone remodeling in HU rats, as evidenced by unchanged mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, osteoblast numbers and osteoclast numbers in cancellous bone. Together, our findings reveal that RMF do not significantly affect bone microstructure, bone mechanical strength and bone remodeling in HU-induced disuse osteoporotic rats. Our study indicates potentially obvious waveform-dependent effects of electromagnetic fields-stimulated osteogenesis, suggesting that RMF, at least in the present form, might not be an optimal modality for inhibiting disuse osteopenia/osteoporosis.
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Variations in the Efficacy of Resistant Maltodextrin on Body Fat Reduction in Rats Fed Different High-Fat Models.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Many studies have utilized a variety of methods to induce obesity in rodents, but they often received inconsistent results. The present study intended to use resistant maltodextrin (RMD) as a means to investigate the variations in its efficacy on body fat accumulation under the influence of four high-fat (HF) models of 23% or 40% total fat, comprising soybean oil, lard, and/or condensed milk. Results indicated that integrating condensed milk into the diets could help increase diet intake, boost energy intake, increase weight gain, and enhance fat formation. Supplementation of RMD (2.07 g/kg) notably reduced total body fat levels in three HF models, with the exception of a condensed-milk-added 40%-fat diet that may have misrepresented the functions of RMD. The uses of the 23% HF diets, with and without milk, and the milk-free 40% HF diet were therefore recommended as suitable models for antiobesity evaluations of RMD, or other fiber-rich products.
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Curcumin Suppresses Doxorubicin-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition via the Inhibition of TGF-? and PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathways in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by a lack of expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER 2). Therefore, targeted therapy agents may not be used, and therapy is largely limited to chemotherapy. Doxorubicin treatment consequently acquires undesired malignance characteristics [i.e., epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and multi-drug resistance]. Our results illustrated that doxorubicin triggered EMT and resulted in the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype in TNBC cells. Moreover, we found that transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways were acquired for doxorubicin-induced EMT. Interestingly, we found that curcumin suppressed doxorubicin-induced EMT. Curcumin reversed doxorubicin-induced morphological changes, inhibited doxorubicin-induced downregulation of E-cadherin expressions, and inhibited doxorubicin-induced upregulation of vimentin expression. We also found that curcumin inhibited doxorubicin-induced EMT by inhibiting the TGF-? and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Moreover, curcumin enhanced the antiproliferative effects of doxorubicin in TNBC cells. In summary, our results suggest that doxorubicin in combination with curcumin may be a potential therapy for TNBC.
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Chemical Constituents and Anticancer Activity of Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe Essential Oil against Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cells in Vitro and in Vivo.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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In this study, we report that the essential oil obtained from Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe, known as zedoary, possesses efficient cytotoxic effects on non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells and causes cell apoptosis. Zedoary essential oil increased the sub-G1 population and the level of annexin-V binding and induced cleavage and activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 and poly(ADP ribose) polymerase. Decreases in the levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were also observed following zedoary essential oil treatment. Notably, zedoary essential oil led to the release of AIF, endonuclease G, and cytochrome c into the cytosol and increased levels of p53 in H1299 cells. Our results indicate that zedoary essential oil slightly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and enhanced the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p38. Zedoary essential oil also inhibited AKT/NF-?B signaling pathways in H1299 cells. Moreover, intraperitoneal administration of zedoary essential oil significantly suppressed the growth of H1299 cells in vivo. In addition, potential active compounds were detected using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. 8,9-Dehydro-9-formyl-cycloisolongifolene, 6-ethenyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3,6-dimethyl-5-isopropenyl-trans-benzofuran, eucalyptol, and ?-elemene were found in zedoary essential oil. In summary, our findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying zedoary essential oil-induced apoptosis in NSCLC cells that are worthy of further study.
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Hexahydro-?-Acids Potently Inhibit 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-Acetate-Induced Skin Inflammation and Tumor Promotion in Mice.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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We previously reported that hexahydro-beta-acids (HBAs), reduced derivatives of beta-acids (BA) from hop (Humulus lupulus L.), displayed more potent anti-inflammatory activity than BA in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages. In this study, we investigated the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of hexahydro-?-acids (HBAs) on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated mouse skin inflammation and in the two-stage carcinogenesis model. Female ICR mice pretreated with HBA at 1 and 10 ?g significantly reduced ear edema, epidermal hyperplasia, and infiltration of inflammatory cells caused by TPA. Molecular analysis exhibited that HBA suppressed iNOS, COX-2, and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) protein and gene expression through interfering with mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphatidylinositiol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling as well as the activation of transcription factor NF-?B. Furthermore, application of HBA (1 and 10 ?g) prior to each TPA treatment (17.2 ± 0.9 tumors/mouse) resulted in the significant reduction of tumor multiplicity (5.1 ± 1.2, P < 0.01 and 2.3 ± 1.2, P < 0.001, respectively) in 7,12-dimethyl-benzanthracene (DMBA)-initiated mouse skin. The tumor incidence was significantly lowered to 75% (P < 0.05) and 58.7% (P < 0.01) by HBA pretreatment, respectively, and significantly reduced the tumor weight (0.34 ± 0.14 g, P < 0.01 and 0.09 ± 0.10 g, P < 0.001, respectively) as compared to DMBA/TPA-induced tumors (0.76 ± 0.04 g).
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Voltammetric microwell array for oxidized guanosine in intact ds-DNA.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Oxidative stress in humans causes damage to biomolecules by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). DNA can be oxidatively damaged by ROS, which may lead to carcinogenesis. Here we report a microfluidic electrochemical array designed to rapidly detect oxidation in intact DNA in replicate measurements. Sensor arrays were fabricated by wet-chemistry patterning of gold compact discs. The eight-sensor array is incorporated into a 60 ?L microfluidic channel connected to a pump and sample valve. The array features 7 nm thick osmium bipyridyl poly(vinylpyridine) chloride [Os(bpy)2(PVP)10Cl](+) films assembled layer-by-layer with polyions onto the gold sensors. 8-Hydroxy-7,8-hydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) is selectively oxidized by [Os(bpy)2(PVP)10Cl](+) in intact ds-DNA to provide catalytic square wave voltammograms (SWV). The device is easy-to-use, fast, inexpensive, reusable, and can detect one 8-oxodG per 6600 nucleobases. The mass detection limit is 150-fold lower than a previously reported dip-and-read voltammetric sensor for oxidized DNA. Fast assays (<1 min) and moderate sample consumption (15 pmol DNA) suggest potential for research and clinical applications. Practical use is illustrated by detecting DNA oxidation from cigarette smoke and ash extracts in dispersions with NADPH and Cu(2+).
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Suppression of adipogenesis and obesity in high-fat induced mouse model by hydroxylated polymethoxyflavones.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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This study demonstrated that hydroxylated polymethoxyflavones (HPMFs) effectively and dose-dependently suppressed accumulation of lipid droplets in adipocytes by approximately 51-55%. Western blot analysis revealed that HPMFs markedly down-regulated adipogenesis-related transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c as well as downstream target fatty acid binding protein 2 (aP2), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, HPMFs also activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In the early phase of adipogenesis, HPMF-treated preadipocytes displayed a delayed cell cycle entry into G2/M phase at 24 h (35.5% for DMI group and 4.8% for 20 ?g/mL HPMFs-treated group) after initiation of adipogenesis. Furthermore, administration of HPMFs (0.25 and 1%) decreased high-fat diet (HFD) induced weight gain (15.3 ± 3.9 g for HFD group, 10.3 ± 0.3 g and 7.9 ± 0.7 g for 0.25 and 1% HPMFs groups, respectively) and relative perigonadal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric fat weight in C57BL/6 mice. Administration of HPMFs reduced serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (GOT), alanine aminotransferase (GPT), triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol (T-cho). The results suggested that HPMFs may have a potential benefit in preventing obesity.
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Magnetic tuning of plasmonic excitation of gold nanorods.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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By using gold nanorods as an example, we report the dynamic and reversible tuning of the plasmonic property of anisotropically shaped colloidal metal nanostructures by controlling their orientation using external magnetic fields. The magnetic orientational control enables instant and selective excitation of the plasmon modes of AuNRs through the manipulation of the field direction relative to the directions of incidence and polarization of light.
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Allicin induces anti-human liver cancer cells through the p53 gene modulating apoptosis and autophagy.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most prevalent type of liver cancer globally and ranks first among the cancer-related mortalities in Taiwan. This study aims to understand the modes of cell death mechanism induced by allicin, a major phytochemical of crushed garlic, in human hepatoma cells. Our earlier study indicated that allicin induced autophagic cell death in human HCC Hep G2 (p53(wild type)) cells, whereas in the present study, allicin induced apoptotic cell death through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in human HCC Hep 3B (p53(mutation)) cells. To gain insight into the cell death mechanism in p53 knocked down Hep G2, we silenced the p53 gene using siRNA-mediated silencing. Allicin treatment induced apoptotic cell death in p53 knocked down Hep G2 cells similar to that of Hep 3B cells. These results suggest that allicin induced cell death in human hepatoma cells through either autophagy or apoptosis and might be a potential novel complementary gene therapeutic agent for the treatment of apoptosis-resistant cancer cells.
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Chemical Constituents and Anticancer Activity of Yellow Camellias against MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Yellow camellia, with its golden yellow flowers, is rare in the world. Most studies of yellow camellia have focused on its ornamental properties; however, there are fewer published studies on its medical values. The purpose of this study was to define the chemical constituents and the biological potential of the water extract of leaves in six species of yellow camellia. The data showed that Camellia murauchii had significantly higher total catechins and total polyphenol content than others; Camellia euphlebia had the highest total amino acids and ?-aminobutyric acid. The results indicated that Camellia tunghinensis exhibited the highest free radical scavenging capacity and showed potent anticancer activities. Camellia nitidissima had stronger inhibitory effect than other species on fatty acid synthesis. In addition to catechins, 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were detected in C. tunghinensis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Taken together, yellow camellias possess biological activity and are worthy of continued study.
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Neurotrophic action of 5-hydroxylated polymethoxyflavones: 5-demethylnobiletin and gardenin a stimulate neuritogenesis in PC12 cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) exhibit a broad spectrum of biological properties, including anticancer, antiatherogenic, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the neurotrophic effects of 5-demethylnobiletin, a hydroxylated PMF found in citrus plants, and gardenin A, a synthetic PMF analogue, on neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells. The results of this study showed that 5-demethylnobiletin and gardenin A (10-20 ?M) potently induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, accompanied by the expression of neuronal differentiation and synapse formation marker proteins, growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), and synaptophysin. We observed that the addition of K252a, a TrKA antagonist, significantly inhibited NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, but 5-demethylnobiletin- or gardenin A-induced neurite outgrowth was not affected. Treatment with 5-demethylnobiletin and gardenin A markedly induced the phosphorylation of both cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and CRE-mediated transcription, which was suppressed through the administration of the inhibitor 2-naphthol AS-E phosphate (KG-501) or using CREB siRNA. Furthermore, our results showed that MAPK/ERK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), protein kinase A (PKA), and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors blocked the CRE transcription activity and neurite outgrowth induced through 5-demethylnobiletin or gardenin A. Consistently, increased ERK phosphorylation and PKA and PKC activities were observed in PC12 cells treated with 5-demethylnobiletin or gardenin A. These results reveal for the first time that 5-demethylnobiletin and gardenin A promote neuritogenesis through the activation of MAPK/ERK-, PKC-, and PKA-dependent, but not TrkA-dependent, CREB signaling pathways in PC12 cells.
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Effect of a labile methyl donor on the transformation of 5-demethyltangeretin and the related implication on bioactivity.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) belong to a subgroup of flavonoids that particularly exist in the peels of citrus fruits. Despite their many health-beneficial biofunctionalities, the lipophilic nature of PMFs limits their water solubility and oral bioavailability. To investigate the effect of the delivery system on the improvement of PMF bioavailibility, a lecithin-based emulsion was formulated for the delivery of two PMF compounds, tangeretin and 5-demethyltangeretin. While the emulsion system improved the digestion kinetics and the total solubilized PMF concentrations in in vitro lipolysis studies, the concentration of 5-demethyltangeretin decreased due to chemical transformation to its permethoxylated counterpart, tangeretin. The emulsifier lecithin used in this emulsion formulation contained a choline headgroup as a labile methyl group donor. The presence of a methyl donor potentially caused the transformation of 5-demethyltangeretin and reduced its anti-cancer-cell-proliferation activities. Moreover, this is the first report in the literature of the transformation from 5-demethyltangeretin to tangeretin in a lecithin-based emulsion during lipolysis, and the mechanism underlying this phenomenon has also been proposed for the first time.
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Effect of ubiquinol-10 on citral stability and off-flavor formation in oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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The effects of different concentrations of ubiquinol-10 (Q10H2) on citrals stability were systematically investigated and compared in citral-loaded oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions. Solid phase microextraction gas chromatography (SPME-GC) was employed to monitor the degradation of citral and the formation of off-flavor compounds throughout storage at 25 and 45 °C. The optimum concentration of Q10H2 in the current formulation was determined to be around 0.10 wt % in the system (Q10H2/citral ratio 1:1), which can effectively protect citral from chemical degradation and oxidation. Results suggested, however, that a low concentration of Q10H2 may induce the majority of the ubisemiquinone (Q10(•-))/ubiquinone (Q10) redox transition, which possibly endowed Q10H2 with pro-oxidant properties. Further increase in Q10H2 concentration beyond a certain value also hindered its effect due to the complex properties of radicals involved and the overall environment encountered. With appropriate concentrations of Q10H2 presented in the system, major citral oxidation off-flavor compounds (p-cresol, ?,p-dimethylstyrene, p-methylacetophenone), and some of the lipid degradation products can be inhibited to lower levels. In contrast, ubiquinone-10 (Q10) had a negligible effect on citrals chemical stability and off-flavor generation.
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Chemoprevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by dietary natural compounds.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a wide spectrum of liver disease that is not from excess alcohol consumption, but is often associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD pathogenesis is complicated and involves oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, mitochondrial damage, insulin resistance, inflammation, and excessive dietary fat intake, which increase hepatic lipid influx and de novo lipogenesis and impair insulin signaling, thus promoting hepatic triglyceride accumulation and ultimately NAFLD. Overproduction of proinflammatory adipokines from adipose tissue also affects hepatic metabolic function. Current NAFLD therapies are limited; thus, much attention has been focused on identification of potential dietary substances from fruits, vegetables, and edible plants to provide a new strategy for NAFLD treatment. Dietary natural compounds, such as carotenoids, omega-3-PUFAs, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, terpenoids, curcumin, and resveratrol, act through a variety of mechanisms to prevent and improve NAFLD. Here, we summarize and briefly discuss the currently known targets and signaling pathways as well as the role of dietary natural compounds that interfere with NAFLD pathogenesis.
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Emodin represses TWIST1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells by inhibiting the ?-catenin and Akt pathways.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide. In recent studies, a crucial link has been discovered between the acquisition of metastatic traits and tumour-initiating abilities in cancer cells during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Herein, we demonstrated that the ectopic expression of TWIST1, the EMT regulator, in HNSCC FaDu cells triggered EMT and resulted in the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype. Moreover, FaDu-pFLAG-TWIST1 cancer cell populations that were induced to EMT displayed an increased proportion of cells with the CD44 marker, which is associated with tumour initiation. Interestingly, we found that emodin treatment reduced the tumour-initiating abilities and inhibited cell migration and invasion in FaDu-pFLAG-TWIST1 cells. Emodin directly inhibited TWIST1 expression, upregulated E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, and downregulated vimentin mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, we found that emodin inhibited TWIST1 binding to the E-cadherin promoter and repressed E-cadherin transcription activity. We also found that emodin inhibited TWIST1-induced EMT by inhibiting the ?-catenin and Akt pathways. More interestingly, emodin significantly inhibited TWIST1-induced invasion in vivo. Therefore, emodin might be applicable to anticancer therapy and could be a potential new therapeutic drug for HNSCC.
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Demethoxycurcumin inhibits energy metabolic and oncogenic signaling pathways through AMPK activation in triple-negative breast cancer cells.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Demethoxycurcumin (DMC), curcumin (Cur), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) are major forms of curcuminoids found in the rhizomes of turmeric. This study examined the effects of three curcuminoid analogues on breast cancer cells. The results revealed that DMC demonstrated the most potent cytotoxic effects on breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Compared with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive or HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells, DMC demonstrated the most efficient cytotoxic effects on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. However, nonmalignant MCF-10A cells were unaffected by DMC treatment. The study showed that DMC activated AMPK in TNBC cells. Once activated, AMPK inhibited eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) signaling and mRNA translation via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and decreased the activity and/or expression of lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). DMC also targeted multiple AMPK downstream pathways. Among these, the dephosphorylation of Akt is noteworthy because it circumvents the feedback activation of Akt that results from mTOR inhibition. Moreover, DMC suppressed LPS-induced IL-6 production, thereby blocking subsequent Stat3 activation. In addition, DMC also sustained epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation by suppressing the phosphatases, PP2a and SHP-2. These results suggest that DMC is a potent AMPK activator that acts through a broad spectrum of anti-TNBC activities.
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An oxygen enrichment device for lowlanders ascending to high altitude.
Biomed Eng Online
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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When ascending to the high altitude, people living in low altitude areas will suffer from acute mountain sickness. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that whether an oxygen concentration membrane can be made and used to construct a new portable oxygen enrichment device for individuals in acute exposure to the high altitude.
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Identification of sinensetin metabolites in rat urine by an isotope-labeling method and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Sinensetin (SIN), one of the major polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) contained mainly in the citrus peels, has been reported to possess various bioactivities, including antifungal, antimutagenic, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. Although the biotransformation of SIN in fungi and insects has been reported, the information about the metabolism of SIN in mammals is still unclear. In this study, formation of SIN metabolites in rats was investigated. Four isotope-labeled SINs ([4-D3]SIN, [3-D3]SIN, [5-D3]SIN, and [6-D3]SIN) were synthesized and administered to rat. The urine samples were collected and main metabolites were monitored by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The administered compound and four SIN metabolites were detected in rat urine. These metabolites were identified as 4-hydroxy-5,6,7,3-tetramethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-6,7,3,4-tetramethoxyflavone, 6-hydroxy-5,7,3,4-tetramethoxyflavone, and 7-hydroxy-5,6,3,4-tetramethoxyflavone sulfate.
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Potent anti-cancer effects of citrus peel flavonoids in human prostate xenograft tumors.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Fruit and vegetable consumption is a novel, non-toxic therapeutic approach that can be used to prevent and treat prostate cancer. Citrus peels and their extracts have been reported to have potent pharmacological activities and health benefits due to the abundance of flavonoids in citrus fruits, particularly in the peels. Our previous studies demonstrated that oral administration of Gold Lotion (GL), an extract of multiple varieties of citrus peels containing abundant flavonoids, including a large percentage of polymethoxyflavones (PMFs), effectively suppressed azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic tumorigenesis. However, the efficacy of GL against prostate cancer has not yet been investigated. Here, we explored the anti-tumor effects of GL using a human prostate tumor xenograft mouse model. Our data demonstrated that treatment with GL by both intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and oral administration dramatically reduced both the weights (57%-100% inhibition) and volumes (78%-94% inhibition) of the tumors without any observed toxicity. These inhibitory effects were accompanied by mechanistic down-regulation of the protein levels of inflammatory enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2), metastasis (matrix metallopeptidase-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF), and proliferative molecules, as well as by the induction of apoptosis in prostate tumors. Our findings suggest that GL is an effective anti-cancer agent that may potentially serve as a novel therapeutic option for prostate cancer treatment.
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Screening of osteoprotegerin-related feature genes in osteoporosis and functional analysis with DNA microarray.
Eur. J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Osteoporosis affects 200 million people worldwide and places an enormous economic burden on society. We aim to identify the feature genes that are related to osteoprotegerin in osteoporosis and to perform function analysis with DNA microarray from human bone marrow.
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Long-term ethanol exposure-induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and invasion through lysyl oxidase activation are attenuated by combined treatment with pterostilbene and curcumin analogues.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Ethanol consumption induces hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell metastasis by changing the extracellular matrix (ECM). Lysyl oxidase (LOX) catalyzes the cross-linkage of collagen or elastin in the ECM. LOX protein and mRNA overexpression (>21-fold compared with controls, n = 6) was detected in cirrhotic HCC patients with a history of alcoholism. LOX protein expression was induced in HCC cells after long-term treatment with ethanol (10 mM) for 20-40 passages (denoted E20-E40 cells). Pterostilbene (PSB, 1 ?M) displayed significant potency to reduce LOX-mediated activity in E40 cells when combined with curcumin and its analogues. The ability of E40 cells to form colonies in soft agar was reduced by both genetic depletion of LOX and by chemical inhibitors of LOX expression. This study suggests that targeting LOX expression with food components such as PSB and curcumin may be a novel strategy to overcome ethanol-induced HCC cell metastasis in liver cancer patients.
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Reliability of in vivo measurements of the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue: a simulative study.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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A simulative study was performed to measure the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue using several in vivo and in vitro probes. COMSOL Multiphysics was selected to carry out the simulation. Five traditional probes and a newly designed probe were used in this study. One of these probes was an in vitro measurement probe and the other five were in vivo. The simulations were performed in terms of the minimal tissue volume for in vivo measurements, the calibration of a probe constant, the measurement performed on isotropic tissue and the measurement performed on anisotropic tissue. Results showed that the in vitro probe can be used to measure the in-cell dielectric properties of isotropic and anisotropic tissues. When measured with the five in vivo probes, the dielectric properties of isotropic tissue were all measured accurately. For the measurements performed on anisotropic tissue, large errors were observed when the four traditional in vivo probes were used, but only a small error was observed when the new in vivo probe was used. This newly designed five-electrode in vivo probe may indicate the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue more accurately than these four traditional in vivo probes.
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Luteolin sensitises drug-resistant human breast cancer cells to tamoxifen via the inhibition of cyclin E2 expression.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Luteolin is a flavonoid that has been identified in many plant tissues and exhibits chemopreventive or chemosensitising properties against human breast cancer. However, the oncogenic molecules in human breast cancer cells that are inhibited by luteolin treatment have not been identified. This study found that the level of cyclin E2 (CCNE2) mRNA was higher in tumour cells (4.89-fold, (?)P=0.005) than in normal paired tissue samples as assessed using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis (n=257). Further, relatively high levels of CCNE2 protein expression were detected in tamoxifen-resistant (TAM-R) MCF-7 cells. These results showed that the level of CCNE2 protein expression was specifically inhibited in luteolin-treated (5?M) TAM-R cells, either in the presence or absence of 4-OH-TAM (100nM). Combined treatment with 4-OH-TAM and luteolin synergistically sensitised the TAM-R cells to 4-OH-TAM. The results of this study suggest that luteolin can be used as a chemosensitiser to target the expression level of CCNE2 and that it could be a novel strategy to overcome TAM resistance in breast cancer patients.
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Identification of novel bioactive metabolites of 5-demethylnobiletin in mice.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Biotransformation of dietary components is important for their in vivo biological activities after oral ingestion. Herein, we investigated biotransformation of 5-demethylnobiletin (a polymethoxyflavone found in citrus fruits) in mice, and its implication in the inhibition of human colon cancer cells.
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Development of a solid phase microextraction protocol for the GC-MS determination of volatile off-flavour compounds from citral degradation in oil-in-water emulsions.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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The conditions for headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) analysis of volatile off-flavour compounds in citral emulsion were determined. Type of SPME phase (65 ?m PDMS/DVB, 100 ?m PDMS and 75?m CAR/PDMS), adsorption temperature and salt concentration were significant factors affecting total peak area in the gas chromatogram and optimised in one factor experiments. Then, adsorption temperature (30-50°C), adsorption time (20-40 min), and salt concentration (0-6M) were studied to develop HS-SPME condition for obtaining the highest extraction efficiency. PDMS/DVB in 65 ?m was the optimum fiber because of high adsorption efficiency and good reproducibility. The optimal condition was adsorption at 50°C for 40 min and 6M salt added to sample. Good Linearity, high recovery, good reproducibility and low limit of detection (LOD) for all off-odour compounds according to the optimised SPME conditions indicated that the SPME procedure was applicable for the analysis of the degraded citral products in headspace volatile of emulsion.
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5-Demethyltangeretin inhibits human nonsmall cell lung cancer cell growth by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Tangeretin (TAN) and 5-demethyltangeretin (5DT) are two closely related polymethoxyflavones found in citrus fruits. We investigated growth inhibitory effects on three human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.
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Curcuminoids distinctly exhibit antioxidant activities and regulate expression of scavenger receptors and heme oxygenase-1.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Curcumin (CUR), demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) have been demonstrated as having antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and hypocholesterolemic activities. We report the diverse antiatherogenic effects and mechanisms of curcuminoids.
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Peracetylated (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (AcEGCG) potently prevents skin carcinogenesis by suppressing the PKD1-dependent signaling pathway in CD34+ skin stem cells and skin tumors.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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During the process of skin tumor promotion, expression of the cutaneous cancer stem cell (CSC) marker CD34(+) is required for stem cell activation and tumor formation. A previous study has shown that activation of protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is involved in epidermal tumor promotion; however, the signals that regulate CSCs in skin carcinogenesis have not been characterized. This study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive potential of peracetylated (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (AcEGCG) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted skin tumorigenesis in ICR mice and to elucidate the possible mechanisms involved in the inhibitory action of PKD1 on CSCs. We demonstrated that topical application of AcEGCG before TPA treatment can be more effective than EGCG in reducing DMBA/TPA-induced tumor incidence and multiplicity. Notably, AcEGCG not only inhibited the expression of p53, p21, c-Myc, cyclin B, p-CDK1 and Cdc25A but also restored the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), which decreased DMBA/TPA-induced increases in tumor proliferation and mitotic index. To clarify the role of PKD1 in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, we studied the expression and activation of PKD1 in CD34(+) skin stem cells and skin tumors. We found that PKD1 was strongly expressed in CD34(+) cells and that pretreatment with AcEGCG markedly inhibited PKD1 activation and CD34(+) expression. More importantly, pretreatment with AcEGCG remarkably suppressed nuclear factor-kappaB, cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPs) activation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase 1/2, p38 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and by attenuating downstream target gene expression, including inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, ornithine decarboxylase and vascular endothelial growth factor. Moreover, this is the first study to demonstrate that AcEGCG is a CD34(+) and PKD1 inhibitor in the multistage mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Overall, our results powerfully suggest that AcEGCG could be developed into a novel chemopreventive agent and that PKD1 may be a preventive and therapeutic target for skin cancer in clinical settings.
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Effects of citrus flavonoids, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,3,4-hexamethoxyflavone and 3,5,6,7,8,3,4-heptamethoxyflavone, on the activities of macrophage scavenger receptors and the hepatic LDL receptor.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Epidemiological and animal studies point to a possible protective effect of citrus flavonoids against cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of citrus flavonoids, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,3,4-hexamethoxyflavone (5-OH-HxMF) and 3,5,6,7,8,3,4-heptamethoxyflavone (HpMF), on the activities and expressions of macrophage scavenger receptors and the hepatic LDL receptor. Treatment of HpMF (20 ?M) during THP-1 differentiation successfully attenuated 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-mediated DiI-labeled oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake as evidenced by flow cytometry, indicating that the functions of scavenger receptors were blocked. RT-Q-PCR analysis suggests that the decrease in oxLDL uptake was due to the down-regulation of PMA-induced SR-A mRNA expression. In terminally differentiated THP-1 macrophages, 5-OH-HxMF and HpMF could significantly reduce DiI-oxLDL uptake, with the former having a greater effect. 5-OH-HxMF attenuated oxLDL-mediated CD36 and SR-A expression; while HpMF only decreased CD36 expression. The effects of these two flavonoids on the activity and expression of the hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR) were further investigated in HepG2 cells. 5-OH-HxMF (10-20 ?M) enhanced DiI-LDL uptake by 1.33-fold due to the enhanced LDLR expression. These results imply that HpMF is better at inhibiting PMA-induced oxLDL uptake during THP-1 differentiation, while 5-OH-HxMF is more powerful in attenuating oxLDL-induced scavenger receptor expression and activity in terminally differentiated THP-1 macrophages. Furthermore, 5-OH-HxMF may have hypolipidemic activity due to its up-regulating hepatic LDLR expression.
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Epigenetic and disease targets by polyphenols.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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An epigenetic change is defined as an alteration in gene expression that does not involve a change in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone modification (acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation) and miRNA, are critical for regulating developmental events. However, aberrant epigenetic mechanisms may lead to pathological consequences such as cardiovascular disease (CAD), neurodegenerative disease, obesity, metabolic disorder, bone and skeletal diseases and various cancers. Given that epigenetic modifications are heritable and reversible, in contrast to genetic changes, they have been identified as promising targets for disease prevention strategies. Over the past few decades, polyphenols, which are widely present in foods such as fruits and vegetables, have been shown to exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities for human health. Polyphenols reverse adverse epigenetic regulation by altering DNA methylation and histone modification, and they modulate microRNA expression or directly interact with enzymes that result in the reactivation of silenced tumor suppressor genes or the inactivation of oncogenes. Therefore, dietary polyphenol- targeted epigenetics becomes an attractive approach for disease prevention and intervention. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and underlying mechanisms of the most common dietary polyphenols and their influence on major epigenetic mechanisms associated with disease intervention.
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The inhibitory effect of pterostilbene on inflammatory responses during the interaction of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Chronic inflammation is characterized by the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in obese adipose tissue. Accumulations of adipose tissue macrophages enhance a chronic inflammatory state in adipose tissues. Many studies have indicated that the adipocyte-related inflammatory response in obesity is characterized by an enhanced infiltration of macrophages. The aim of this work was to study the inhibitory effects of garcinol and pterostilbene on the change in inflammatory response due to the interaction between 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages. In the TNF-?-induced 3T3-L1 adipocyte model, garcinol and pterostilbene significantly decreased the mRNA expression of COX-2, iNOS, IL-6, and IL-1? and IL-6 secretion by suppressing phosphorylation of p-I?B? and p-p65. In a coculture model of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages, pterostilbene suppressed IL-6 and TNF-? secretion and proinflammatory mRNA expression and also reduced the migration of macrophages toward adipocytes. In the RAW 264.7 macrophage-derived conditioned medium (RAW-CM)-induced 3T3-L1 adipocyte and 3T3-CM-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage models, pterostilbene significantly decreased IL-6 and TNF-? secretion and proinflammatory mRNA expression (COX-2, iNOS, IL-6, TNF-?, PAI-1, CRP, MCP-1, resistin, and leptin). Our findings suggest that garcinol and pterostilbene may provide novel and useful applications to reduce the chronic inflammatory properties of adipocytes. We also found that pterostilbene inhibits proinflammatory responses during the interaction between 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages.
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Pterostilbene, a bioactive component of blueberries, suppresses the generation of breast cancer stem cells within tumor microenvironment and metastasis via modulating NF-?B/microRNA 448 circuit.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been shown to promote metastasis and malignancy. Pterostilbene, a natural stilbene isolated from blueberries, has been suggested for anti-cancer effects. Here, we explored the potential cancer stem cells (CSCs)/TAM modulating effects of pterostilbene in breast cancer.
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Effective suppression of azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation in mice with citrus peel flavonoids.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Citrus peel or its extract has been reported to exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activity. Herein, we report the first investigation of inhibitory effects of a formulated product from citrus peel extract, gold lotion (GL), on azoxymethane-induced colonic tumorigenesis. We have demonstrated that oral feeding of GL decreased the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), particularly large size of ACF in colonic tissues of mice. Both gene and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were suppressed by GL treatment. The in vivo data have revealed for the first time that the citrus peel extract-GL-is an effective antitumor agent mechanistically downregulating the protein levels of iNOS, COX-2, ornithine decarboxylase, vascular endothelial growth factor, and matrix metallopeptidase 9 in colonic tissues of mice, suggesting that GL is a novel functional natural product capable of preventing inflammation-associated colon tumorigenesis.
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Phyto-power dietary supplement potently inhibits dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Curcumin has been extensively studied for its therapeutic effects in a variety of disorders. Fermented soy consumption is associated with a low incidence rate of chronic diseases in many Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential underlying mechanisms of the effect of a phyto-power dietary supplement on liver fibrosis. Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with dimethylnitrosamine (DMN; 10 mg kg(-1)) three times a week for four consecutive weeks. A phyto-power dietary supplement (50 or 100 mg kg(-1)) was administered by oral gavage daily for four weeks. Liver morphology, function, and fibrotic status were examined in DMN induced hepatic fibrogenesis. However, a phyto-power dietary supplement alleviated liver damage as indicated by histopathological examination of the ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and collagen I, accompanied by the concomitant reduction of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). These data indicate that the phyto-power dietary supplement may inhibit the TGF-?1/Smad signaling and relieve liver damage in experimental fibrosis.
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Saponin 1 Induces Apoptosis and Suppresses NF-?B-Mediated Survival Signaling in Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Saponin 1 is a triterpeniod saponin extracted from Anemone taipaiensis, a traditional Chinese medicine against rheumatism and phlebitis. It has also been shown to exhibit significant anti-tumor activity against human leukemia (HL-60 cells) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2 cells). Herein we investigated the effect of saponin 1 in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) U251MG and U87MG cells. Saponin 1 induced significant growth inhibition in both glioblastoma cell lines, with a 50% inhibitory concentration at 24 h of 7.4 µg/ml in U251MG cells and 8.6 µg/ml in U87MG cells, respectively. Nuclear fluorescent staining and electron microscopy showed that saponin 1 caused characteristic apoptotic morphological changes in the GBM cell lines. Saponin 1-induced apoptosis was also verified by DNA ladder electrophoresis and flow cytometry. Additionally, immunocytochemistry and western blotting analyses revealed a time-dependent decrease in the expression and nuclear location of NF-?B following saponin 1 treatment. Western blotting data indicated a significant decreased expression of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) family members,(e.g., survivin and XIAP) by saponin 1. Moreover, saponin 1 caused a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and initiated apoptosis by activating caspase-9 and caspase-3 in the GBM cell lines. These findings indicate that saponin 1 inhibits cell growth of GBM cells at least partially by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting survival signaling mediated by NF-?B. In addition, in vivo study also demonstrated an obvious inhibition of saponin 1 treatment on the tumor growth of U251MG and U87MG cells-produced xenograft tumors in nude mice. Given the minimal toxicities of saponin 1 in non-neoplastic astrocytes, our results suggest that saponin 1 exhibits significant in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor efficacy and merits further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for GBM.
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Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Improve Bone Microstructure and Strength in Ovariectomized Rats through a Wnt/Lrp5/?-Catenin Signaling-Associated Mechanism.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Growing evidence has demonstrated that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF), as an alternative noninvasive method, could promote remarkable in vivo and in vitro osteogenesis. However, the exact mechanism of PEMF on osteopenia/osteoporosis is still poorly understood, which further limits the extensive clinical application of PEMF. In the present study, the efficiency of PEMF on osteoporotic bone microarchitecture and bone quality together with its associated signaling pathway mechanisms was systematically investigated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Thirty rats were equally assigned to the Control, OVX and OVX+PEMF groups. The OVX+PEMF group was subjected to daily 8-hour PEMF exposure with 15 Hz, 2.4 mT (peak value). After 10 weeks, the OVX+PEMF group exhibited significantly improved bone mass and bone architecture, evidenced by increased BMD, Tb.N, Tb.Th and BV/TV, and suppressed Tb.Sp and SMI levels in the MicroCT analysis. Three-point bending test suggests that PEMF attenuated the biomechanical strength deterioration of the OVX rat femora, evidenced by increased maximum load and elastic modulus. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that PEMF exposure significantly promoted the overall gene expressions of Wnt1, LRP5 and ?-catenin in the canonical Wnt signaling, but did not exhibit obvious impact on either RANKL or RANK gene expressions. Together, our present findings highlight that PEMF attenuated OVX-induced deterioration of bone microarchitecture and strength in rats by promoting the activation of Wnt/LRP5/?-catenin signaling rather than by inhibiting RANKL-RANK signaling. This study enriches our basic knowledge to the osteogenetic activity of PEMF, and may lead to more efficient and scientific clinical application of PEMF in inhibiting osteopenia/osteoporosis.
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Therapeutic effects of 15 Hz pulsed electromagnetic field on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-treated rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Although numerous clinical studies have reported that pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have a neuroprotective role in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the application of PEMF for clinic is still controversial. The present study was designed to investigate whether PEMF has therapeutic potential in relieving peripheral neuropathic symptoms in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three weight-matched groups (eight in each group): the non-diabetic control group (Control), diabetes mellitus with 15 Hz PEMF exposure group (DM+PEMF) which were subjected to daily 8-h PEMF exposure for 7 weeks and diabetes mellitus with sham PEMF exposure group (DM). Signs and symptoms of DPN in STZ-treated rats were investigated by using behavioral assays. Meanwhile, ultrastructural examination and immunohistochemical study for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of sciatic nerve were also performed. During a 7-week experimental observation, we found that PEMF stimulation did not alter hyperglycemia and weight loss in STZ-treated rats with DPN. However, PEMF stimulation attenuated the development of the abnormalities observed in STZ-treated rats with DPN, which were demonstrated by increased hind paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical and thermal stimuli, slighter demyelination and axon enlargement and less VEGF immunostaining of sciatic nerve compared to those of the DM group. The current study demonstrates that treatment with PEMF might prevent the development of abnormalities observed in animal models for DPN. It is suggested that PEMF might have direct corrective effects on injured nerves and would be a potentially promising non-invasive therapeutic tool for the treatment of DPN.
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Stability of citral in emulsions coated with cationic biopolymer layers.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2011
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Multilayer emulsions containing citral were prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition technique based on the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged emulsion droplets and two positively charged biopolymer coatings, chitosan (CS) and ?-polylysine (EPL). The optimum concentrations of both CS and EPL were determined through the ?-potential and particle size measurements and were found to be 1.5 mg/mL for CS and 6 mg/mL for EPL. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) was conducted to monitor the binding between emulsion droplets and cationic polymers, and our results proved the existence of strong interactions between emulsions and the cationic polymer coatings. The stability of citral and the production of the off-flavor compounds were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography (SPME-GC). The results suggested that the addition of the cationic CS interfacial layer was effective in improving the stability of citral during storage.
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